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Vol. XLIX. No. 1. 



Office, 220 Market Street. 

Pipe^Lines for Irrigation Water. 

California has made amazing progress dur- 
ing the last decade in economical water car- 
riage for long distances. In "our last volume 
we gave views of pipe lines and remarked 
that the open ditch, with its alarming loss 
by seepage and evaporation, is a back num- 
ber DOW in our great irrigation schemes and 
either ' pipe lines, which lose nothing, or 
cemented ditches, which prevent seepage, 
are multiplying in all parts of the State 
where irrigation is resorted to. Naturally, 
the greatest progress has been made in this 
dii ei tion in southern California, and there is 
in the Santa Ana canyon the largest wooden 
pipe line in the world, carrying water under 
160 feet of pressure. 

The pipe line has, of course, other advan- 
tages than prevention of waste. It makes 
the engineer independent of grades and en- 
ables him to surmount obstacles which other- 
wise would require expensive tunneling. He 
can surely laugh at obstacles who can make 
water run up hill. 

At present pipe lines are replacing open 
ditches in the northern part of the State 
not alone for mining, where this way of 
securing forceful heads has long been em- 
ployed, but for irrigation enterprises, which, 
by bridging canyons and mounting ridges, 
are rendered possible where the old-style 
aqueducts and tunnels would prohibit them. 

The engravings on this page give two 
views on the line of the Brown's Valley Irri- 
gation District in Yuba county. The sheet 
iron and steel pipe used in this construction 
was made by Scliaw, Ingram, Batcher & 
Co. of Sacramento. In one picture the pipe 
is shown in process of construction over a 
ridge after having spanned the gulch in the 
foreground. The other en- 
graving shows the passage 
of the pipe over a neat sus- 
pension bridge 125 feet long. 

These views are but illus- 
trative of present progress 
in this line of irrigation en- 
gineering. In the near fu- 
ture no doubt the matter 
will go much farther. Our 
interior cities and towns, 
dependent now upon insuffi- 
cient supplies of poor water 
from local sources, will soon 
have unlimited supplies of 
pure cold mountain water 
piped to them, and the 
power of such water will, 
with the aid of electricity, 
cause light to shine and 
manufacturing to be under- 
taken, which is now almost 
unthought of. Surely we 
are just at the beginning of 
our industrial development, 
and the future will bring us 
blessings from our lofty, 
snow-capped, mountain 
boundary which will prove a 
great factor in the attainment 
the future. 



Irrigation Extending. 

The sight of the pipes of an irrigation dis- 
trict in the upper part of the State reminds 
us that the state of mind on the subject of 
irrigation, even in regions of considerable 
rainfall is changing. It is not long since 
people in well-watered regions looked upon 
all propositions to use water in them as a 
sort of insult to Providence. In northern 
California opposition to irrigation has been 
conducted rather in the spirit of contrari- 
ness, lest someone might think that it might 
be taken as an admission that irrigation is 
necessary and the great glory of the north 
would be gone. Recent courses of events 
show that we are di-ifting away from these 
old, ill-taken positions and are coming to re- 
gard irrigation as one of the most important 
means of the husbandman to be used, as 
other means should he, intelligently and to 
secure ends which are demonstrated to be 
best attained that way. \''iewed in this 
way, it is clear that neither irrigation nor 
non-irrigation are in themselves principles, 
but are merely methods to be employed when 
conditions demand the one or the other. It 
is unquestionably true that in the upper half 
of the State many orchards would be bene- 
fited by irrigation, even though the annual 
rainfall be heavy. This was conceded long 
ago in the foothills, where conditions favored 
rapid loss of water by seepage and evapora- 
tion, it is now being made clear that some 
valley situations need water to enable old 
bearing trees to perfect full crops of large 
fruit and make good fruit buds for the next 
crop. When such trees lose their leaves too 
early in the fall, they are not able to do the 
full year's work. Th>'y are short of moisture 
to complete it. Tin're are places where no 
ani'iunt of careful summer 
'"' cultivation will retain moist- 

ure enough for the full cycle 
of the tree. It is such trees 
chiefly which put on the un- 
desirable late fall growth 
after the first rains. They 
have been forced into dor- 
mancy by drouth; they are 
stimulated to new growth 
by the rains. If they had 
held growth later, this un- 
desirable starting of buds, 
which should rest until 
spring, would be avoided. 

We have, of course, much 
still to learn about irriga- 
tion. The winter use of wa- 
ter which is now flowing 
idly to the ocean would en- 
sure good crops on many 
fields which may yet be 
parched in April, although 
the present outlook ,for a 
wet season is so good. 
These matters are not new. 
They have been urged time 
and again, and it is encour- 
aging to see that we are 

of the California of : ing the recent New York sales were largely new to j approaching the irrigation question with less preju 

An Eastern exchange says that the fact that the 
names of the buyers of the well-bred horses sold dur- 

horsemen is evidence that tht interest in light-har- 
ness horses is etill spreading. As long as new men 
arecoDtinually entering the ranks of ownership there 
is no danger of a collapse in the breeding interest. 

dice and in a better state of mind to profit by the 
lessons which are now so freely taught by observa- 
tion. Irrigation is undoubtedly the safeguard of 
many of our orchards. 



January 5, 1895. 


Office, No. -^JO Market Ktevator,.\o.l2 t'ronl SL. Sait Ai aiichco. Cul. 

All subscribers paying » In advance will receive 15 months' (one 
year and 13 weeksi credit. For 13 In advance, 10 months. For SSI In 

advance, five mouths. 

Advert ininu raten made known on apiiliealiou. 

Any subscriber sending an Inquiry on any subject to the BuKAL 
Pkess, with a Dostag-e stamp, will receive a reply, either through the 
column.s of the paper or by personal letter. The answer will be given 
as promptly as practicable. 

Our latent forma go to press Wednesday evenini). 
Chicago Office. ...... .T.TcHAsTd. SPALDING, 3ai, lb9 Uu. Salle St. 

Registered at S. P. Postofflce as second-class mall matter^ 


K. J. WICKSON Special Contributor. 

San Francisco, January 5, 1895. 

chards, and many unprofitable old trees were com- 
ing out. They had not decided yet whether to in- 
crease the acreage or not. 

Legislation for 




ILLUSTRATIONS.— Pipe Line of the Brown's Valley Inijfuliou 
District: Same Pipe Line Crossing a Suspension Bridpc. 1. 

EDITORIALS.— Pipe Lines for Irrigation Water; Irrigation Ex- 
teudin" 1 The Week, 2. From an Independent Standpoint, 3. 

CORRESPONDENCE.— A Fanner's Views, 3. Root Knot : The Care 
of Young Chielis, 4. . . 

HORTICULTURE. — Thinning Fruit; Cherry (Jrowing ii 
Clara Valley, a. 

TR.VCK AND FARM.— Wheat as Horse Feed 5. 

THE DAIRY.- E. W. Steele's Beliefs and Practices, 6. 

THE FIELD.— Alfalfa Growing in liultt- County, 7. 

THE HOME CIRCLE. — A Child: The College Gradual 
Tvler's Hard Times Dinner: The Dominical Letters: The Russian 
Emperor. ». Rubber Tires for Vehicles: Sorry He Spoke: The 
Hog That Rides in a Wagon: Little Deborah's Sunday: i'lth and 
Point, 9. 

DOMESTIC ECONO.MY.— Hints to Housekeepers, 9. 
MISCELLANEOUS. -Gleanings. 2. Rainfall and Temperature, 4. 

Horse Clipping: Wliite Hous.i Horses Docked, HI. 
PATRONS OF HUSHANDRY — A Lull in the Revival Effort: Give 

and Take, 13. Secrelarv's Culumn ; Sacramento OrangeOffleers, 14. 


{Xf/r thitt ittKue.) 

Plows— Oliver Chilled Plow Works 

Agricultural Implements— Deere Implement Co 
Fruit Trees— Central Nursery Company, Acampo, Cal 

Farm Tools— S. L. Allen & Co., Philadelphia, Pa 

Poultry- .1. W. Forgeus, Santa Cruz, Cal 

Metal Wheels— Empire Mfg. Co., Quincy, 111 

lueubators- Des Moines Incubator Co.. Des Moines, la 

White Leghorns— Le Grand Poultry Ranch, West Riverside, 
Grape Roots— Robert Davis, Yuba City, Cal 
Nursery Stock— Hewitt &. Cor.son, Pasadena, Cal. . . 
Fniit Trees— Oscar Knott, Walnut Grove, Cal . 
Live Stock- N. P. Bover & Co.. Coatesville, Pa 

. Vi 
.... 16 


.. II 


. ... 13 
Cal. 13 
. 14 

The Week. 


The storm and the holidays rtHkiced 
the attendance at the meeting of 
the State Horticultural Sofiety 
on Friday last, but the proceedings were interesting. 
Mr. Lelong presided. Mr. Otto Muser of San Fran- 
cisco and Gen. N. P. Chipman of Red Bluff were 
elected regular members. Naturally the chief sub- 
ject was the coming meeting of the American Pomo- 
iogical Society in Sacramento on the 15th, Itith and 
17th. Mr. Kowley, of the committee on prepara- 
tions, reported that the programme was nearly com- 
pleted and that everything indicated busy and inter- 
esting sessions. The Sacramento citizens' com- 
mittee is advancing its local preparations satisfac- 
torily, and proposes not only to make the visitors 
welcome, but to show them much of the surrounding 
country if the weather should favor outings. 

Dried Fruit. 

The Society's committee suggested 
the advisability of having Cali- 
fornia dried fruits of all kinds 
properly cooked served to the delegates continuously 
during the sessions. This will not only give the 
visitors a chance to admire the exhibits, but to de- 
termine by tasting how good our dried fruit is when 
cooked in a proper manner in contrast with the poor 
cooking which is too often given it. The Society 
strongly approved the suggestion of the committee 
and upon motion appointed a committee consisting 
of Prof. C. H. Allen of San Jose, H. P. Stabler of 
Yuba City and Howard Overacker .Jr. of Centerville 
to take full charge of the matter. It is believed that 
fruit growers will donate fruit for this practical 
demonstration of its cjuality; and if all will take an 
interest in the matter, there should be plenty of fruit 
to keep the visitors with their spoons. We 
trust all who will donate fruit will notify at once any 
member of the committee above named, and instruc- 
tions will be sent for shipping. Let each one do his 
.share generously in this effort. 

The attendance of meinbei s was 
too small to give wide discussion 
to this subject. Mr. I. H. Thomas 
of V'isalia thought present indications were in favor 
of a larger acreage of nectarines in regions well 
suited for drying. The nectarine is now being called 
for, while a low years ago Eastern people did not 
know them. Dried nectarines sell higher than dried 
peaches at present. Mr. Rixford said the planting 
of prunes in Tulare county was proceeding strongly. 
He told of 700 acres being planted by two parties to 
prunes, peaches and apricots. Mr. Overacker said 
the low prices of fruit was leading orchardists to 
discriminate closely between the trees in old or- 

■What Fruit 
to Plant. 

A call has been issued for a meet- 
ing to be held in the city hall at 
Petaluma on the 5th inst., at 
which all interested in the dairy industry are in- 
vited to be present. The object is to get wheels in 
motion which will secure at the coming session of the 
liCgislature such laws as will promote and protect 
the dairy interests. The Petaluma Ontn'ir, from 
which we gain this information, says : It is more 
than likely that at this meeting the matter of the 
appointment of a State veterinary surgeon will be 
discussed and urged. This one object alone is or 
should be a sufficient incentive to call out the entire 
list of dairymen, as it is of vital importance. The 
appointment of a State veterinary surgeon would be 
accompanied by the enactment of laws authorizing 
the appointment of county veterinary surgeons 
who should co-operate with the State surgeon; also 
of laws defining the duties of these surgeons and the 
limits of investigation for the protection of the health 
of the vast henls of cattle of the State. A careful 
study of experiments for the benefit of the dairymen 
would be conducted under the su])ervision of the 
surgeon, if appointed, and thus the thousands now 
engaged in dairying would be lietter prepared to 
avoid errors and could adopt new methods after their 
value had been proven by experiment. Dr. Thomas 
Maclay of this city, who was one of the originators 
of the State Veterinary Association which recently 
convened in San Francisco, is deeply interested in 
the formation of such a bureau for the benefit of the 
stock industry in general. He goes on the prin- 
ciple that an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of 
cure, and shows that the cost of the bureau to the 
State will be .saved to the taxpayers many times over 
in the matter of prevention of disease alone, such as 
glanders, tuberculosis, foot and mouth disease, and 
,so on. 

Already the regular annual fight is 
on in regard to prices foi' oranges. 
The Redlands (\'fn>c/riij>/i of Dec. 
"iitth contains the following: 

We notice a severe attack made by Riverside shippers on 
the Uedlands Exchanges for cutting prieos. Redlands shipped 
but a few cars and received $^..50 f, o, 1), for them. About the 
isl of December the Riverside Exchange sent out a circ-ular 
in which occurred this sentence : 

M'r ((III iitriiiKti onlu a limited nnmhcr of carloads of this ««- 
Ifiti'ii fruit liitivceti now ontl Jan. l.'jtli at $J.-'>U per hox, f. o. /)., 
it'i//i a iinarantce tu protect you ayainst any lower prives that we 
miiiht quote in the meantime nn the same tirade of fruit. 

Do you see the joker in this « A " guarantee " of protection 
means a ooinmissioii, and nothing else. Tlie proposition of the 
Riverside Exchange is a direct bid for Eastern Arms to make 
a desperate effort to break down prices. To break prices in 
January is to get a rebate on all putvhased previously. It is 
a sly sly —scheme, and a good one for dealers East — 
wild may In In i-olhixion Willi .v/ii;i;>( /» here — but it is a most dis- 
asti'ous one for the growei'. 

The only method that is fair, reasonable or Just is to have a 
square f. o. b. price here — not a price with a string to it like 
the one made by thi- Riverside Exchange. F. o. b. must mean 
what it says, or elsi^ we might as well go back to the commis- 
sion days aud let the conscienceless commission merchant 
handle our product as he pleases and call on the gnnver for 
" more mud " at his sweet will and pleasure. 

With reference to the same transaction, the /'/<.v.v, 
which speaks for the Riverside Exchange, says: 

Referring to lower prices that are being quoted on oranges 
from other districts, we have investigated the matter and 
find that the Redlands association sold a carload of fruit to a 
Portland firm at #:i..">(J per box f. o. b. After the order had 
been accepted by the Portland firm, a party by the name of 
"Gregory" quoted a car at $'J. 1(1 [ler box. The association 
order was cancelled and the 10 offer accepted. Allen Bros, 
of Los Angeles are quoting Highland Navels at $2 f. o. b. We 
intend as far as possible to follow up these lower quotations 
this season and publish the names of all parties quoting less 
than regular Exchange prices. 

„ , Our Florida friends soein to have 

Freeze in 

been hit very hard by Jack Frost 
this time. If telegraphic dis- 
patches are correct the orange growers have met a 
Waterloo. The following is the latest dispatch up to 
our going to press: 



.Iacksonvii.i.e (Fla.l, December :<1.--The first reports of 
Florida's loss in citrus fruits from the extraordinary cold snap 
that visited this State three days ago were not exaggerated. 

The best estimates of the lo.s.s in oranges is #5,000,000, with- 
out counting young orange trees killed and the general de- 
struction of pineapples, limes, guavas and bananas and winter 
vegetables, which must make heavy apparent losses. 

The most careful ctimputation is that 3,{X)0,0(X) boxes were on 
the trees. President Fairbanks of the Florida Fruit Exi-liange 
says that practically all are desti-oyed. Some south of Punta 
Gorda may be shipped, but this is inconsiderable. He regai^ds 
the season as ended. An average box of oranges would bring 
in the market :S1.7.5, so that the of :t,IXH),000 to the growers, 
the labor engaged in the boxing and shipping, transportation 
and commission, would amount to tv"), '2.50, 000. 

Reixirts from the interior of the State show that the cold 
weather has been general, and has extended from one side of 
the peninsula to the other. The lowest temperature at Tampa 
was l.s°, and the same was reported at Titusville. At Cedar 
Key it was said to bo as low as 10°. 

This is a terrific blow at the semi-tropical interests 
of Florida. It is not definitely known what degree 
of frost destroys an orange, but 24° is the figure 
commonly mentioned in this State. If the Florida 
figures are correct, it will no doubt go very hard 
with the trees as well as the fruit.- 

The effect upon the orange market by the cutting 

off of the Florida supply will be a notable advance 
of the California fruit. It is telegraphed from San 
Bernardino that buyers of oranges have been active 
in that vicinity picking up choice lots at advan- 
tageous prices. News of the disaster to the crop 
in Florida has resulted in an advance from fity cents, 
heretofore offered in the orchard, to $1. The grow- 
ers are much encouraged, and are now holding No, 1 
Seedlings and Navels at $1.50 to $2,50 per box. 
There are two dangers in the situation to Cali- 
fornians — one is the danger of holding the fruit too 
high until Eastern consumers conclude to go without 
and another is that the rush for the high prices 
offered by speculators may throw people out of the 
Fruit Exchanges for this year. The latter danger is 
the more serious, perhaps. If the growers stay by 
the Exchanges they will be most likely to get all 
there is in the traffic not only this year, but in com- 
ing years. The Exchanges can deal with the present 
situation better than individuals can. 

<iood have often commented upon 

the necessity of getting better 
COWS before dairy production will 
give the profit it should to the dairymen. AVe hope 
all our dairy readers will study carefully the position 
of E. W. Steele on this question as given at length 
on another page of this week's Rural. It will be 
seen that Mr. Steele's standard is pretty high, but 
who can say that dairymen should not push along 
toward it as far as practicable. Read what Mr. 
Steele says a cow should do, and then see what Cali- 
fornia cows do on the average, as estimated by W, H, 
Russell of the Dairymen's Union of this city. He 

California has 3;«,:ilU milch cows, and each will average 3750 
pounds of milk or 150 pounds of butter |)er year. The produce 
of I0«,tM'i<;cows is consumed as milk; that of Ivt.'JOO into cheese, 
and that of '^07,444 is made into butter. 

The value of the dairy products may be more clearly set 
forth by the following figures, which i-epresent a vearly aver- 

.5u,000,(MHi gallons of milk, at 12 cents ♦»i,000,0(X) 

31,ll(;,(i(KI ix)unds of butter, at 19 cents .^Ofi,!.^ 

9.000,(HKI pounds of cheese, at 9 cents 810,(XX) 

Calves, #'2 per cow, average tiOC,tJ20 

Skim milk, used as hog feed 1,037,220 

Total, yearly average tl4, 4:25,994 

These figures make the dairy of great commercial 
importance to California, as indeed it is. But sup- 
pose we could get cows which would come nearer to 
what Mr. Steele claims they should produce. Let 
our dairy readers figure on it a little, and then go to 
work to improve their stock, as can now be cheaply 
done at the prices for which the best dairy lireeds 
can be obtained. 

The big poultry show under the 
auspices of the Ptjultry Associa- 
tion is to open on Thursday of this 
week, and on Wednesday, as we write, preparations 
are well in hand. Fifteen hundred chickens have 
been entered, among them individuals which it is 
claimed are equal to any chickens undiM* the sun. In 
connection with the show, there will be a fine display 
of incubating appliances, etc.. etc. 


CliU'keiiH at 
the l*a\illon. 

A Cui'Eitri.No letter to the Mountain View .Vi s«( iiyi /■ .says : 
Many of the orchai-dists of this community are hiding their 
dried fruits for better prices, not being willing to dispose of 
their stock at the present quotations. 

Rki> Bi.i i f I'eiiiile'n faiise: Tears, idle tears, have been 
wasted over the fact that wheat is being fed to stock, and 
apostles of I'alamity the counti-y over have been throwing uii 
their hands and crying out against a condition of things which 
results in feeding breadstuffs to swine. Well, what would 
you feed the poor swine then ; Barley ; Barley bread is the 
staff of Euroiw. Would you feed them oats ; Oatmeal is what 
makes such fine men in Scotland, as well as fine horses in 
England. Would you give i-orn to the hogs ; The consump- 
tion of cornmeal by the (leople of the world is gi'owing rapidly, 
and cornbread and hominy has been the staff of life in the 
.South for generations. The thing to feed hogs in order to 
make i)ork is the stuff that will make the best pork for the 
least money, and just now that stuff appears to be wheat; 
and it is not only right to feed it to hogs, but it would be all 
wrong not to feed it. 

TAi,KiX(i with a re)x>rter at r.,os Angeles recently, Mr. 
Edward A. Cudahy, of the ('udahy Packing Company, said : 
" The raising of hogs in southern California has proven very 
satisfactory to the firm so far. But the product has not come 
up to the capacity of thd (jacking house in this city. We have 
here a capacity for t')O,0(K) hogs, and the yearly output of hogs 
during the past year was only a little over 30,(HX). This is, 
however, very satisfactory, considering the fact that it was 
only a year or so ago that tliere was any attempt at raising of 
the animals in an extensive way. We exi)ect the product to 
be much larger next year and we ai'e ready to increase our 
plant the moment the pr(xluct i^alls for it. One of the pleasing 
things about the hogs of .southern California is their superior 
quality. Nearly all the ordinary giades arc equal iu quality 
to the Eastern product, and some of them are vastly superior 
to them. The result of raising hogs has been as satisfactoi\v 
to those raising them as to ourselves, as they have gotten 
good prices for all that were offered for sale. We anticipate 
a great increase in the production of hogs and ii: a year or so 
we would not be surprised- if the output exceedeil 100,000 a 
year. The farmei's are all taking an increased interest in the 
matter, and we are in receipt of letters every day from 
ranchers who are just starting in the industry. Southern 
California is especiaUy adapted for the i-earing of hogs and 
the produetion of a very superior quality of the animal." 

January 5, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press 


From an Independent Standpoint. 

It is reported from Washington that the Morgan 
Nicaragua Canal bill is practically certain to pass 
the Senate within a few days, but that it is " bound 
to be cut to pieces in the House, where more popular 
ideas prevail respecting the policy of the Govern- 
ment in the matter of this great project." This 
news will be gratifying to all who think with the 
Rural that the Morgan bill is faulty in proposing a 
sort of partnership between the Government and 
certain private persons now owners of stock in the 
"Maritime Canal Company of Nicarauga." The 
Morgan bill provides for continuing this company, 
with the United States Government as the chief 
stockholder. The capital stock is fixed at $100,000,- 
000. Of this amount $70,000,000 is to go to the 
United States as paid-up stock. To the government 
of Nicaragua, .$6,000,000 of the stock must be given 
for the concessions, and $1,500,000 to the govern- 
ment of Costa Rica. To extinguish all issues of 
stock or bonds heretofore made by the Maritime 
Canal Company, new stock is to be issued to the 
company to an amount not exceeding $7,000,000; and 
and as the new stock shall be issued, the old stock of 
the company is to be cancelled. The seventy millions 
of stock to the United States is to be issued in con- 
sideration for its guaranty of the bonds of the com- 
pany. Ten of the fifteen directors of the company 
are to be apjiointed by the United States, through 
nomination by the President and confirmation by the 

By this an-angement the Government is to put 
up the bulk of the money and to be the chief owner, 
but is after all only to be a pai'tner in the enterprise. 
How this sort of thing will work in practice does not 
require much wisdom to foresee. The persons 
actively and per.sonally interested will set up a lobby 
at Washington; they will look after the appointment 
of the Government directors and will see to it that 
the places are filled by tools of their own. They 
will thus capture the management of the canal — 
secure- to themselves the contracts for its construc- 
tion and the places of profit in its service; and when 
it is completed they will fix the policy and regulate 
the methods of its operation. 

Again, the proposed partnership is objectionable 
on the ground that it would bind the canal company 
to a policy of money-making, which is contrary to 
the public purposes chiefly in view in its construction. 
The motive, as understood by the people, is not to 
make of the canal a money-eai-ning device, but an 
aid and promotor of American commerce. This 
would involve charges adjusted to the bare cost of 
operation and maintenance, whereas the interests of 
a private company — even of a company in part 
|)rivate--would lead inevitably to the application of 
the familiar principle — all the traffic will bear. It 
has been suggested that a policy of discrimination in 
charges between American and other ships — say one 
dollar per ton for our own vessels and two or three 
dollars for those of other nations — would be entirely 
legitimate and would do for American shipping inter- 
ests what our tarift' and navigation laws have utterly 
failed to accomplish. But such discrimination would, 
of course, only be possible under a policy looking to 
national advantage and under national ownership. 

The persistence with which the plan of a partner- 
ship between the Government and private parties is 
brought forward and urged in connection with the 
canal project reflects the determination of the 
transportation interests of the country to protect 
themselves against the competition of the canal. 
Formerly they were openly and directly in opposi- 
tion to the canal; now they see that it is inevitable 
and are hoping to limit its effects as they threaten 
present transportation interests by one hampering 
circumstance or another. They know — better than 
anybody else — that a private interest in the canal 
will enable them to control its administration, to 
i-egulate its policy and to prevent it from becoming 
in the largest sense a great public benefit. Again, 
they know that if the prmciple of absolute Govern- 
ment ownership and control be adopted in the matter 
of the Nicaragua canal, it will he but an easy step 
to apply it to the railroad system of the country. In 
putting stumbling blocks in the way of the canal 

project, therefore, they are fighting the doctrine 
of Government administration of tranportation in 

It is notable that every point raised in hindrance 
of the plan for Government ownership of the canal is 
a mere technicality — a lawyer's objection. We were 
told two or three years ago that Government owner- 
ship was inipossible owing to an old treaty between 
this country and England — as if treaties were things 
so sacred that they could not be altered or abro- 
gated. Then we were told that there was no way in 
which the Government could become the owner of 
the canal, but that it'might own stock in a company 
which owned the canal^ — as if the United States could 
or would underhand, and, by a subterfuge, do what 
was not proper and right for it to do openly and 
above board. Again it was declared that the Gov- 
ernment had no constitutional authority to execute 
such a work in another country. Respecting this 
last quibble. Senator Morgan, speaking in the Sen- 
ate, recently said: 

I am a Democrat of so strict a sect as to all that relates to 
the powers that Congress may exert over the States or against 
the people that I sometimes feel that 1 may be dropped from 
the Democratic procession as it moves in an aggressive course 
against our reserved rights. But I have always supposed that 
tills vital doctrine of the Democratic creed was intended for 
the protection of the rights of the States and their citizens 
within the Union, and were not limitations upon the power of 
the United States to protect and defend the people and to 
promote their general welfare in our dealings and relations 
with foreign peoples and Governments. As to these matters, 
I repeat I would very much regret to be compelled to admit 
that the United States does not possess powers equal to those 
of any nation in the world. 

The principle herein expressed— that our Gov- 
ernment has all the authority and powers of any 
other Government, and that there are no limita- 
tions upon its power when the welfare of the people 
is in question — is essentially sound; and of its own 
inherent weight it overcomes all the trifling and 
frivolous objections constantly urged against the 
canal project. 

It is profoundly to be hoped that the House will, as 
intimated in the news from Washington, "cut the 
Morgan bill to pieces " and in its stead adopt a 
straight measure of Government ownership, involv- 
ing administration of the canal upon considerations of 
national advantage and wholly free from private and 
j sinister influences. No other policy is in keeping 
I with the dignity of the Government or compatible 
with the intei'ests of the undertaking. And none 
other will be satisfactory to the people of the coun- 
try. There is, we believe, good reason to hope for 
such an outcome during the next few weeks. The 
Senate could not refuse to pass such a measure if 
presented by the House. The President seems to be 
under influences hostile to the canal, but it is not 
thinkable that he could be guilty of such manifest 
and supreme political folly as to stand between 
j the will of the people an-d of Congress and this great 
work of national advantage. 

For the past few days the gossips have had a 
choice subject in the will of the late James G. Fair — 
whose death occurred on Friday of last week. Mr. 
Fair left property whose value is variously estimated 
at from twenty to forty million of dollars. His 
; natural heirs are three — a married daughter living 
in New York, a younger daughter also living in New 
York, and a son in San Francisco who has dis- 
credited himself and forfeited his father's respect by 
dissipated courses ending in a scandalous marriage. 
The will distributes somewhat less than a million 
dollars among collateral relatives, charities and per- 
sonal employes, and gives the bulk of the estate in 
trust to a commission, subject to its own discretion 
in the management, to be kept intact during the 
lifetime of his children. To each of these one-third 
of the annual income of the estate is to be paid; if 
the son dies first his share goes to the daughters; if 
either of the daughters dies, her share goes to the 
other daughter, or her descendants. At the death of 
all three of his children the estate is to be divided as 
follows ; One-fourth to the descendants of each of 
the daughters, one-half to the descendants of his 
brothers and sisters. The descendants of the son 
are to have no share in the distribution. 

This strikes the Rural as a good disposition of a 
great estate. All the obligations of the dead capital- 
ist are abundantly answered; his children are royally 
i provided for; his discredited son is properly rebuked; 

the fortune is kept in California, where it rightfully 
belongs, and in the end it is to be widely distributed. 
Incidentally, it puts it out of the power of any for- 
tune-hunting vagabond of a prince — by marriage 
with one of the heirs — to bodily transport this for- 
tune or any great part of it to Europe. The Rural 
does not much admire the Bonanza type of man; 
money acquired by working the stock market it does 
not consider very clean; but it does admire the spirit 
which, in the disposition of great wealth, recognizes 
obligations to the city and State in which it was ac- 
quired. This, Mr. Fair has done. 

A Farmer's Views. 

CriticiBru Respecting the Detail of State Expenditures. 

SACRAiMENTO, Jan. 1st, 1895. 

To THE Editor: — It cannot too often be said that 
the honest and capable management of the public 
business of California is a matter above all 
party bounds. During the coming session of the 
Legislature it will be the duty of the press 
to print and comment upon the work, good or 
evil, of each and every legislator. In due season 
it will be the duty of the people to punish, regard- 
less of party, those who fail to stand up like 
men in the battle for the reorganization of our 
public affairs. By reorganization I mean system, 
economy and logical business arrangements in every 
department of State. I mean the saving of 25 
per cent in yearly expenditures which our friends 
the Populists have talked about. I also mean, 
most decidedly, that it is possible to so reconstruct 
certain departments of State business as to save 
large sums of money and still produce better results 
than now. Good government comes slowly and 
never of itself. The voters and taxpayers must 
know what they want, and must insist on obtaining 
it. Sometimes a man who is not a taxpayer thinks 
that it makes no difference to him whether the ex- 
penses of the State and counties are too great. But 
it really concerns every man, woman and child in 
California if money is wasted in doing the public 
business. Each little community has less money in 
such a case, and can therefore pay out less, employ 
fewer laborers, give its children ])oorer educations, 
and go without home comforts. 

Take that much-abused item of "supplies." In 
State and county affairs enormous waste often oc- 
curs here. Sometimes this is from no one's fault in 
particular; it is chiefly from lack of system and 
supervision. The " auditing " of bills that we hear 
so much of is, as a rule, only clerical. But why is 
there not a board upon whom all departments and 
Individuals must make requisitions, naming quanti- 
ties and prices of the desired supplies ? The time to 
stop waste is before supplies are bought. Auditing 
bills usually means merely seeing that the vouchers 
and sub-vouchers are correct. An auditor has little 
time to see whether a department or commission 
uses too much or too high-priced supplies; when the 
bill comes in, the mischief is done. Let the power 
to order supplies of every sort be taken away from 
the persons interested. The State ought to buy all 
its supplies at a very great reduction. A good pur- 
chasing agent, under bonds, could save his salary ten 
times over. 

Bookkeeping is important, and proper publication 
is just as necessary. The brief half-page reports in 
which large commissions give their balance .sheets of 
expenditures of thirty or fifty thousand dollars, af- 
ford every opportunity for juggling with the returns 
and deceiving the public. Think of a line-long item 
in such a report (Mining Bureau) which reads: 

" Tnu-<'li)iff Expcusrs $10,755.30.'' How shall an 

honest taxpayer be able to trace up the hidden items 
of expenditure in his own town, and see if they are 
correct ? It is not intended that he should do so. 
This one thing is of fundamental importance — that 
every item, and every cent, of public expenditure 
shall be printed in accessible form in the ■ places in 
which they belong, even if somebody's speeches are 
left out of the reports. The reports of the State 
Commissions are all deficient in this respect. With- 
out itemized financial statements, it becomes neces- 
sary for investigators to go to Sacramento and 
examine, at great expense, the records there. Such 
examinations invariably show that purchases of fur- 
niture, stationery and other supplies are largely 
without supervision, and that the State pays all 
kinds of prices for the same goods. In one instance, 
$6.50 a ream was paid for type- writer paper, though 
business men are satisfied to use paper that costs 
from 65 cents to $1.25 per ream. In another case, 
pen-holders were purchased at fifty cents apiece, 
when most of us buy the kind that cost twenty cents 
a dozen. We use cheap goods, and make them last 
as long as possible, because it is our own money 
that buys them. Now, in State purchases, the same 
law can be applied, and if all reports properly item- 
ize expenditures, the taxpayers will soon force a re- 
form in this direction. Items such as these may 
seem small, but they amount to hundreds of thou 
sands of dollars in the aggregate. We are in des 
peratc need of a skilled financial pruncr who knows 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

January 5, 1896. 

how to trim out the small items as well as the large 

Two constitutional amendments should be sub- 
mitted to the people of California: (1) An amend- 
ment abolishinff the Railroad Commission. (2) An 
amendment drawn up by those who oppose the pres- 
ent State system of printing text-books, and propos- 
ing the abolishing of that system. This would bring 
the question fairly before the people of California, 
and settle it for a long time to come. There is some- 
thing to be said on each side; let a full and free dis- 
cussion take place. The best elements of the refer- 
endum idea are contained in the submission to the 
voters of important propositions such as these. 

The Rural Press has printed from time to time 
long articles on the expenses of running our State 
government, the State pay-roll and other topics. 
Let us now take up some of these items more in de- 
tail, so that the people will know how simple the 
matter of reform really is. When a taxpayer tells 
an official that expenses can and must be reduced, 
the answer sometimes is: ''You will cripple our in- 
stitutions;" or perhaps one is told that "The State 
can afford to pay better salaries than private em- 
ployers do." Both these arguments are false. By 
a more systematic arrangement, and by getting rid 
of those departments or positions which are worth 
less than they cost, the State can obtain better ser- 
vice than now, for much less money. Nor should the 
State pay higher salaries than private employers 
should pay. State service lasts, as a rule, four 
years. Does a man who advertises for a clerk agree 
to keep him four years ? Complete reform will never 
come until every employe of the State expects to 
give as much work for his salary as he would to a 
private employer. Practically, this means civil ser- 
vice reform in respect to all subordinate positions, 
and men and women will hold their i)laces for years 
undisturbed. Is there really any reason why the 
State text-book clerk at Sacramento, whose duties 
are purely clerical and who simply distributes text- 
books to the school districts, should lose his position 
because a new Superintendent of Public Instruction 
is appointed ? Is it not still more absurd to dis- 
charge gardeners, janitors, porters, elevator boys, 
after every election ? 

Flush times left us long ago. Great business 
houses, and greater cor])orations, have faced the 
issue of new and more difficult economic conditions, 
and have taken in sail. Private employers now pay 
lower wages, and expect more service. Figure- 
heads have disappeared: sinecures no longer exist in 
business circles. But the inevitable readjustments 
which every private individual has gracefully 
accepted have not yet troubled our State and county 
officials. The State is behind the times; we pay too 
much for services. I^et us consider a few simple re- 

In a number of cases at the capitol and elsewhere, 
common laborers on the grounds and porters in the 
buildings, etc., are paid $1080 per annum, or $90 a 
month. Twelve such laborers are employed by the 
Capitol Commission. Now, most excellent foremen, 
head gardeners and superintendents of ranches are 
hired every day, in all parts of California, for less 
than $90 a month. Laborers are being employed 
everywhere at from $480 to $540 per annum, and 
board themselves. Again, the Secretary of State's 
office has four porters, each at $90 a month, but the 
State Controller's office manages with but one and 
pays him only $40 a month. Is it not conceivable 
that the Secretary of State could get along with 
$480 per annum for porterage, and so save California 
$3840 a year The State should always pay the full 
market price for labor, but it is ridiculous to pay so 
much for workmen and porters that hundreds of can- 
didates for appointments crowd Sacramento and 
waste the time of our officials. 

Let us look at the various clerkships. The usual 
salary is $1600, and there are so many of them that 
it is reasonable to suppose that some could be spared. 
But aside from this, every clerkship could be filled 
in a week for $1000 apiece. Any large business firm 
advertising for clerks would have them coming in by 
the dozen at $75 a month. But the State must pay 
$133.3.3 ! Sixteen hundred dollars was not an ex- 
orbitant salary in bonanza days, when laborers had 
$3 a day, but now it is far too much. The various 
deputyships are a weak and an expensive place in 
our system. There is a well-grounded suspicion that 
sometimes an officer makes his deputies do most of 
the work and spends his own time looking after po- 
litical fences. Relatives who may or may not be fit 
deputies are often appointed. The salary paid to 
deputies is usually too near that of the head of the 
office. The State Librarian, for instance, gets $3000. 
He has no less than three deputies — one at $2400 and 
two at $1850. Still another man in that office- 
George E. Clark — who has now been elected head of 
the San Francisco Free Library, and who probably 
knew more about the contents of the State Library 
than any one else there, received but $1800. People 
who know him say that he was competent to have 
sole charge of the library, and he remained the sole 
Republican in a Democratic office. But then he has 
a national reputation as a librarian. The Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction has usually appointed 
his wife as deputy. This makes the total family in- 
come $5400, or nearly as much m tlu? iTOverno'r rt^ 

ceives, with much loss official expense. There are 
doubtless cases in which the wife of a successful 
teacher is equally competent to serve in the office; 
but the principle is a bad one, and must often neces- 
sitate extra clerk hire. It is a good old-fashioned 
idea that a man at the head of an office should not 
put members of his own family into deputyships, 
clerkships and other places of trust, honor and profit. 
The reasons are plain. The State often has less valu- 
able service. There is a greater temptation to cover 
up wrong-doing. The official who appoints members 
of his own family cannot be the stern task-master 
that public service demands. Read the State roll; 
everywhere one finds nepotism. It is one of the 
weak spots in our system. J. M. H. 

Rainfall and Temperature. 

The following data for the week ending 5 a. m., 
January 2, 189.5, are from official sources, and are 
furnished by the U. S. Weather Bureau expressly 
for the Pacific Rukai- Press; 


: « 

• B 



o a 

rB 1 


a g 

Eureka 1.82 19.59 j 24.03 15.S0 

Red Bluff I I 13.17 9.«0 j 11.40 

Sacramento 72 11.28 5.38 | 8.23 

San Francisco 1.45 12.67 7.45 i 10.01 

Fresno 76 4M 1.77 5.00 

Los Angeles 62 S.ltl ' 4.76 7.50 

San Diego M 2.02 2.17 3.75 

Yuma 06 2.17 1.42 1.80 



The Care of Young Chicks. 

To THE Editor: — The most important thing for 
the first twenty-four hours of a young chick's life is 
the proper amount of heat. When under the hen 
about the same temperature is given to the eggs 
hatching and the chicks hatched, and it is a great 
mistake to take chicks from an incubator where the 
temperature is about 102° and put them in a brooder 
where the temperature is between 80° and 90°; 100° 
is none too warm for the little chicks for the first 
two days at least, provided the ventilation is good 
and a constant current of fresh air is entering the 
brooder. Let a chick become chilled and bowel 
trouble will develop in a short time, while with good 
warm quarters and fresh air there is very little dan- 
ger of any sickness. 

After twenty-four hours give the newly hatched 
chicks hard boiled egg chopped fine mixed with oat- 
meal, about half and half. I find that the chicks 
relish it more when the oatmeal is dried or parched 
in the oven before mixing with the egg. This allows 
the mixture to be a dry one, and chicks thrive much 
better on dry than wet rations. Sometimes I mix a 
little sharp, clean grit or sand with their food, if not 
it is placed where they can easily reach it; also some 
fine charcoal, which they eat with avidity and which 
aids digestion. I also give them water from the 
first, all they can drink, having a fountain arranged 
so they cannot step or fall into the water. See that 
the fountain is kept scrupulously clean and the water 

For the first ten days I feed every two hours, giv- 
ing them a h'ttle nt a time, only what they will eat up 
clean; at about the third day I begin to decrease the 
quantity of egg, making the proportion of meal 
larger, also give a feed of cooked cracked wheat at 
night. The cracked wheat should be cooked as dry 
as possible; the chicks do not like it clammy or 
sticky. After it swells, if left on the back of the 
stove until the water has steamed away and the ker- 
nels are separate it will be just right for them. I 
also begin to feed chopped onion at about the third 
day; if onion cannot be procured lettuce, cabbage or 
clover will do, but I consider onion the very best of 
green food for chicks. I generally give it for their 
noon feed in place of the grain or egg and meal. 
They soon become very fond of it; as the fumes come 
up into their faces they shut their eyes and look like 
a very sick and drooping lot of chicks for a few sec- 
onds, then they greedily eat until again overcome 
by the odor, and rarely do they stop eating until 
the last bit is gone. 

A close watch must be kept during the ten days 
for drooping chicks. Often one will be found whose 
crop is distended by gas; a teaspoonful of baking 
soda dissolved in a cup of water, and a teaspoonful 
of the mixture given two or three times a day, will 
usually bring the little fellow around all right. 

If any bowel trouble is noticed add fine charcoal to 
their onion feed, and in a short time you will see a 
decided improvement. But eternal vigilance must 
bp used to take the little difiorders when they first 

appear, if one would be successful with these simple 


After the fifth or sixth day vary their food still 
more, giving bread which has been soaked in milk 
and squeezed dry, a little meat chopped fine, some 
uncooked cracked wheat, and daily decreasing the 
amount of eggs. Any scraps from the table are 
greatly relished by the little youngsters. 

It is of the greatest importance that meat or veg- 
etables given them be chopped fine; remember that 
the grinding takes place in the gizzard, not in the 
crop, and a lump of meat may be forced down the 
throat of a greedy little fellow that cannot pass 
from crop to gizzard. When the obstruction remains 
the chick soon dies, as no more food can pass to 
the gizzard and that remaining in the crop soon 
ferments. I had a very promising youngster die 
and could not see anj' reason for it, but a post- 
mortem revealed a hard bit of cabbage stalk clog- 
ging the passage from crop to gizzard; so from 
dearly bought experience I emphasize chopping meat, 
etc., very fine. 

If the weather is fine allow the chicks to make 
their first excursion out of doors when they are ten 
days old; but they cannot be turned out and left 
alone for any length of time, for some, weaker than 
the others, will become tired, and unless the weather 
is very warm may be chilled. They have no mother 
to call them when they begin to give their tired, 
cold peep, so their owner must be on hand ready to 
return them to the broofler as soon as they show 
that they are beginning to feel unhappy. It will be 
several days before they will learn to go to the 
brooder for warmth, rest and feed. A slight 
now will retard the maturing of the chick a month 
or more, while if they can be kept growing right 
along early maturity will be the sure result. 

Don't be in too great haste to let them out of 
doors. If the weather is not favorable, or if you do 
not have the time to devote to them, keep them in 
the brooder. I have raised several broods of fine, 
healthy chicks which did not go out of doors until 
the.v were three weeks old: but if they remain indoors 
so long they must be kept busy. Hang meat, 
cabbage or lettuce so that they have to jump to 
reach it. Give them boxes of straw in which fine 
grains are scattered, that they may scratch for it; 
give them bones on which a little meat remains, 
that they may pick at them. This is particularly 
necessary with the active Spanish breeds that will 
surely get into mischief and eat each other unless 
kept busy. I have never had this trouble with the 

From ten days until three weeks I feed the chicks 
five times a day, unless the days are very short, 
when four times will be sufficient. They should be 
fed as soon as it is light in the morning; if it is not 
convenient to feed them so early, then food should be 
left the night before where they can get it at day- 
break. I always make it a point to feed mine at 
daylight, as I generally give them warm cooked 
cracked wheat for their tireakfast. 

As they increase in size, decrease the number in 
each brooder or they will crowd and the smaller ones 
will be trodden on and killed. A brooder that will 
hold seventy-five at first should have not more than 
thirtj'-five when they are a month old. 

When they are well leathered and able to do with- 
out artificial heat, try and fill in the corners of the 
brooder, as they will crowd together and the ones in 
the corners will be killed. 

From one to two months old feed four times a day. 
giving variety in feed. From two to three months 
feed three times, with a generous supply of green 
food of some sort. Avoid egg food and all highly 
seasoned food, unless a little red pepper with their 
soft feed about once a week. When one month old I 
feed a mash of feed cornmeal, middlings, bran and 
ground barley, equal parts, mixed with gravy from 
boiled crackling or meat. A little salt should always 
be added, and carrots cooked soft and added to it, 
they like. This with cooked cracked wheat, raw 
cracked wheat, chopped onions daily, and meat three 
or four times a week, is a bill of fare that will make 
them grow rapidly. The mash must be mixed so 
that it cnnahh.f, not soft like mush. 

After three months old feed but twice a day, but 
give some green food at noon and always make them 
scratch in straw or litter for their grain. 

This may all sound like going to a great deal of 
trouble, but raising chicks is no child's play I can as- 
sure you. H. F. Whitman. 

Alameda. Cat 

Root Knot. 

To THE Euitok: — I your issue of December 8th I notice an- 
other article on root knot, by a comparative neighbor of mine. 
After some stud.v and experimenting in this matter. I have 
come to the conclusion that pruning is the explanation ami 
cure. In warm, wet, sandy lands the sap starts only in the 
spring with great vigor, and the excessive pruning so com- 
monly indulged in, shuts otf the natural outlet for this sap and 
consequently it breaks out in the roots in the form of knot, 
much like a boil on a human being. Root knot is a sap disease 
and the remedy and cure is not to prune, or very lightly, on 
trees subject to it. Akthuk Sharmax. 


This is like the other theories — it don't cover the 
case. The greatest losses from root knot come in 
the nursery rows on young seedlings which have 
never been pruned at all— Ed. 

January 6, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 



Thinning Fruit. 

A paper by J. W. Mills, foreman of the University Experiment 
Station at Pomona, at the last meeting of the Southern California 
Pomological Society. 

November is, no doubt, the wrong season for the 
discussion of fruit thinning, but if every horticul- 
tural topic were only to be brought up at the pro- 
per time for its practice, Pomona fruit growers 
would have to hold monthly meetings. 

Although I have passed but one season in your 
midst and seen the wonderful possibilities of this 
section that are being rapidly developed, I feel loth 
to make any criticism on the way which you conduct 
any of the branches of your business. But there is 
one thing that I can see has been sadly neglected, 
and I have taken this opportunity to bring this sub- 
ject before the fruit growers. 

Nature never intends that a fruit tree should 
bring to perfection for our benefit, more fruit than 
the tree could support without props. We have 
selected, culled and improved our varieties of fruit 
trees, with two principal ideas in view, viz: pro- 
ductiveness and size of fruit; productiveness seeming 
to have received the greater share of attention. 
Everybody naturally plants those varieties that as- 
sure a fair crop, year in and year out. This is all 
right, but after we have become masters of the situa- 
tion so that we can sustain this equilibrium, why do 
we consent to allow it to be destroyed? 

Nearly all varieties of fruit-bearing trees have 
their " off years, " or years of light crops. Of course 
we do not thin the fruit much then, but when we do 
have a heavy crop, why do we not thin as much as 
is best for everything concerned? I suppose it is be- 
cause we want to make up for the short crop of the 
previous year, ignoring the fact that a heavy ci"op, 
besides exhausting the tree and tending to make a 
light yield the following year, will give small and 
inferior fruit. 

When a man has an extra heavy crop the first 
season his orchard comes into bearing and does not 
thin, I suppose he is not thoroughly posted in his 
business, or else his negligence is prompted by the 
desire to get all there is in sight. It sometimes hap- 
pens, and especially in dry seasons, that all the pleas- 
ant anticipations of the fruit growers are not realiz- 
ed. Of course, a person may lack experience and 
do a great deal of damage by irregular thinning, 
when he is really anxious to know the proper way. 

The fruit growers of the north have passed through 
this important part of the business and have made 
for themselves their own rules with their numerous 
exceptions. We must do the same in southern 
California if we expect to compete with them in 
deciduous fruits. Our soil is as varied as that of 
the northern part of the State, and we may need as 
many exceptions to our rules. 

The growers of the north lay as much stress, if 
not more, on thinning as they do on cultivation and 
pruning; these throe natural features of the business 
are all they have to contend with — irrigation being 
unnecessary. I was under the impression myself, 
that you could raise an indefinite amount of fruit on 
a tree, if you could give it plenty of water, but the 
harvest of the past season has dispelled all such 

There is much doubt as to the proper time to 
thin, some claiming it should not be done before the 
fruit hardens, as that is the critical tune in the life 
of the fruit, and if the conditions are not normal, the 
crop that is left may be ruined by dropping. But it 
is conceded that the greatest draught on the tree 
comes with the hardening of the pit, and if we wait 
until the pit is formed we are placing a tax on the 
tree that could otherwise be avoided. 

One theory in good repute with our northern 
brethren, is this: If we thin before the pit hardens, 
we remove from the tree the necessity of forming the 
useless crop of pits, and the extra vitality is thrown 
into the remaining fruit. With this extra vital 
power, the fruit is belter able to withstand adversi- 
ties, and in the end, better results are obtained on 
an average. Some years young fruit will drop and 
leave a light crop, no matter how heavy the yield 
promises to be. This is no doubt due to imperfect 

All of us, no doubt, have noticed before the pit has 
hardened or even formed, what a wonderful differ- 
ence there is in the size and appearance of the fruit 
on two trees, where one has been thinned by hand 
or otherwise, and the other left to bear its burden, 
this goes to prove that the sooner the superfluous 
fruit is removed before the pit hardens, the better 
it is for the fruit that makes the cro]), and conse- 
quently the tree itself. 

This leads to the question. How shall we thin? How 
much shall we leave on the tree? That, no doubt, 
depends upon the character of the soil, and the use 
to which you put your fruit. If you sell to canners, 
it seems impossible to get it too large; if you cal- 
culate to ship your fruit green, its size depends upon 
the demands of the market. Some of the northern 
green fruit shippers were very much surprised and 
disgusted to find that the immense peaches and 
pears they shipped to the New York and Chicago 
markets did not bring as good returns as their 

medium sized fruit, though they arrived in equally 
as good condition. 

The question is. How far apart on the limb shall 
we leave, — peaches for instance? Six or eight 
inches, I should say, is close enough. It takes cour- 
age to do this if you have not seen the result of such 

You start out with a firm resolution to thin to 
eight inches, and wind up with an average of four or 
five inches. This will not do. It will pay you better 
to hire a man who has a grudge against you to do 
your thinning. Let those who are doubtful try an 
experiment on a row of trees. Count the number of 
linear feet of fruit-bearing limbs on a tree and cal- 
culate twelve one-half pound peaches to every eight 
feet. I think you will conclude you are getting 
your share. Of course a rule that will apply to 
one orchard may not apply to another; the rule you 
follow for one tree may not do for the next one in the 
same row. 

The amount of thinning is as varied as that of 
pruning. A man must have two or three years ex- 
perience with his orchard in order to know how to 
thin each tree, and if he is a success even then, you 
can mark him down an extraordinary man. 

I have been impressed with the idea that some of 
the Pomona fruit growers have made a specialty of 
raising pits during the last season, and had I not 
happened to have seen peaches grown in the Pomona 
valley, that were the finest I ever saw, and had I not 
known something about the difference in the mode of 
caring for them, I should have decided that a south- 
ern Californian must hunt favorite localities in which 
to raise his peaches. As it is, I know we can raise 
a first-class peach most anywhere in the valley if we 
prune and thin with a bold hand. It takes courage, 
until we learn the business, to pick thirty green 
peaches from a limb and leave but two mature, but 
it is sometimes necessary. 

Apricots in the northern citrus belt do not need to 
be thinned so severely as peaches, yet if the past 
season's crop is a fair sample of what this country 
can do with that fruit, there is very little difference 
in that respect, according to a northern grower's 

When all the canners refuse to buy a peach that 
measures less than 2J inches in diameter, it will be a 
good thing for our trees and our market. Both will 
be in a healthier condition. The sooner we have a 
local Horticultural Society, with monthly meetings 
at some regular place to convence, the sooner will 
this condition of affairs come around. 

Cherry Growing in Santa Clara Valley. 

H. G. Keesling of San Jose gives the <'ii1ifi>nii<( 

f'iiJ/ii(i/iir a sketch of his views on the cherry crop 

in answer to questions as follows: 

What are the three most iwpular varieties, and why are 
they considered so ; 

Black Tartarian, Royal Ann and Black Repub- 
lican. They are all three good in quality and 
excellent shippers. A cherry that will not ship long 
distances must be discarded, for our local markets 
are always glutted. 

Which variety bears the best and what is the average yield 
per tree for the three varieties < 

The Royal Ann is the heaviest bearer; some trees 
in this section have borne over 1000 pounds per tree, 
but these are great exceptions. Probably 200 to 
300 pounds of Royal Ann and 100 to 150 of Tartarian 
and Republican is a fair average yield. 

What was the average price received for the fruit the past 
season ? , 

I suppose you mean net price to us from Eastern 
shipments. As we are among the heaviest shippers 
from this point, our receipts will probably be aver- 
age. They were about twenty-three cents per box, 
out of which we must pay for picking, boxes and 
packing box. 

There was no material difference in prices of the 
different varieties. 

What was the amount of cherries sent East, and what pro- 
portion was consumed for canning purposes' 

About 175 cars, or 3,938,225 pounds, were shipped 
East from San Jose the past season. The amount 
canned was nominal this year; last year 2,279,205 
pounds, or 115 carloads, were canned. 

At what age does a cherry tree come into bearing, and are 
they a long or short lived tree in California; 

Black Tartarian, five years; Royal Ann, eight 
years; and Black Republican, five years. They are 
not generally considered a long lived tree. 

What variety of soil is best adapted to the cherry ? 

Deep sandy loam, or what we call here "sediment 
land." Heavy, hard soils will not do for cherries. 
They are a tender tree, particular as to location and 
easily injured by drouth. 

Mr. Keesling adds as follows ; In addition to the 
answers in cherry questions, permit me to call the 
attention of any of your readers who may contem- 
plate planting a cherry orchard to some facts re- 
garding the growing and marketing of cherries that 
have come to me in about twenty years' experience. 

That Santa Clara county produces the best cher- 
ries in the world is generally conceded by those who 
are in a position to know. The cost of producing 

cherries is somewhat more than other fruits. The 
trees cost more to begin with and are longer coming 
into bearing than apricot, peach or prune. They 
are very expensive to pick and prepare for market. 
They must be marketed when ready and will not 
wait for markets to clear up or for the settlement 
of a strike of pickers or packers. They must go to 
market in refrigerator cars at a cost of, say 3| cents 
a pound. With all the above to contend with, 
cherry growers have averaged fairly well with their 
shipments till this season, when, with an unusual 
crop and little demand from canners, disaster awaited 
nearly all who shipped their fruit. How much of 
this break was due to hard times, strikes, fighting 
among commission men or overproduction is hard to 
determine, but in view of the fact that there are a 
great many acres of cherries yet to come into bear- 
ing in this county and elsewhere, it would seem 
prudent for any one who intends to plant a cherry 
orchard to carefully canvass the whole field before 
putting his money where he may not find it again. 

I have interviewed our assessor and find that the 
number of cherry trees in this (Santa Clara) county 
in 1894 is approximately 112,000—7000 more than 
there were in 1893. 

In this connection you might be interested in know- 
ing that the number of acres of fruit trees in the 
county of all kinds foot up 44,000. Of these acres 
5H10 are apricots, 9005 are peaches and 14,028 prunes. 


Wheat as Horse Feed. 

We have had much discussion of late on the use of 
wheat as a food for farm stock of all kinds, but only 
short references to its use for horses. R. Boylston 
Hall of Chicago seems to have made a .special study 
of this matter and has collected the testimony of a 
number of breeders. We reproduce his essay as 
published by an eastern journal: 

I am much surprised at the comparatively little in- 
terest taken in the matter of wheat feeding by 
owners, breeders and trainers of horses, more par- 
ticularly to light harness and the thoroughbred 
running horse. The judicious use of this cereal at 
the farms, and in the driving and training stables, 
will prove of such inestimable value in the results 
obtained that its comparative cost — even when sell- 
ing at much higher figures than now rule — will cut 
no figure. 

First, ifs use as feed for mares carrying foals, one 
owner and breeder informs me of his experience in 
breeding t he thoroughbred horse as follows: " Three 
years ago 1 began feeding wheat to my brood mares 
from the first of .lanuary, and kept it up till June. 
My foals came stronger than in any previous year, 
having bred to a limited extent, say twenty mares 
a year for twenty years. Have had some satisfac- 
tory results for the past three years. This year I 
began feeding wheat in September, and will continue 
feeding it through the season, including the term of 
the mares suckling the foals. I teach my foals to 
eat it. My weanlings and yearlings have this ration: 
Wheat, ground, one third; oats, one third: corn, one 
sixth: bran, one sixth;allby weight. Hay and grass, 
as much as they wish to eat. I have eight year- 
lings, thoroughbreds, that average fifteen hands and 
weigh 800 pounds each. The largest of the lot weighs 
900 pounds. I am so well pleased with the results 
that I shall continue to feed it without regard to its 
price relatively to other grains.'' 

W/it'df (iikJ Oil Cake. — Another informs ine that he 
has had very gratifying success in feeding wheat, 
and says: " I regard two quarts of wheat and one 
pint of oil meal as equivalent to five or six quarts of 
oats. I add the oil cake, i. e., linseed meal, as a 
laxative, wheat fed by itself being found to be con- 
stipating, and I at all times mix it with cut hay, cut 
sorghum, or cut straw, for if fed clean is quite apt to 
cause griping. This is my second year's experience 
in the use of wheat as teed for horses. I cut my hay 
with a Tornado cutter into feed averaging one inch 
long. Of this I give each animal one-half bushel, by 
measure, mixed with two quarts of ground wheat 
and one pint of old process linseed meal. This I con- 
sider a full feed for an ordinary work horse on the 
farm. My stallions I now feed twice each day half 
of the above quantity of wheat, but at eaeh feed the 
same quantity (one half bushel) of cut hay or sorghum. 
My sucklings I now feed twice each day one quart of 
ground wheat and a little oil meal at each feed, with 
as much of the cut hay as they will eat up clean. 
When weaned the ration will be made .slightly richer 
in wheat meal. " 

The stock that this gentleman is feeding is of the 
trotting strains of blood, and he is perfectly satis- 
fied with his experience in the use of wheat. He 
writes me his sucklings— five months of age are the 
average when he wrote — are all doing well, and as 
soon as weaned he shall increase the quantity of 
meal, that is ground wheat, at each feed. He gives 
one quart — or its equivalent, rather — one and one-half 
pounds of ground wheat at a feed, twice each daj' to 
his sucklings. He has about ninety head on his farm. 

Another party informs me that for horses thin in 


January 5, I89r>. 

flesh he has given them one pint of wheat to three 
quarts of oats, haviiij,' the wheat ground not too fine, 
but well broken, and occasionally he mixes in a small 
quantity of corn. He says there seems to be some- 
thing about this mi.xture that adds energy and life. 
From the many other experiences that have come to 
me since looking up the matter, 1 am satisfied that, 
gradually, a much larger percentage of wheat can 
be used to a very great advantage in proj)ortion to 
its mixture with other grains. It .seems to be the 
opinion of those who have used this grain to any ex- 
tent, that is equal in its essential properties, about 
in i)roportion to its furnishing as much of the desired 
qualities of health, growth and strength for the horse 
bred for speed, as the ratio of one quart of wheat to 
nearly three quarts of oats, both being taken as 
to measure, not weight. 

Niiti !t!i i- Viihii i,f Whiat.— li seems thus to be con- 
clusive, that wheat contains as much of the essential 
properties in one measured quart as is contained in 
nearly three measured quarts of oats. Now. as 
the stomach of the horse is known to be, com- 
paratively, not very large, certainly if the same 
amount of nourishment can be obtained from one 
(|uart of bulk as can be obtained from nearly three 
quarts in bulk of nature's foods— as they are 
grown, not concenti'ated preparations — one would 
naturally suppose much benefit would acci-ue to the 
animal by thus relieving the stomach from being re- 
ijuired to care for a useless quantity, with no resul- 
tant benefit to be acquired l>y digesting it. So far 
it would seem that one bushel of wheat, ground, mixed 
with four bushels of oats, all by weight, would 
be about the proportion to make feeding wheat a 
success. This would be just one-third wheat and 
two-thirds oats. Occasionally, in fact daily, a hand- 
ful of oil meal is good for horses that arc used for 
speed purposes and genei'al road driving, ll helps to 
keep the bowels liealtliy in their action and the hide 
loose through the fall, winter and early spring. (!rass 
can take the place of this when it can be had. Some 
parties have used ground wheat by itself, not mixed i 
with other grains, but mixing it with wet bran in- 
stead. From the best information obtainable on the 
subjcvt, and as .so far shown in the foregoing ex- ■ 
periences, it does not seem to strike the writer that 
such is the most judicious manner in which to use 
wheat as feed for horse stock. Particularly so 
when th(>re exists grave doubts in the minds of many 
owners Uiid breeders as to the utility of bran as a 
component j)art of the food of a horse. Foi' my own 
part, T do not, and have not in many years, believed 
in its use, and have not fed any to my own horses, or 
to those that 1 have had any care of, in the past 
twenty years. 

('iii)/,(</ Fix It/ for /liicirx. — I have used with great 
and gratifying success, for horses being driven and 
speeded, and in training and racing, almost daily, 
cooked oats as the I'iglit feed for each day, boiled or 
steamed to double their natural size. Steaming is 
far preferable if a convenient way is at hand to cook 
it in such a manner. There is economy in this. 
Three ciuarts of cooked oats will go as far in 
nutritive results as five quarts of raw. Why 
would it not be a good food, and possibly the best, 
for weanlings, yearlings, brood mares carrying the 
foal, and brood mares suckling the foal, to feed them 
once each day, and twice in cold weather, if possible, 
oats and wheat mixed in the proper proportion, as 
given above, and cooked together in the manner 
advised for cooking oats, and for driving horses such 
a feed for supper each night ? This need not be 
given hot. The cooking can be done at any conven- 
ient time during the day and fed cold after the water 
has been drained off. 

To sum up, it may be considered as an indisputable 
fact that wheat judiciously fed is far sujjerior to oats, 
corn, or any other grains used in feeding horses, 
mares, colts and foals. It promotes in young stock 
a more rapid growth, maturing them in health and 
strength at an ealier age than any other known feed, 
fed in its proper pi-oportions as mixed with other 
grains; for it must not be mixed by itself, but must 
be mixed, and must be ground, soaked or cooked 
about as herein dii-ected. It promotes rapid growth 
of bone and muscle, and pi oduces less fatly matter. 
It is a much superior milk producer for mares suck- 
ling foals, to either ^orn or oats, and it creates more 
develoi)ment of real strength. Scientific tests have 
shown tliat wheat contains a much larger percentage 
of the elements herein claimed for it than either of 
the other grains mentioned, and which it is sought 
to have it, to a beneficial extent, take the place. It 
is so far superior to the other grains in its resultant 
benefits, when i)roperly used, that its cost compared 
to them cuts no figure, wht'u its first cost shall be 
even above their ])rices in the market, proportion- 
ately. Foi- instance, yearlings, fed liberally up to 
the limit as directed herein of wheat , shall be found 
to be nearly as strong, healthy and mature as two- 
year-olds fe 1 by the usual process, what figure does 
the slightly increased first .lutlay (granting there is 
such an increase) of money cut in comparison to the 
acquired results ? None, of course. This is mentioned 
as an inducement to owners and breeders to use .some 
wheat, even when it costs much more, relativelj', than 
corn and oats; whereas, at present prices it is the 
cheapest feed that can be had, as regards simply 
first cost, and not even figuring resultant benefits. 


E. W. Steele's Beliefs and Practices. 

E. W, Steele, of the Steele Brothers, is a pioneer 
dairyman of California, and his observation and ex- 
perience with cows under California conditions is of 
great interest and importance to younger dairymen. 
We have heretofore given chapters of Mr, Steele's 
exi)erience, and continue now with the sketch of 
the same which he prepared for the recent conven- 
tion of dairymen in this city: 

/)';■(<(//»(/ ((;/(/ FinliiKj. — Tn these days when profit 
in dairying is assailed by oleo productions and by 
competition from its extension into hitherto un- 
occupied fields all over the world, it is necessary for 
dair\men and dealers in dairy products to take 
counsel together to study the business in all its 
bearings and branches, and to discover, if possible, 
and adojjt improvements that will bring increa.sed 
profits. The surprising improvements in all sorts of 
dairy machinery, and in tools for handling the milk 
and conveying it into butter and cheese, within the 
last few years has so far exhausted the possibilities 
that we cannot look for very much increase of profits 
from improvements in that direction. Hut in liie 
very foundation of the business, breeding and feed- 
ing, we enter a field which is not yet exploited, and 
where even what we do know is rarely practiced in a 
persistent, thoi'ough and practical manner. With 
all of the thousands of dairymen who are studying, 
experimenting and jjracticing new methods for in- 
ci-easing dairy profits, and giving these experiences 

and pet him and manifested bis gratitude in every 
way. I drove him on a few miles to where there was 
water. Though hungry, 1 needed but to speak to 
him to bring him again to the road if he wandered to 
feed. The extent to which a domestic animal may 
be educated on natural lines which thence becomes 
hereditary, if understood is not fully appreciated. 

A cow cannot have it in her disposition to do the 
best for an attendant who ill treats or insufficiently 
feeds her— who does not give her kind words and 

Milk secretion is a motherly function and is regu- 
lated by food, environment, education and her love 
of offspring, and her attendant, on whom she realizes 
her dependence, if he is wise, will take the place of 
her calf in her affection, A blow, a cross word, or 
any disagreeable exciting cause will affect the quan- 
tity and quality of milk given by a cow at once, and 
a continuation of disagreeable circumstances will 
have a pei-nianent effect upon the milk, l)oth as to 
quantity and quality, and subsequently on the otT- 
sprin-,'. We have afl seen the ingeniou.s" ugliness edu- 
cated into the Spanish horse by their cruel treat- 
ment from generation to generation. 

l)> It I, ,1,1111 lit ,,/ l)„;,)i Bill lis. —The history of the 
development of our leading dairy breeds fullv sus- 
tains this proposition. The Jerseys, the Guernseys 
and Holstein-Friesian cattle are 'mosflv milked and 
handled by the women in their places' of nativity, 
and they are always treated with the utmost kind- 
ness — are almost members of the family. 

The low, level, wet, diked land of Holland, with its 
abundant, moist and succulent pasturage, has bevond 
a question given the Holstein-Friesian cow her large 
size and milk-producing qualities. The peculiarities 

and discoveries to the world through the press, it 

would seem as though the subject would become [ of feed, care and breeding foi- long year.s' have mad 
a hackneyed, stale and oft-repeated story. We must tl>e Jerseys and (iuernseys what they are. and be 

consider how few hear of any improvement irom 
one publication of it, though it be in a journal with 
thousands of I'eaders, and that, when brought to the 
attention of those interested, how often and insist- 
ently' it needs to be repeated before it becomes like 
the alphabet in familiarity and ready for use on all 
occasions when re(|uired. fireeding and feeding are 
subjects capable of such infinite combinations that 
they can never be exhausted. Their investigation 
will ever repay the practical man with valuable dis- 
coveries and surprises. I have often in the past 
heard farmers say, "Feeding is breeding, particu- 
larly with regard to hogs." by which it was meant 
that good feeding produced good stock, which is true 
in the s(>nse that without good feeding we cannot 
have well developed stock of any kind. It is also 
true in the sense that a persistently well fed indi- 
vidual acquires more or less development which he 
can impart in some degree to his progeny. If we 
can admit this little proposition, and no fai'mer will 
for a moment tleny it, then as a logii-al and inevit- 
able .sequence it follows that breeding and fei'ding 
under tlie most favorable circumstances for genera- 
tions will produce improved types of all kinds, 

/)i,iiii'siiriitiiiii i,f till' Ciiir. — We know that the power 
of the cow to put butter fat into her milk depends 
upon her nervous temperament, her contentment, 
as well as the food which she eats, and that she must 
be domesticated and educated for the dairy. Wild 
herds are never large butter or milk producers. 
Nothing so surely and speedily becomes educated 
int() our animals and thence hereditary, as results of 
kindness, and special treatment and feeding to de- 
velop the qualities we desire. If our animals learn 
to lov(> and not fear us, they will soon understand 
what we want of them and right loyally will they re- 
pay oui- kindness. Once upon a time a partially 
broken span of colts, when playmg, got too near and 
slid into a deep ravine, where they stood imprisoned 
several hours before T discovered them and helped 
them out. The ravine was narrow and covered on 
its sides with briers and brambles. When the colts 
heard me parting the brush in looking after them 
they signified their delight in whinneying. although 
before this T could not catch them in an open field. 
After this they no sooner discovered me in the field 
than they at once came to me in the most friendly 
manner. In 1877, the dry year, we drove cattle 
from San Luis Obispo into Humboldt county. Sev- 
eral head gave out one very hot day going over 
Rattle Snake mountains, where there was no water, 
among which were several old dairy cows and one 
two-year-old steer. I came along the next day in | 
the stage, and seeing some cattle in the brush, far 
from water, and thinking that they might have been 
dropped out of our drove, 1 asked tin- driver to stop 
and I found this the case and that they were famish- j 
ing for water. In fact, the steer was already crazy ! 
and would dive at me every time 1 came near him, 
but the old dairy cows knew me. At any rate they 
at once got up and started toward me. lowing pite- 
ously. They were so human in their address and ap- 
peal that it atlei'ted me to tears. I went in the stage 
to the next station, procured a mule and bucket and 
packed water up the mountain from a spi-ing for 
them. 1 set the bucket down as near tht^ steer as T 
could without his diving at me, and then threw rt)cks 
at him to get him headed toward the water. Directly 
he smelt it. he walked up to it and drank it. By the 
time I got up with the second bucketful he was 
rational and came directly to me for the water, and | 
after he had drank it, he would allow me to handle I 

yond question they are now all fixed types, and will 
under continued favorable circumstari'ces reproduce 
their seveial charactei isf ics. The Holstein-Friesian 
cattle have been bred for the dairy for two hundred 
years. .Surely the man who wisiies a profitable dairj' 
cow is not wise in his day and generation if he does 
not avail himself of all this stored heredity. This 
is clearly shown by the milk and butter received of 
these breeds within the last few years. I am aware 
that many dairymen do not beiievc in these lari'e 
records as attested to by piivate dairymen and herd 
owners, and think that the tests at the World's Fair 
at Chicago, made under strict test conditions, show 
exaggerations in tests not so guarded. That there 
are sometimes exaggerations is quite easy to believe, 
particularly in tests of a day, week or month, as th<' 
cow may be gotten up for the occasion, and Will, of 
course, fx- taken when she is doing hei- vcrv best. 
But I think it is undue skepticism to throw out the 
long tests made and attested to l)y reliable people. 

Mr. Sil l /i s Iln/xti ill l{iroi i/x. — 1 have had a record 
kept of the weight of the milk produced by my Hol- 
stein herd ever since it was established. It. was ke])t 
for my'own use for breeding and feeding purpos<>s by 
my own employes, and some of the time under my 
own personal supervision, and I have no doubt of its 
correctness, I will give you a few of them: 

Queen of Pacific, in two-year-old form, in 4(!1 davs, 
gave 14,7(IH pounds of milk: in ten months. 1(1,744 
pounds. In three-year-old form, 18,0(14 pounds in 
one year: 17,878 in ten months. Four-year-old form, 
in H-i(l days, 18,]7H pounds. l''ive-year-old foi-m, IH,- 
84") pounds. 

Lucy of Pacific, two-j-ear-old form, in one year, 
1(I,2HH pounds. Three-year-old form, 11,457 pounds. 
Four-year, i:>,48(l pounds in ten months, 

Katie of Pacific, two-year-old form. !t84(l pounds 
in H44 days. Three-year-old form, 1M,4S() pounds in 
one 3'ear. Lucy of Pa(^ific and Katie were twins. 

Mabel of Pacific, three-year-old form, in 2!t!f days, 
IS, 1'):') pounds. In four-year-old form, in 2!tS days, 
12,480 pounds. Tn five-year-old form, in •J7(i davs 
14,288 pounds. 

1 have other records nearly equal to these, and 
,^ome larger, made by this herd, but I cite these be- 
cause they are continuous. At the tim(> tlu' first of 
th(\se records were made the Babcock test was un- 
known. ,\t the jjresent time the milk of this herd 
tests from 2.5 to 4 per cent, averaginir about 2.8 per 

I am now having the milk tested monthly, and a 
record kejjt i>f the percentages of fat, so that here- 
after I can accurately compute t he yield j)er year of 
the herd, which I have already done with some indi- 
viduals of the herd. 

I have madi' close estimates l)y genei-al average, 
and I am confident that my Holstein herd of about 
forty cows averaged to make aliout 41.'> jwuiids of 
butter each during the last year, but this is only an 
estimate from the weight of the milk and general 
average of the butter fat as far as we have kept it, 
1 only give ifc as an estimate from imperfet't data, T 
think that a cow that will not produce at least 275 
pounds of butter in ten months should be <liscarded 
from the dairy. I am aiming at 400 ]xun)ds on the 
average. I will give a few more of the nf>1etl records 
made as attested by their owners and attendants. 
The following records are by noted Holsteins: 

Pietertje. bred in Holland, holds the cnilk record of 
the world by H(».818 pounds made in 1887, and at- 
tested by her owners. 

Pauline Paul, another Holstein cow, holds the but- 

January 5, 1895. 

The Pacific Rural Press 


ter record of the world, 1153f\' pounds of butter in 
one year, made from 18,6(59 pounds of milk, averag- 
ing a pound of butter from 16.18 pounds of milk. 
This cow is owned and record attested to by Dutcher, 
ex-president of the Holstein-Friesian Association. 
This cow was bred in Iowa and made the record in 

DeKol 2d holds world's four-year-old butter record 
for seven days with thirty-three pounds seven ounces. 
Twelve and sixteen-hundredths pounds of milk made 
one pound of butter. 

A Jersey cow holds the second yearly butter rec- 
ord of the world, 1047 pounds. Her name has es- 
caped me. She consumed thirty pounds of grain 
daily during the test. [Signal's Lily Flagg.— Sec'y.] 

With the records of the Guernseys I am not fa- 
miliar. These records and the World's Fair tests 
demonstrate the capacity of the thoroughbred dairy 
breeds to convert large quantities of food into butter 

W/n/ Then Breed IScruha ^ — In the light of such ex- 
amples how can any intelligent man fail to see the 
advantages of such for dairying and foundation stock. 
To develop such cows from scrub stock will take many 
generations of intelligent and careful feeding and 
breeding. It demonstrates that types of dairy 
cattle have already been established that reproduce 
themselves with great certainty. But these largest 
producei-s are exceptional even among the thorough- 
breds. And even the thoroughbreds to fill the dairies 
are not within the reach of all. The way that is 
within the reach of all is to grade up from thorough- 
bred bulls from milking breeds, such as Jerseys, 
Guernseys, Aryshires of individual merit, and whose 
ancestors for several generations — the more the 
better — have large records — the larger the better — 
as butter producers. 

There are families within each breed that are far 
in advance of the breed generally as producers. 
Though the dairyman that uses only thoroughbred 
bulls of dairy breeds may consider himself in the line 
of progress, remember that the bull is only half of 
the herd and when potent blood is concentrated in 
his veins for genei'ations, will almost certainly trans- 
mit it to his offspring. It would be better to have 
the great milking cow too to breed from, but that, 
at present is not possible for all. But every dairy- 
man can have a thoroughbred hull of some milking 
strain of blood. They are so cheap now that not to 
use them is a sin against their own interest — I had 
nearly said a ci-ime — similar to suicide in kind though 
not in degree. 

I believe the Holstein bull is to-day the best bull 
for genci'al use to develop foundation dairy stock. 
They reproduce their characteristics with certainty, 
having capacity for food and making good use of it, 
strong constitutions, and cows of this breed hold the 
woi'ld's record for largest pi-oduction of butter and 
milk in one year. The best Holstein breeders are 
now breeding toward richness of butter fat in the 
milk — 12.16 pounds of milk for one of butter has al- 
ready been reached by some of the thoroughbred 
Holstein cows. In my opinion we must have capac- 
ity for a lai'ge flow of milk for large feeding capac- 
ity, as well as the nervous temperament, in the 
coming dairy cow. All of these points the best 
families of Holsteius now possess. 

The Ilolsteiii-Jersey Cross. — I know by experience 
that the cross of thoroughbred Holsteins upon 
thoroughbred Jerseys, and no doubt upon any other 
good cow, is a good one, although many breeders 
advise against cross-breeding. I have never failed 
to produce an extra cow by this cross. I am milk- 
ing a six-year-old cow now, thus bred, that last year 
produced ()(;2.75 pounds of butter, as ascertained by 
weight of milk, tested monthly by Babcock test for 
butter fat. The amount of milk in each month, 
multiplied by percentage of butter fat for that month 
and thirteen per cent added for butter, which we 
have proved by actual test by weighing milk and 
computing butter fat by test and churn many times, 
we hnd the percentage of butter fat to butter in our 
dairy. This cow came in again in August and is 
now giving fi'om 5(1 to 54 pounds of from 4 to 4.6 per 
cent milk. She is Holstein color; between Holstein 
and Jersey in form and constitution and milking 
(lualities. This cow is my idea of the type of the 
coming dairy cow, of whatever breeding she may be. 
In her two-year-old form she made on the average 
1.6 pounds of butter daily the year through. She 
never stopped milking and came in and immediately 
made- one pound of butter per day. Slie is now in 
her six-year-old form, and from present appearances 
will this year beat her previous records. I have 
had a nuniber of Jersey grades that made 300 pounds 
of butter with first calf, but my grades have been 
larger producers than my thoroughbreds. My 
thoroughbred Holsteins have been larger pi-oducers 
than the graded Holsteins. 

Row to Feed (i Cow. — In my opinion the coming 
dairy cow for general use should produce about 50 
pounds of from 4 to 5 per cent milk, and hold out 
well for ten months in the year. To do this a cow 
must be fed every day or get from the pasture a 
fairly well balanced ration and enough of it, with 
grass and what good hay she will eat to balance the 
rations. I have never yet found any ration that 
will produce so much butter as an abundant pastur- 
age of our native grasses with what good hay they 

need to balance rations. Let the cows decide the 
quantity of hay they need. Our native grasses are 
principally burr clover, alfileria, wild oats and bunch 
grass. For a soiling ration for cows of about 1000 
pounds weight, giving say about 35 pounds of 4 per 
cent milk, 30 pounds of ensilage or 4() to 50 pounds of 
roots or squash, and what good hay they will eat, 
is about proper. After they have had grain and root 
or ensilage '.ration and 4 pounds of ground barley 
and 4 pounds of ground horse beans daily; or 12 
pounds of grain, one-third each of ground oats and 
barley, or corn and bran; oilcake or cottonseed 
meal — about 2 pounds — is good with 10 pounds of 
grain, but this is too expensive for our locality. 
AH of the rations excepting the last can be raised 
by the dairymen themselves. In California I think 
that barley and horse beans can be raised the 
cheapest. Many other good rations could be com- 
pounded, but I mention these as being the best and 
cheapest for California dairymen. 

Feeding for Show. — W^ith regard to the immense 
rations fed to the great Holstein and Jersey cows 
when they made their world-beating records, they 
are abnormal and not business rations. They are 
dangerous to the cows and don't pay in butter and 
milk production. They are permissible only for de- 
velopment purposes for short seasons — say a year at 
most — and to advertise one's herd. 

The Jersey cow, Mary Ann of St. Lamberts, dur- 
ing her seven days in which she made 36 pounds of 
butter, ate a ration of 25 pounds of oats, 17 pounds 
of pea meal, 6 pounds oilcake meal and 2 pounds of 
bran — in all 50 pounds of grain daily, besides pas- 

The Jersey cow, Princess 2d, during her seven 
days in which she made 46 pounds 12 ounces of but- 
ter, ate 20 pounds clover hay, 30 pounds of carrots, 
22 pounds of oatmeal, 23 pounds of pea meal, 4 
pounds oil meal and 1 pound of bran — 50 
pounds daily of grain besides the clover hay and 
carrots. The cow was finally killed by crowding 
her with rations that she could not digest. It is the 
contention of most of the scientific and theoretical 
met that butter fat cannot be fed into milk — that 
rich feeding only increases the quantity of milk. 
Farmers and practical dairymen, on the other hand, 
believe that fat can be fed into the milk. Cows that 
are persistently fed rich rations increase in both 
quality and quantity of milk, as compared with 
starvation rations. Even a mature scrub cow will 
respond to good rations from year to year till the 
full extent of her natural ability for development and 
her power to consume and digest rations is reached. 

Loral E.rjierievre. — It takes a COW in good condi- 
tion from ten to twelve days to fully respond to a 
ration. Increase of milk always comes first. In 
looking for the increase of butter fat by feeding, we 
must look at it by the year instead of short periods. 
To illustrate what I mean, I will give a little of my 
experience. In 1891, at this time of the year, I was 
feeding rations of frcm twelve to fifteen pounds of 
grain daily, composed of ground oats, corn meal, 
bran, shorts and one pound of ground flaxseed, with 
hay, and later, squash and roots, or ensilage — of 
squash or roots, 40 pounds; ensilage, when fed, 30 
pounds. This had been fed persistently the whole 
year, except when grass was good. 

G rowing AlfaJfu. — Alfalfa, where it can be raised, 
is perhaps the cheapest food for cows. It can be 
grazed, put in the silo, or cured for hay. It will 
grow in land too loose and gravelly for other crops, 
if irrigated till its roots strike down to moisture. It 
will produce several crops in a season; wUl grow in a 
di\y season. There is nothing that will keep up the 
flow of milk in a dry season like it. We should sow 
it where it will grow and keep a stand where it can 
be irrigated by patching the killed out places early 
in the season. Cultivate with a spring-tooth cultiva- 
tor. It will not injure the roots of the old alfalfa, 
but rather thicken them. Continue cultivating until 
the weeds are done coming, then, the land being fine, 
re-seed the missing places. Dig wells where abun- 
dant water can be found and pump water for irriga- 
ing. Find and develop artesian water for same pur- 


Alfalfa Growing in Butte County. 

D. Sireeter, Biggs. — I have been on this coast forty- 
two years, as a farmer and stockman, and have 
never found any kind of grass or grain that will fur- 
nish one-half the pasturage or hay that alfalfa will. 
My own experience with the crop covers thirty years, 
and for the past fifteen years I have had from iOO to 
140 acres. My largest field is on river "bottom," 
and there is also some "second bottom" and upland 
with clay soil and subsoil. "Hardpan " is found 
three or four feet down, but it is always porous, be- 
ing worked by worms and insects. This whole valley 
is underlaid with a lava-bed rock, or "hardpan," 
which is moist and easily bored, and water is found 
at twelve to sixteen feet. I do not irrigate, but 
some of my neighbors do now and then. Some water 
for the purpose is provided by wells, some is pumped 
fi'om the river, and some comes from ditches. In 
this valley we bore a well with a six-inch auger, fifty 

or sixty feet deep, fit in a large pump, run by steam 
or gasoline or horse power. The irrigation ditch 
furnishes the cheapest water. We sow in February 
or March, after plowing six or eight inches deep and 
harrowing well, using twenty-five pounds to the 
acre, and covering it one inch deep. The little birds 
are troublesome here, and make it difficult to secure 
a good stand. As .soon as the plants are eight or 
ten inches high, they should be mowed, to make them 
stool out; and it is well to let the first crop lie on 
the ground for shade. The second and third crops 
may be used for hay, and for pasture through the 
fall and winter; but if the land is clay, it should not 
be pastured while wet. Two or three years are re- 
quired for it to make its full growth, and often the 
gopher works on the stand so badly that it is thinned 
out, and has to be replanted in the bare spots with 
corn. I have tried wet, heavy soil in Oregon, and 
failed; tried heavy "adobe" soil, and had little suc- 
cess; and I have some alfalfa that is thirty years 
old on clay. We have four to five cuttings a year, 
and six to seven tons of hay, from a good stand. In 
this State the second crop is best liked for seed, and 
it is harvested when the seeds in the top pods are 
full size, handled as the hay is, and thrashed with a 
machine. The hay is cut when in bloom, allowed to 
dry about one day, raked into windrows, cocked and 
stacked in long, narrow ricks, well salted. If the 
hay is put in barns, it is well to fill them slowly, put- 
ting some in each every day. It will keep in bales of 
any size, and 200 pounds is the usual weight, costing, 
to prepare, $1.50 a ton. The selling price of hay on 
the farm is from $5 to $6 per ton; and of the seed, 
from 7 to 10 cents a pound. The straw is worth only 
about one-third as much as alfalfa hay, because in 
maturing the stalks become dry, woody and difficult 
to digest. Hogs wintered well last year on alfalfa 
hay, and the pasture is excellent for them. In 
March I put sixty head of stock hogs on a two-acre 
lot, and they have done well there all summer, while 
the alfalfa grew so tall that it had to be mowed. Ex- 
cept in the early spring, when they are liable to 
bloat, the pasture is profitable for cattle, as it is 
also for horses and sheep. Old straw or hay in the 
field where the cattle can get it is ordinarily a pre- 
ventive of bloat, and, after the rainy season is over, 
there is little danger. I have a neighbor who has 
cut ten tons per acre, several different seasons, with- 
out irrigation. Land that is well drained, and will 
raise corn, will produce alfalfa, and I think it well 
worth a trial anywhere. 

John S. Hufchins^ Central House. — I have had 
twenty-five years' experience, with from 100 to 200 
acres of alfalfa, grown on river "bottom" with 
I heavy, sandy loam, from twelve to fifteen feet deep, 
[ below which is water and gravel, the soil never be- 
I coming dry. The best time for seeding here in 
northern California is between the 15th of February 
and the last of March. I use about thirty pounds 
to the acre, and sow with barley or oats after the 
grain has been harrowed in, and then go over the 
ground again with a light harrow or brush. The 
grain crop keeps the weeds down, and, after the 
former is cut, the alfalfa grows vigorously, and pre- 
vents further trouble from weeds, producing two 
crops of hay the first season. I never irrigate. In 
this climate there is no danger of winter-killing. 
After the first year there are usually four crops of 
hay, yielding from two and one-half tons per acre the 
first time to one ton the fourth. The best hay is se- 
cured by cutting when the plant begins to bloom. I 
have it raked the next day after cutting, cocked, 
and about the fourth day have it hauled into the 
barn. The second cutting is the choice for seed, 
after the first year, and this should become very dry 
in the cock before it is stacked. The full yield is at- 
tained about the second year, and the plant continues 
vigorous for six or eight years without reseeding. 
After that length of time I plow it up and plant to 
corn to kill the foxtail. Two plowings will easily kill 
it all, when it is desirable to clear the land, but the 
roots are too deep and large tomake it a satisfactory 
green manure. There seems to be little difference 
between the hay grown without irrigation and that 
which is watered, but possibly the former is some- 
what stronger. I have cut ten tons of hay per acre 
on a tract of twenty acres for several years, but this 
included five cuttings per year. My alfalfa land is 
worth $100 an acre, and it costs about $1 a ton to 
cut and haul the hay. Bahng costs $1.50 a ton; and, 
while the size does not affect the keeping quality, the 
weight most wanted is 250 to 275 pounds. For 
thrashing, the ordinary machine is not satisfactory, 
and a clover huller is needed. The average selling 
price for loose hay has been about $5 a ton, and the 
seed has sold for about ten cents a pound. The hay 
that has been ripened and thrashed for seed has not 
much value for feed. For feeding farm animals, the 
hay is about equal to clover, but for work stock I 
would prefer timothy, as alfalfa is too washy. The 
pasturage is excellent, and, while it will afford about 
double the quantity that red clover will, on account 
of its rapid growth, I do not regard it as so strong a 
feed. Twenty head of hogs can be pastured on one 
acre, and I have had them gain from one to one and 
one-half pounds per day. In the spring, when the 
young alfalfa is growing very fast, cattle are liable 
to bloat if pastured in the morning and evening, al- 
though in the middle of the day thtre seems to be no 
trouble from that cause. 


January 5, 1895. 


A Child. 

Old signs are written in thy tender face. 
Desires, regrets that thou hast never 

Thou art the heir of thy aspiring race. 

Heir of a trouWed throne. 
Of liope, that hardlv dost portend the morn, 

And sadness, that has si'arcely guessed at 

( ;.Ki talies the charai-ters of fate outworn 

And writes them fair again. 
Tliose little feet, that scarce the light turf 
press. . • 1 ^ 

Those little hands, so brown wuh wind and 

God grant they tremble not for 

Before thy cbusre be done. 
And thou shall love and learn what love is 
worth, , . , 

And thou shall trust and learn to value 

And all the sudden mysteries of earth 
Shall open to thy ken. 

What wilt bo Hying; An I then to3 staid ! 

Can I not smooth the mixiitative brow, 
Flash through the sun and flutter through the 

As birds from b )Ugh to bough ; 
What, dost thou linger ? Ah, my dear, how 
much . , , 

Thou givest, couldst thou only understand I 
The kiss of childish pity and the touch 

Of thine absolving hand. 

—Arthur Christopher Benson. 

The College Graduate. 

He sent his son to college to store his head 
with knowledge. 

" I need a smart young fellow in my busi- 
ness house," he said, 
'And when he's educated, why, bein' so re- 

He's just the one to take the reins and 
drive up to the head. 

' They say he quite surpasses all the fellows 
in his classes. 
And I reckon he'll think nothiu' of my 
rather taxin' load. 
I'm gettin' old and weary, but it makes the 
future cheery 
To think of leanin' on my son adown life's 
western road." 

Well he trod a path of glory, did this stu- 
dent of my story, 
And they dined him and they wined him 
on his'tinal i-ollege day: 
But he broke each rule of grammar when he 
spoke as with a hammer. 
And his knees they knocked together if 
you mentioned algebra. 

But he shone forth as a sprinter, and he 
trained the livelong winter 
For the spring and summer races, where 
his recoid was most tine. 
And the old man looks reflective and thinks 
college rules defective. 
While his son goes round the country with 
a jolly baseball nine. 

-Ella Wheeler Wilcox. 

Mrs. Tyler's Hard Times Dinner. 

The chill north wind swept down 
across the Dakota prairies, roaring 
throuorh the leafless poplar trees, rat- 
tling the sashes of the unpainted farm- 
house, and saucily blowing the skirts of 
a brisk little woman who ran down the 
path from the house to the road. 

"Good evening, Mr. Morgan." 

"Good evening, Mrs. Tyler. Thought 
I'd bring down your mail. Knew Ly- 
man couldn't get to town." 

" I am ever so glad you did. We had 
been wishing for it. Thank you. And 
how is Mrs. Morgan and the c-hildren V" 

"All well, thank you. How is Ly- 
man getting on with that sprain ?" 

■'Nicely. Think he will be about in 
a week. I have hard work to keep him 
quiet now. ' 

He must not bear his weight upon 
his ankle until it is quite well. If you 
need help let me know." 

" Thank you; we may need some, but 
at present we are getting on finely. I 
can do the chores, and the drouth har- 
vested our corn." 

" I know how that goes; but you are 
more fortunate than many about here. 
You have feed for your cows. ' 

" Yes, we have much for which to be 
thankful, although there are only small 
potatoes and salt pork in the larder. 
But short crops and chicken cholera 
can't last forever." 

"Mrs. Morgan says you have the 
New England 'grit,' and that's a good 
thing to be thankful for these hard 
times. But I must be going on. It's 

pretty cold for the time of year, isn't 
it ?" 

Mrs. Tyler looked over the budget of 
mail. Several papers and a letter for 
herself. She stopped as soon as the 
kitchen door had shut out the bluster- 
ing wind and tore open the envelope. 

Five minutes later she stood before 
her husband with a comical look of dis- 
may on her fair face. 

'■'Of all things!" she exclaimed. 
" Beth Cady is married to a traveling 
man^Dunlap is his name and they 
are coming to spend Thur.sday with 
us !" 

"Thursday '? The day after to-mor- 
row ? " queried Mr. Tyler in a puzzled 
way. '' How's that ? " 

"Why, her husband is traveling 
through Dakota in the interest of some 
hardware firm, and she is accompany- 
ing him. They reach Milford Wednes- 
day night, and must go on the ne.xt 
night, so will drive down here Thursday 
morning and spend the day. She and I 
were great chums. You remember 
meeting her at our wedding, do you 
not '! I would really like to see her, 
but for pity's sake what can I give her 
to eat '! 1 don't want Beth to think us 
poor or even temporarily unfortimate." 

"As we are," said Mr. Tyler, smil- 
ing. " Never fear; I'll trust you to dis- 
arm suspicion by getting ii)) a number 
one dinner. It will not be the first you 
have gotten up out of nothing." 

■' But I have no meat excepting pork. 
There has never been a time since we 
lived here when I c-ould not roast a 
chicken. But who wants to eat a 
cholera-stricken fowl':' I do not dare 
cook a healthy-looking one for fear it 
might be just coming down with the 
disease. " 

"If it were not for this miserable 
sprain I could go down town to-morrow 
and buy some provisions. Guess I 
would have to mortgage a cow or pawn 
a dog, though," he added bitterly. 
'■ My pocket-book is in a state of col- 
lapse. " 

" I do not suppose Mr. Morgan will 
go to town again to-morrow, or I i-ould 
send some eggs that I have packed and 
exchange them for mciat.'' 

'Confound this dried-up country, 
anyhow !" exclaimed Mr. Tyler. "Can't 
even raise white beans here !" 

"Oh, yes, we can, " said Mrs. Tyler, 
cheerily. Above all things she did not 
want Lyman to get the "blues." 

''Our crops were pretty good last 
year; and that reminds me — we have 
plenty of beans. I will bake a jar of 
them with pork. And those early peas 
I canned will make a good soup. I be- 
lieve I have enough dried pumpkin up- 
stairs, left over from last year, to make 
a pie. Then there are the dried apples 
Aunt Abbie sent. Oh, they will not 
go back to Milford hungry! " 

■' I can trust you for that," re- 
s])onded Mr. Tyler. " But don't get 
worried and tired out so that you can- 
not enjoy your friend's visit." 

Before she slept Mrs. Tyler had taken 
an inventory of the provisions on hand 
and their possibilities. The dried ap- 
ples and beans were in soak ; the dried 
pumpkin also was gradually softening 
in some new milk. The next day was 
a busy one. The forenoon was spent 
in cooking. A large cube of salt pork, 
partially lean, was boiled two hours in 
plenty of water, gashes cut across the 
toj), sprinkled with pepper, sage and 
powdered bread crumbs and placed in 
the oven to brown. This was to be 
sliced and eaten cold. The dried apples 
were combined with eggs and cream 
and converted into a handsome me- 
ringue pie. A savory pumpkin pie and 
a frosted cake were stored away in the 
pantry. The pork and beans were 
ready to place in the oven the next 

"If I only had a turkey or a 
chicken, " she thought to herself more 
than once. " It seems such a meager 
dinner to set before guests ! " 

But neither Lyman, with his sprained 
ankle, nor little Jennie with her trouVjle- 
some tricks of "helping mamma," 
heard of any ungratified wishes. 

I The afternoon was spent in brighten- 
ing u)) the neat little home. Thur.sday 
morning dawned clear and cold. Mr. 
Morgan drove into the yard earlv. 

I "Did you ever eat rabbit'/" he 

queried, as Mrs. Tyler came to the 

Oh, yes ! Lyman shot several last 
winter, and they were very good." 

" Mrs. Morgan thought you might 
like this, " handing out a rabbit. " It's 
rather early for them, but it has been 
so cold they will be good. I killed two; 
this snow gave me a chance to track 
them. " 

"I am ever .so much obliged," said 
Mrs. Tyler gratefully. "We are ex- 
pecting company for dinner. This will 
help me out so much. If I could have 
soaked it awhile in salt water," she 
thought, as she quickly prepared the 
rabbit for cooking, "it would have 
taken off the wild flavor; but I will 
parboil it a few minutes." 

The table was laid in one end of the 
kitchen, as the house did not boast of 
a dining-room; but curtains were drawn 
between that and the cook stove, where 
the rabbit was simmering and the beans 
baking in the oven. Everything was 
in readiness, so that Mrs. Tyler could 
have an almost uninterru|)ted chat 
with her friend; and how she did enjoy 
it ! And how they all .seemed to relish 
that dinner ! 

"Your Annt Abbie is a famous 
cook, " said Mrs. Dunlap, as she i)a.ssed 
her plate for a second helping, " but I 
shall tell her when I go home that she 
never made chicken pie to e(|ual this." 

Mrs. Tyler glanced at her husband. 
There was a merry twinkle in his eye, 
but he held his peace. — Waverly Maga- 

The Dominical Letters. 

The Romans used the first eight 
letters of the alphabet, A to H, to 
mark the consecutive days of their 
recurring nundinal period. The early 
Christians adopted the same plan for 
marking the days of the week, drop- 
ping the last letter (H) as unnecessary. 
In the church calendar A has always 
stood for the first of January, G for 
the second, etc., on down to G for the 
Tth, and then the cycle began again 
with A. which would make it return on 
the loth, the '22d and so on. 

Each day of the year has thus its 
calendar letter, and the letter which 
falls on the first Sunday is the " Domi- 
nical hitter " of the year. February 
28th has always the letter C, and March 

1st the letter D. February 29th, or 
■' leap day," has no letter provided for 
it, and this makes a change in the 
Sunday letter after February, .so that 
in leap years there are two Dominical 
letters. As the common year contains 
fifty-two weeks and one day, the 
Dominical letter changes from year 
to year, always going backward one 
place for a common year, and two 
places for leap years. This mode of 
representing the days of the week has 
been uninterruptedly employed in the 
calendar of the church throughout the 
Christian world since the earliest dates 
in our era. — St. Louis Republic. 

The Russian Emperor. 

Dr. Wilhelni Koerger, professor at 
the Royal Academy of War in Berlin, 
writes to us: " In your paper I find a 
short article about the title of the Rus- 
sian Emperor. As this question seems 
to interest the British public, allow 
me, who am one of the few specialists 
of Russian language in Germany, to 
give a few authentic statements on the 
subject. The word 'Tsar' (for thus it 
should be spelled and be pronounced, 
with a slight addition of the consonant 
'y' behind 'r') is derived from the 
Latin 'Ca'sar,' having one common 
source with the German word ' Kaiser. ' 
It is the old Russian, or even Slavic, 
term for King, but has, in this mean- 
ing, been superseded by this ' Korol ' 
(pronounced Karol), which draws its 
origin from Karl, viz., Charles the 
(Jreat. The Hungarian word ' Kiraly,' 
meaning King, has the same origin. 

" 'Tsar' now means in Russian (1) a 
King of ancient history — Xerxes, Ly- 
curgus, Bharaoh, etc.; (2) a King of 
fable, fairy tale, etc. : (3) some of the 
dispossessed Russo- Asiatic princes; (4) 
a rather colloquial expression for the 
Russian Emperor. His consort is 
called ' tsaritsa;' a son of his, in the 
same popular language, ' tsarewich;' a 
daughter, 'tsarevna. ' But the official 
words are ' imperiator,' emporer; im- 
peratvitsa,' empress; their children are 
called ' weliki knyas ' (meaning great 
prince) and ' welikaja knyajna ' (great 
princess). When Peter the Great re- 
turned to his new capital in triumph, 
after defeating Charles the Twelfth of 
Sweden, he was hailed by the metropo- 
iite with the title of imperiator. Since 

Three Leading Scientists 

Proclaim the Superior Value of 

Dr. Price's Baking Powder. 

Scientists are devoting closer attention to food product*. 
Recent examinations of baking powders by Prof. Long, Dr. 
Haines, and Prof. Prescott, were made to determine which 
powder was the purest, highest in leavening strength, most 
efficient in service, and most economical in cost. They 
decide that Dr. Price's Cream Baking Powder excels in all 
the essentials of an ideal preparation for household use, 
Thev write: — 

"Chicago, March 28th, 1894. 
We have purchased in the open market cans of Dr. Price's 
Cream Baking Powder and also of the other leading brands 
of baking powders, and have submitted them to chemical 
analysis. We find that Dr. Price's Cream Baking Powder is 
a pure cream of tartar powder, that is has a considerably 
greater leavening strength than any of the other baking 

powders we have ever tested. 

Pkof. John H. Long, Northwestern University, Chicago. 
Dr. Walter S. Haines, Rush Medical College, Chicago. 
Prof. Albert B. Pittscoix, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor.* 

January 5, 1895. 

The Pacific Rural Press 

that time the word ' tsar,' till then the 
only name denoting the rulers of 
Russia, is no longer their official title. 
In some congress (if I am not mistaken, 
it was that of Vienna; it had been ex- 
pressly stipulated that, though the 
Russian sovereigns had the imperial 
title, they were not to have the prece- 
dence of the Kings of western Europe." 
— London News. 

The Hog That Rides in a Wagon. 

Rubber Tires for Vehicles. 

Experiments recently made in the 
East with pneumatic tires on road 
wagons revealed the fact that on a per- 
fectly level wooden floor, pulling in the 
direction of the strips, steel-tired forty- 
four-inch and forty-six-inch wheels re- 
quired less power to move them than 
did thirty-two-inch and thirty -four-inch 
pneumatic-tired wheels. When ob- 
structions were placed under the 
wheels, however, the pneumatic tires 
quickly proved their easier draft. The 
tests were then applied out of doors, 
and under all conditions except on the 
level floor the pneumatic tires required 
the least expenditure of power. The 
experimenter thus sums up his con- 

"If the metal-shod wheel meets a 
gravel stone one-quarter of an inch in 
diameter, and that stone is resting on 
a hard foundation, the wheel with its 
entire load must be lifted bodily one- 
quarter of an inch high to pass over it, 
and this takes horse power; but when 
the rubber tire meets the stone the 
vehicle is not raised perceptibly, if at 
all, but the stone is imbedded in the 
rubber, while most of the weight is 
borne by that part of the rubber which 
is still resting on the ground, and the 
power required to go over it is only 
that needed to dent the rubber in one 
spot, or, if it is a pneumatic tire, to 
slightly compress the body of air which 
it contains." 

This explanation is right as far as it 
goes, but every man who has ridden a 
bicycle over a plank road knows that 
rubber has a particularly clinging affin- 
ity for wood and "hugs " it in a very 
aggravating fashion. Asphalt pave- 
ment or a pike road is infinitely easier 
to ride than a well-made plank or 
cedar-block road, when the tires are of 
rubber. The man who don't believe it 
can learn it to his sorrow, but if he will 
accept the advice of the writer he will 
avoid plank roads with his wheel. 

Quite a number of the broughams 
seen at the recent Horse Show in Chi- 
cago were rubber-tired, although not 
pneumatic. Many London cabs use 
india-rubber tires and Russian vehicles 
are also equipped with them. Pneu- 
matic tire.s will answer for light vehi- 
cles, such as buggies, phaetons and 
runabouts, but are hardly adapted to 
the heavy carriages. Rubber tires of 
any form are a great luxury. 

Sorry He Spoke. 

It was on a crowded Sixth avenue 
train. The atmosphere was stifling, 
and the passengers resented the ar- 
rival of every newcomer as a personal 
affront. A baby about the middle of 
the car had been threatening to cry 
for several minutes and had at last de- 
livered itself of a prolonged howl, fol- 
lowed by a series of nerve-racking 
screams. All the women looked sym- 
pathetic and the men apprehensive. A 
variety of consolations were suggested. 
" Poor little dear, undo its hood," said 
one woman. "Let me take it," said 
another. " Chuck it out the winder ! " 
growled a fat man without a collar, 
who was fanning himself vigorously 
with his hat. He said it defiantly 
enough, but there was such a chorus of 
feminine indignation that he was glad 
to get out at the next station. As the 
train stopped, he fought his way on to 
the platform and stood puffing and red- 
faced, while a shrill wailing rent the 
air, and a chorus of epithets such as 
"Brute!" and "Beast!" saluted the 
ears of the astonished people waiting 
on the platform. The fat man had a 
guilty, hunted look as he made his way 
to the street. — New York World. 

Much has been said of the railroad pig 

Who takes the whole seat for his gripsack big, 

He is surely a pig to brag on. 
But nothing's said of the porcine lord 
Who runs the highway to his own accord, — 

He's the hog that rides in a wagon. 

There's several breeds of this selfish pig, 
From the nobby hog in a stylish rig 

To the low-down swine with a "jag on." 
Don't look for bristles, they may not show ; 
His acts declare him; you'll surely know 

The hog that rides in a wagon. 

Given, a place in a narrow road 

(He is driving light while you have a load). 

He will smile like a human dragon 
While he forces you out of the beaten way 
Into mire or ditch or slough of clay, 

This hog that rides in a wagon. 

Sees he a strip of country lane. 
Where a smooth, hard path is the footman's 

Or a sward one loves to lag on, 
When he"s past there's a rutty mudhole 

Though footmen growl and cyclists swear 
At the hog that rides in a wagon. 

When winter brings snow upon the ground. 
The hog in his element then is found. 

You'll know him without a tag on ; 
He calmly crowds you out of the track. 
He has rights, while you have none, alack ! 

He has changed for a sleigh, his wagon. 

If this hog should dump you in the mud 
And with vengeful fist you should seek his 

With a face like a brazen flagon 
He will assume an innocsnt air; 
The fault was your own. he'll solemnly swear, 

This hog that rides in a wagon. 

—Will Templer. 

Little Deborah's Sunday. 

Deborah stood on her ti^jtoes, putting 
away the shining pewter teapot in the 
tall dresser. She had to reach way up, 
for all she was so tall for a little seven- 
year-old girl. Sister Abigail was hang- 
ing up the dish pan and setting away 
the crock of softsoap. 

It was almost time to get ready for 
church, and Deborah could hear father 
backing old Dobbin into the high- 
backed sleigh. It was three miles to 
church, and they must start early to 
get through the drifts. 

" Deborah ! Deborah ! called mother 
from the buttery, where she was put- 
ting up the family lunch. Rim up- 
stairs, child, and get your best frock. 
Abigail will hook it for you and smooth 
your hair. And, child" — the buttery 
door squeaked on its hinges as mother 
opened it wider — "spread father's 
spotted kerchief under your bonnet. I 
mistrust it will be a blustering day." 

Deborah ran away for her dress, and 
was soon arrayed in it, and warmly 
bmidled in hood and shawl. Mother 
and Abigail put on their big, quilted, 
sage-green hoods just as father came 
in, stamping his cold feet and flapping 
his elbows. 

"It's monstrous cold! You'll need 
many wraps, mother; and isn't there 
another stove in the garret some- 
where ? " 

"It's right here, father, all filled 
with coals, " mother said. Her voice 
sounded muffled in the depths of the 
quilted hood. "I got it down before 
breakfast, and Abigail blacked it up 
real smart lookin'." 

The three little stoves were stowed 
away in the sleigh just where they 
would keep the "women folk's" cold 
toes warm. Such funny fittle stoves 
they were I Little sheet iron boxes 
with holes in the cover, set into square 
wooden frames with handles like the 
bail of a water pail. The bright, live 
coals were put into them at home, and 
would last until the noon recess be- 
tween sermons, when they would need 
to be replaced from some good neigh- 
bor's fireplace. 

Deborah sat down in the buffalo robes 
in front of the sleigh with father, and 
mother and Abigail behind on the seat; 
and away trotted Dobbin over the 
crunching snow. The bells tinkled in a 
subdued Sunday way, and the old sleigh 
tipped and jolted in the badly broken 

I don't believe Deborah's little great- 
grandchildren to-day would have known 
when they got to the meeting-house; 
for it was only a great, bare building 
that looked more like a modern barn 
than a church. No steeple at all ! No 
beautiful porch with wide steps leadmg 
I up to it ! Nothing in the very least 

like the church we go to every Sunday ! 

But it looked all right to Deborah. 
Only she could not help shivering as 
she thought of the long, long sermon 
she must listen to with only her little 
foot-stove to keep her warm. For 
there was not a bit of a stove in De- 
borah's meeting-house. Everybody sat 
on the straight-backed seats, with 
their feet on the little boxes of coals, 
and maybe tried to believe they were 

Deborah's little great-grandchildren 
would have wondered even more if 
they could have followed their small ' 
great-grandmother into the church. { 
She pews were square boxes with doors 
opening into them, and little open rails 
running along the top of the sides. 
Deborah's head just came up to the I 
rails as she walked sedately up the ' 

Father swung open the door to his 
pew, and the family stepped in. Oh, 
such queer seats ! They ran all around 
the box up to the door. Some of them 
faced the preacher, and some were 
sideways and some, like Deborah's own 
particular seat, were squarely back to 
the minister. There were even little 
queer "cornering" seats in some of 
the boxes. 

Deborah sat down on her un- 
cushioned, high-backed little bench. 
She had to hitch herself upon it, it was 
so high; and, when she was all seated, 
and her little footstove put under it, 
her toes had to stretch themselves un- 
comfortably to reach the warmth. 

She turned her head now and then, 
and peeped through the railing up to 
the minister; but it made her neck ache 
to look up so high. For the minister 
stood way, way up, almost to the ceil- 
ing in a great, tall pulpit that seemed 
to hang right in the air, almost. Up 
over the preacher's head was a large 
"sounding-board," like an enormous 
umbrella spread out; and down under 
the pulpit sat three solemn deacons in 
a row. 

That was the "deacon's seat," and 
Deborah used to watch dear old Deacon 
Twombly at one end. She knew just 
about when he would spread his blue 
cotton 'kerchief over his head and go to 
sleep. And then she used to listen for 
his mild little snores between the 
preacher's slow words. It helped out 
the time a great deal. 

How Deborah's back did ache, and 
how numb her little han is were before 
the long sermon ended ! How glad she 
was — though she tried not to be — when 
at last they all stood up, and old Mr. 
'Bial Davis tuned his bass-viol, and the 
choir sang ! 

Then the people went slowly out. 
Deborah's " folks" went over to Mercy 
Merriweather's to get fresh coals for 
the footstoves, and good Mrs. Merri- 
weather insisted upon their eating their 
lunch over there in the warm kitchen. 
The afternoon was just like the morn- 
ing, only little Deborah's legs grew 
stiff'er and her neck ached harder. 

It was almost early candle-light when 
old Dobbin ambled up to the kitchen 
door. Deborah was hungry enough to 
enjoy mother's good supper, and tired 
enough to go to bed right after it. 

How different it was from the little 
great-grandchildren's Sunday ! You 
see, I know, because Deborah — quaint, 
sweet little Deborah — was my grand- 
mother, too ! — Youth's Companion. 

Bedloe Hogswoo of Upper San- 
dusky, Ohio, is the owner of a mule 
which has been taught to keep the flies 
off the baby by wagging its ears over 
the cradle. The sagacious creature 
also pumps water from the well, carries 
in wood for the fire, and is now learn- 
ing to turn the wringing machine at 
the washtub. 


Roast Turkey Stuffed. — Clean and 
prepare a medium-sized turkey for 
roasting. Cut two onions in pieces and 
put them in a saucepan with two ounces 
of lard and color them lightly. Soak a 
pound of bread in water, from which 
press the water; add the bread to 
your onions, with the turkey's liver 
and heart chopped very fine, a little 
salt, two puaches of pepper, the same 
of sage, a pinch of thyme, and mix all 
well together. Stuff the inside of the 
turkey with this mixture, sew up the 
opening through which you have intro- 
duced the stuffing, and put it to roast 
with a little butter on top. Roast for 
three hours, strain the liquid in your 
pan, pour it over the turkey and serve. 

Turkey with Truffles. — Clean and 
prepare a young, medium-sized turkey. 
Melt four ounces of the fat of the 
turkey in a frying pan. with a shallot 
and a few truffles chopped fine, a pinch 
of thyme, salt, pepper and nutmeg, a 
pound of sausage meat and a can of 
truffles cut in quarters. Mix all well 
together, and with this mixture stuff 
the turkey, sewing up the opening. 
Roast the turkey for three hours, 
putting a little butter on the breast 
and a glass of white wine in the pan, 
basting it often. Serve the turkey 
with the liquid in the pan, strained, 
poured over it. 

Fruit or Christ.mas Plu.m Cakes.— 
Take two pounds of flour dried in the 
oven, one-half pound of sugar finely 
powdered, four yolks of eggs, two of 
whites, one-half pound of butter washed 
with rosewater, six spoonfuls of cream, 
warmed, a pound and one-half of cur- 
rants, washed, and mix all well 
together. Make them into small cakes; 
bake them in an oven almost as hot as 
for a manchet, and let them stand half 
an hour until they are colored on both 
sides; then take down the oven door 
and let them stand to soak. You must 
rub the butter in the fiour very well, 
then add the eggs and cream, and then 
the fruit. 

Pith and Point. 

To have to hoe the same row every 
day soon takes the poetry out of life. — 
Ram's Horn. 

Women have more good sense than 
men. They have fewer pretentions, 
are less implicated in theories, and 
judge of objects more from their imme- 
diate and involuntary impressions on 
the mind, and therefore more truly and 
naturally. — Hazlitt. 

"Young man," said the prosperous 
old gentleman who had sold his pork, 
" you say you hain't had a square meal 
for a week '? " " I have not, sir. " "And 
you've seen better days " " I have." 
"Used to move in good society?" 
"Yes, sir." "Then come along with 
me to a first-class eatin' house and I'll 
pay for some quail on toast. I want to 
learn the correct way to eat the blamed 
dish."- — Chicago Tribune. 

" I love all that is beautiful in nature 
and art," she was saying to her aes- 
thetic admirer. " I revel in the green 
fields, the babbUng brooks and the lit- 
tle wayside flowers. I feast on the 
beauties of earth and sky and air. 
They are my daily life and food, and — ". 
' Maudie," cried out her mother from 
the kitchen, not knowing that her 
daughter's beau was in the parlor. 
' ' Maudie, whatever made you go and 
eat that big dish of cabbage and pork 
that was left over from dinner ? I told 
you we wanted them warmed up for 
supper. I declare if your appetite 
isn't enough to bankrupt your pa." 
And she collapsed. — N. O. Picayune. 

Highest of all in Leavening Power. — Latest U. S. Gov't Report 

RoYal ^^^^ 




The Pacific Rural Press. 

January 5, 1895. 

Horse Clipping. 

Clipping of horsos is a growing prac- 
tice and bids fair to extend consider- 
ably beyond the class of horses upon 
which it was first practiced. Dr. I. S. 
Cattanach. veterinary surgeon of New 
York, in an interview with a New York 
Jl. rohl rejjorter, expresses himself as 
follows: 1 am an advocate of clipping 
horses in the winter, and am convinced 
thev are benefited by it more than the 
majority of owners imagine. They 
thrive much better in conse(|uence, and 
become fatter; they do not break out 
in a profuse perspiration after ix-ing 
driven moderately, and. in fact, they 
are better in every way by getting rid 
of the heavy and superliuous coat. On 
the contrary, the unclipjied horse that 
is driven fast will fall away in Hesh, 
and not show the ambition of a clipped 
animal. This may be accounted for by 
the night sweat they frequently have, 
which should always be ])revented. The 
late and much lamented Mr. Bergh, 
many years ago, stated that clipping 
does not hurt; it is of the greatest ser- 
vice to a horse. A horse with a long 
coat that has been returned to the 
stable in a heated condition, is liable 
to remain in a sweaty state all night, 
the hair becoming cold and clammy on 
account of cold night air and draughts, 
and frequently lays the foundation for 
pneumonia, pleurisy, or other kindred 
diseases. All horses should be clipi)ed 
at least three times— fall, winter and 
s])ring. After a drive a- horse should 
be rubbed thoroughly until perfectly 
dry. It invigorates and produces a 
healthy condition of the body. 

On the same subject we find the fol- 
lowing in the London Ijin Stix-I: .Inn mal : 
The advantages of cli])ping horses in 
winter are many. Notwithstanding 
that some object to removing the 
horse's coat in cold weather, as inter- 
fering with the laws of nature, there 
ai-e sound j)hysiological rea.sons for the 
practice. Experience is also in its 
favor — many practical men maintain- 
ing that to clip a horse is equivalent to 
giving him an extra feed of corn a day. 
The fetlock and hair behind the i)asterns 
should not be removed if we desire to 
avoid cracked heels — otherwise chil- 
blains. The hair should be left on, 
which from its non-conducting prop- 
erties will keep that part of the limb 
warm which is so sensitive to chills. 
Of course, fashion objects to leaving 
the pastern and fetlock clothed, in high- 
bred riding and carriage horses in the 
West End. The ordinary hunter, how- 
ever, should lie treated as indicated, 
and he will be all the bettei- for being 
unclipped from above the knee down- 
wards. Hair left on the legs of 
hunters is a protection against thorns 
and inflammation of the skin. Cart 
horses are better left with hair on from 
the coronet to some little distance 
above the knee joint. 

White House Horses Docl<ed. 

I the President for his humane senti- 
ments. It is intimated that President 

i Cleveland was also opposed to the 

• docking operation that has just taken 
place, but that he was overruled by 
those whose desires he is in duty bound 

I to respect. 

$100 Reward, $100. 

The ri'adcr of ibis paper will be pleiiscil to learn 
thiit there Is ut least one aieaded disease that 
science has been able to cure in all its stages, and 
that is catarrh. Hall's Catarrh Cure is the only 
positive cure known to the medical fraternity. 
Catarrh beintr a constitutional disease, requires a 
constitutional treatment. HalTs Catarrh Cure is 
talicn internally, acting directly un the blimd and 
mucous surfaces of ihe system, thereby destroy- 
ins the foundation of the disease, and giving Ihe 
patient strength by building up the constitution 
and assisting nature In doing its worlt. The pro- 
prietors have so much faith in its curative powers 
, that thev offer One Himdred Dollars for any ease 
' that it fails to cure. Send for list of testimonials. 
Address, F. J. CHENEY & CO.. Toledo, O. 
«-Sold by Druggists. T5e. 

State Veterinary Surgeons. 

The California State Veterinary As- 
sociation held its annual meeting re- 
cently in this city. The following were 

I present: Drs. Thomas Maclay, Peta- 

; luma; H. A. Spencer, San Jose: W. A. 

I Wadhams. Santa Clara; C. 15. Orvis, 

I Stockton; D. F. Fox. Sacramento; R. 
A. Archibald, Sacramento: F. E. 

j Pierce, Oakland; A. Robin, San Fran- 

1 Cisco; H. Fabri, San Francisco; H. A. 

. Forrest, Santa Cruz; A. S. Williams, 
Marysville; .1. (h-aham, Fresno: J. H. 

, Eddy, Stockton; J. W. O Rourke, 

I Stockton. 

The following officers were elected: 

j President, C. B Orvis, Stockton: R. T. 
Whittlesey, Los Angeles; secretary, R. 
A. Archibald, Sacramento; treasurer, 
D. F. Fox, Sacramento; Board of Ex- 
aminers — Drs. Maclay, Egan, Spencer, 
Lemke and Graham. 
The association will meet next year 

, at San Jose. 



75=Cent Teas, 


Your choice of any of the fnllowing BEAUTIFUL 

A very prelly Ueeoralwl Krejikf.'isi S>1 of 18 pcK. 

A beautiful Engraved Water Set of S |)cs. 

A pair of Handsome V;ise«. l-» in8. hiph. 

A iiairof Elegani Bisque Kigiires. 

A dainty Fiv.- ( > i bu k Ti ti-a-Teic Tea .Set of '.i |m s. 

A set of China Cake Plates. Cupids. 

A set of Dainty Tlilii China Dee. Cups and Sauei-rs. 

An exquisite Dec. China Salad Si>(. 

A pretty Dee. China lee Cream Si't. 

Great American Importing Tea Company, 

52 to .SS Market St.. San Francisco. 



Made In !230 Styles. 
For either road or stable um. 
All Bha)>e8. Hizes and qualitiea. 
"Wm. AvHh-** A Sons, Philada, 

A recent dispatch from Washington, 
D. C. says: All of the horses in the 
Presidential stables here have their tails 
docked. The discovery of the fact has 
caused some excitement among the class 
of persons who deprecate such a rad- 
ical departure from the long-tailed 
fashion that has prevailed among the 
White House horses since the days of 
Thomas Jefferson. It has always been 
regarded as essential to the rule of 
humanity and dignity that the Presi- 
dent should ride beliind horses with 
howing manes and tails, and the 
persons who are responsible for the 
present concession to fashion will, no 
doubt, be severely criticised. 

During President Grant's second ad- 
ministration thedockingof horses' tails 
was considered the proper thing among 
those who set the '"court" styles, and 
a persistent attempt was made to ob- 
tain Gen. Grant's consent to the ab- 
breviation of the tails of his favorite 
roadster, " Cincinnatus. " and the other 
line horses in his stable. The General, 
however, regarded docking as cruel 
and the long, flowing tail as a thing of 
beauty, and he refused to be persuaded. 
The local society for the prevention of 
cruelty to animals thereupon passed 
^'propriate resolutions commending 


The regular annual meeting of the stockholders 
I for the eleetion of Direetors for Ihe ensuing year, 
will take place at Ihe office of the Bank, iti the 
city of San Francisco. Slate of California, on 
TUESDAY, the 8th day of Januarv. 1M).'>, ai 

Cashier and Manager. 
San Francisco. December 4th, 18SM. 

f\ IN I i-i u r 

PuHttioii as >lHiiHg;er on a Imtj^v Farm. 

Thorough ;iequaintaneo Willi Stock Kaising. Dairy 
Business, fieneral Fariuiiig. Rxperleiiee in foreign 
countries; French. Knglisli. (iernian correspond 
ence: Bookkeeping; Graduate of Agricultural 
Academy in Gennauy. P. O. hox. ISSo. liakorstield, 
Kern Conuiy, Cal. 


Co\/er Your Barns, 




F». & B. F»/\INX. 



Highest Awards at Chicago, 1893, San Francisco, 1894. 


221 South Broadway, 116 BATTERY STREET, No. 49 First Street, 


iNroueoUATEU Apkii,. 1874 

<^^ i \ r'S^ 

Capital I'attl I'p 91,000,000 

Keserve Funt^and Undivided ProHts, lao.OOO 
lllvlflfiidK Paid to Ktorkholdem.... 832. OOO 
— omciiHS — 

A n. fXJGAN Prf>»ldent. 

I. f;. STEELE Vice-President. 

ALHEI;T MONTPELLIER.... Cashier and Manager. 
FRANK Mcmullen secretary. 

General Banking. Deposits Kivelved. Gold and 
Sliver. Bills of Exchange Bought and Sold. Loans 
on Wheal and Counlry Produce a Specialty. 

January I. isiu. A. MONTPELLIER, Manager. 

The Oriental Gas Engine 

cause it combines 
simplicity of con- 
struction with power 
andeconomy of space. 
It can be run with 
natural or manufac- 
tured gas or gasoline 
at a cost of ■i\ to iS 
l i nts per horse power 
ylVV per day. 

' It can be used for 
pumping purposes, as 
well as for all pur- 
poses where a perfect 
engine is required, 
with the advantage 
^ jH of lessening the risk 
' " of explosions. No 
licensed engineer ut 
^'^WSb^ '''>-''i salary needed 
t>i6mgj~^^ lo oi)eraIe it. 
^ ^.S. .Send for circulars 

and prices if a good 
safe engine is what 
you need. 

The Oriental Launch is Perfection. 

Inventor and Manufacturer, 
105 ileale Street Sao FraiielH4-<>. 


Porteous Improved Scraper. 

I .\|)ril IT, ISSi. 

Manufactured by G. I.IS.SKNURN. 

The attention of Ihe public Is eailiHl to this 
Scraper and the many varieties of work of which It 
Is capable, such as Railroad Work. Irrigation 
Ditches. Levee Building. Leveling Land. Road Mak- 
ing, etc. 

This Iniijleuu-nt w ill lake up and carry Its load to 
any desired distance. It will distribute the dirt 
evenly or dei)osit Us load in biilU as ilesired. It 
will do the woi-k of Scraper. Grader, and f'.irrier. 
Thousands of these Scrapers are in us«j In all parts 
of the country. 

UTThis Scraper Is all Steel-the only one manu- 
factured in the Slate. 

Price, all Steel, four- horse. »40; Sleel. In o-horse, 
931. Address all orilers it» 



\Vi' inunufael ure the eelebrateii .\spin\vall I'otatii I'lanler, A--pinwall l'i)tati> ( utter. 
Aspiiiwall Paris (ireeti Spriiililer. ed-. Every iMai-liiiio wiirraiiled. niaeliines 
great Iv refluec llie cci-l nf r.-ii-.iir_' pi.latoes. Seud I'or Free llliiolraled <'iiliil<>:rii<' 

ASPINWALL MANUFACTURING Ca., 48 Sabin St., Jackson, Mich. 

IIOOKUK & CO., Agents, 10 and 18 Drumm Street, ,San FraDrlsco, Cal. 


24 Post Street, 

'SS College^, 

- - - San Fran<"ls<'0. 

Store Your Grain \7V/he-re- Your Best -^sssssm— ^ 
"-^-aas^^ Interests \A/iII Al\A/ays be Consulted. 



Grangers' Business Association, foiiLyttY/iiit) ^jock m. 


ThlsCoilegre InstnictB in Shortliaml. Tyi>*'-WriliiiK. 
Bookkeepinp. Teleerr;ii>li.v. PtMunanship. Drawing, 
all the Eng-lifth braiieheH, and cverytlilng^ pertalnin»r 
to buHlnofiS. for full hIx inontlis. We hav*^ 8txie*-n 
tt'achorH and g-ivL' linHvldoal iristrnction to all onr 

A Department of Electrical Enpneering 

Has been eBtabllHlieil uudcr a thoroug'hly qualified 
InBtructor. The oonrst* 1h tliorouphly practical. 
Send for rircvil.-ir. C. S. HALKY. Sco. 


Capacity of Warehouse, 50,000 tons; wharf uccommodations for the largest vessels afloat. 
Grain received on storage for shipment, and for sale on consignment. 



Nll'KS' new manual and rt-fcrfnco book on HubjeclH 
connected with suceossfnl Poultry and Stock RalB- 
Inp on the Pacific Coast. A Nuw Edltlou. over lOll 
papeB. profxisely IHuBtratod with handsome, lifelike 
lllutilrations -of the different vari«-tle8 of Poultry 
;in»l LivfSlork. Price. poHtpaid. i>0 ct-nlH. AddreHM 
PACIFIC lUJKAL PRESS onice. Sau Francisco. Cal. 

January 5, 1895. 


Breeders' Directory. 

Six lines or lesa In this directory at SOo per line per 

Horses and Cattle. 


And Guide to Poultry Eaisers for 1895. 

over 131} tinti illuHtrjitioiib sliow- 
inK a photo of the largest hennery iu the 
west. Gives best plans for poultr.v houses, 
eure remed ies and recipos for all disetiBeH, 
also valuable information on the kitchen 
and flower garden sent for only 10 cents. 

John Bauscher, Jr., P.O. Boxeii.rreeport, 111. 

K. II. HIIKKK, (Kli Market .St.. S. F. Al Prize Hol- 
Httjins; Gratie Milch Cowh. Fine Pigs. 

JKK.SKY.S— The best A. J. C.C. registered prize herd 
is owned by Henry Pierce, S. F. Animals for sale 

I'. 11. IVHJKrHY, Perkins, Sac. Co.. Cal. Brcederof 
.Shorthorn Cattle, Poland-China & licrkshire Hogs. 

M. I). HOPKINS, Pelahirna, Registered .Shorthoi-n 
Cattle. Both sexes for Htile. 

•KTElt .SAXK <t SON, Lick House, S F., Cal. Im- 
porters and BfeedefH, ftn- past 21 yetirs, of every 
variety of Cattle. Hoi si'S. .Slieeu and Hogs. 

JKItSKVS AND HOI.STKINS, from the best Bnt- 
ter and Milk Stock; aNo Thoi-onglibred Hogs and 
Poulti-v. William Niles * «;«., Los Angeles, Cal. 
Breeders and Exporters. Kst.ahliHhed in IHTO. 


.1. \V. roKtiKl'S. Santa Crtiz. Cal.. has the best 
slocked ;iHil equipped poultry laiiclj un llie 
P.acltic coast, and makes ,1 speeially of li.ii reil P. 
Rocks. Urown Let'horji.s. lilack MIoorc.-ls. I'ekin 
Diieka. Sev(;iity ai'res to Leghoi-ns. six .-icres to 
Mlnorctis. and my licimi' rancli to Han-ed P. Rocks 
and Pekln Ducks. I guarantee satisfaction in 
every order. Exlil Ijll ion l)lrils and bi'eedlng slock. 
Eggs for K.I li'. Kef, reiic'.-. I'l-iiple's B.-ink. 

HUFF LK<iH<>ICNS. Thoroughbred young Stock 
for sale. Kggs. Jl, ^'i and *;! per i:i. C. W. U.ansen, 
San Maleo, Cal. 

WILLIAM Nl l,KS &<;0., Los Angeles, Cal. Nearly 
.•111 varieties of Poultry, Dairy Cattle and Hogs, 

Send fortUiiBtrated and descriptive catalogue, free. 


for poultr.v. Kver,\ 

1 .VIPRO\ l<;i> Kiid FOOD 

grocer and niercliant keeps it. 

Sheep and Goats. 

R. II. t;RANK, Petaluma. Cal. Breeder & Importer. 
Soullnlown Slieei). also Fox Hounds from Missouri. 


F. H. ltURKK,tiaii Market St.. S.P.-BRRKSHIRKS. 

M. MILLKK, Ellsio. Cal. Registered lierkshires. 

FORTY IIKAI> Herksliires and Poland Chinas. 
Chas. A. Stowe, Stockton, (,'ai. Box 28:i. 

J. P. ASIIUJY, Linden, San Joamiin Co,, Cal, 
Breeds Poland-Chin.a, Essex and Yorkshire Swine, 


Best Stock; also Dair.v Strtiins of Jersevs and Hol- 
stelns. Win. Niles & Co., Los Angeles. Est. 187(1. 

TYLKK HKACH, San .lose. Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs. 

To Orange- Growers. 

The largest crop and best grade of fruit can only be obtained 
by using fertilizers containing 


absolutslj eelf-regnlating and 
to hatch 90 per cent, of the fer. 
tile eggs. Self-regulating Brooders. 
Most perfect machines, best material 
and worlcmanship Prices reasonable. 
Send 4c for large ilhis. catalogue, tes- 
timoniaK etc. High Class Poultry 
* Eggs. Full stock Poultry Supplies. 
Peerless Incubator A Krooder Co. 

• Quincy, 111. 




Thoiisnnds In Suc- 
cessful Operation. 

Guaranteed tohatcha 
laraer percentage oJ 
— - ^ „ |,^f»rtIIeegg8.atlesgcogt, 
Loveit priced I Mthan any other Insnbator. 

Klr«t olaia I ., Send8o.for IUiiB.Oat«loe. 
Bauher made. II Ctronlars Free. 

8EO. H. 8T AH L, T 1 4 to 1 aa 9. 6th st.Qnlngy. 111. 

Not Less than 120/0 Actual Potash. 

This is equally true of pine-apples and other tropical fruits. 

Our books on Potash are sent free. They will cost you nothing to read, and will sava 
VOU dollars. GERMAN KALI WORKS. 93 Nassau Street. New York. 

MKVKK, « IKSON & < <).. -J I O ISutter.v .Street. .Sail I'ran. is.o. Sole .\seiits for the Ta. hie (oast. 



We receivi d many compliments tor our herd Irom vis- 
itors at the Slate Fair. We competed for 13 rihbons 
and won II. as follows: a special ; 2 sweepstakes; :i 
firsts; 4 seconds. 

We have a few Clioiee Pigs for sale. 

P. O Box 6KK.- 


1.0s Aiigele.s, Cal 


* HlllWl'iBMil We Warrant ^ 
I' mrSTilMfl The Reliable* 


^ , "7 1 \. O Durable. Correct id Princlpl... Uadrr ^ 

? fOWM \^ V »-v ftt World's F»ir. 6cts. Id "tampB for T 

* new 112 pa«e Ponlttj Guldi" »nd Cat*- * 

loffUB. POULTRY FOR PROFIT made plain. B»^-Rwk Information, -k 

•k Reliable Incubator and Brooder Co.,Quincy. III. k 

Genuine only with RED 
BALL brand. 
Recommended by Uold- 
smith, Marvin, Gamble, 
WelLs, Fargo & Co., etc., 
etc. It keeps Horses and 
C-'attlehealthy. For milch 
cows; it increases and 
enriches their milk. 
iMiinhattaii i- ood Co., 
San Mateo, Cal. 

Feed our Poultry Food and you will have healthy chickens and lots of eg?s. Ask vour dealer for it. 



4ceDta' 0E0.1 


Hatches ('hlcken.s hy ."^tPam 
Absolutely self-reeulaline. 
The simplest, most reliable 
au(lcheapesttlr8t-clus,s flatcher 
In the market Circulars free 
KTEIi «Sc CO., Quincy, 111, 

Wetoer Gas & Gasoline Engines. 

Simplest and most economical engines on eanli. 

Requires only a few minutes' al lent ion a day. (iuaranteed 
cost of runuinK. I ci iit per hour per II. P. 


Short -Horn Bulls 




Itaden Station, Sau Mateo Co., Cal. 

The cars of the S. F. and San Mateo Electric Road 
pass the place. 

In These Dull Times 

You ('ail Lar^fely liiorease 

Your Income by buying an Incu- 
bator and ensajirlng' in the chicken 
bUHlnesH. Send stamp for our 
e.atalofrue of Incubators, Wire 
NeithiK-. BIc.oded Fowls and Ponl- 
tr\' Ai>pli;oices ?eni^rall.v. Remrm- 
hi r the lifHt i.i llu Clifiipent. PACIFIC 
IN(;UBATOR CO., i:il7 Castro St., 
O.ikland. Cal. 

Price's Traction 



CO yVl F» IN "V , 

1313 M.yrtle Street, Oakland, Cal. 

Send Stamp for Circular. 

' provements on the Jubilee Hatcher 
make it head the list. It Is a perfect self-regrulatlng 
hot water machine, with copper boilers and an 
entirely new eystc'ni of operation. The sizes made 
now are 100. 200. :fllO and iiOO-efrsr capacity. For sale 
by H. P. WHITMAN. Apent. 2046 Alameda Ave., Ala- 
meda, Cal. Send for circular. 


SANTA ROSA. CAL. (Care Santa Rosa National 
Bank.) Itnporler, Breeder. Exporter. 

S. C \A/hlte Leehorns, 

S. C BroiA/n Legfhorns, 

Barred F*lymoijth Rocks, 

Blacic /Vllnorcas. 

Kggs, 83 per 13.-S» «S-Send for Circular 

42 & 44 Fremont Street 

San Francisco. Cal 

MIR F>uyv\F» 







With only one valye and GREATEST ECONOMY OF FUEL. 
Cheaper than Single Engine of same horse power. 

— -^^^^^MANUFACTURED BY---^'^^^ 


We have one of these engines that was used 
about one month last .season and was taken back 
by us by reason of illness of purchaser. Engine is 
in perfect order, and in better working order than 
when first sent fi-om the factory. A BARGAIN. 
Indicated power, 8U-horse ; Cylinders, ».\K; Wheels, 
8 ft. high, 28 in. wide; weight, less than lu tons. 
Price when new, $4M). 

Write for Catalogue No. In. 

635 .Sixth Street, San rr;iii 

CollegTof Veterinary Surgeons 

Cor. Post and Filmore Sts. 

KeKular Remtoii ooiumnncet the first week 
in .lanuary, I89f>. 

For;prospectus giving all information as to cur- 
riculum, fees, etc., addi-ess the Secretary, 

F. A. NIEF, B. Sc., D. V. S., 

Cor. Post and Filmore Streets, San Francisco. 

BACK Files of the Pacific Rdral Press (un- 
bound) can be had for $2.50 per volume of six 
months. Per year (two \ olumes), $4. Inserted In 
Dewey's patent binder, 50 cents additional per 

Protect Your Trees 


f8^#|, Gilman's Patent Tule Tree Protector. 

'}• 3^^J^ PATENTED AUGUST 1, 18113. 

FIRST PRIZE— Medal and Diploma— California Mid-Winter Inlei-natiou«l 

Cheapest, best and only one to protect trees and vines from frost, sunburn, 
rabbits, squirrels, borers and other tree pests. 

For testimonials from parties who are using Ih'im, send for descriptive cir- 


Sole /V\an cifact u re r of Patent Tule Covers. 

420 Ninth Street. San Francisco, Cal. 


."Sample mailed X (" for 41 nil 
Nickel, 81.50. «liUU 
Stallion Bits SO ctti. extra. 






Sausage Meat, 

Mince Meat, 
Hamburg Steak 
for Dyspeptics, 
Tripe, dec, <&c. 

For Sale by the 
Hardware Trade. 

Farm and Fireside sajrs : 

" It is the only Meat Chopper 
we ever saw that we would 
give house room. It has 
proven such a very use- 
(P'^C^jk lul machine that we 
is ^fl\ want our readers to 
■ I enjoy its benetlts 

^12SS ■viMx us." 

The Enterprise ^Tg Co. 

Third & Dauphin Ktti., I'hiladar 

to CHOP, 


.\^'ririilliirist Nil,rN : 
We ha\ (• given this 
Meat ( 'hofiperu tliorough 
trial Willi most .satistac- 
(or.v results. They excel 
anytliiiiK of the kind made 
in either hemisphere." 


The Pacific Rural Press 

January 5, 1895. 



Many different make5 of chilled 
plows have been brouicht out in this 
State, most of which are now entirely 
out of the market, havinK each enjoyed 
a brief sale, but finally succumbing to 
the superior qualities of the OLIVEK. 
The unlucky purchaser of a plow now 
out of market is unable to procure 
extras of any kind, and his plow is 
practically useless— a veritable " ship 
without a rudder," and suitable only 
for barn-yard ornamentation. He is 
oblijced to throw it aside and pocket a 
loss. It will be wise economy for you 
to avoid such an experience. 

When about to purchase a plow 
weigh every fact well. Remember 
that the OLIVER has been here for 
years and has come to stay. The for- 
tunate possessor of an Oliver Plow 
has no difficulty to contend with in 
the matter of extras, as we constantly 
carry in stock a complete line of per- 
fect fitting duplicate parts. These are 
easily and quickly procured and ad- 
justed and the work but slightly de- 
layed, which is of itself a strong 
recommendation to the reflecting pur- 
chaser. You can make no mistake in 
buying the Cienuine Oliver Plows and 





Constitute the Best and Host 
Reliable Line of Plows ever 
offered to Farmers anywhere. 


Send for Catalogue to 



Entirely of Stnel. No castings to fcreak. 
Stroiinest anti slinplpst LeVer Arrangpment cm 
the market Writ*" for descriptive Circular. 


No. i-*^ Park St., MANSFIELD, O. 


CorragHt«d si,.*! Hinge*. 

They are Stronger, Handsomer 
and co»t no more than the old 
style. For sale by Hardware 
Dealers generally, but If not In 
your vicinity write the Manu- 
facturers. Send for " Biography 
ot a Yankee Hlnge,"malledfree. 


A DEAD SHOT With absolutely 


Ligtit,Simple and Ctieap. 


B PISTON roK omviNG AIR unacH mi uouiaC.B,*^ C 


E luopiPc ixiTronvAPOP 

F SMOPT ntxiaii nost uadins to buprow , 





Makes Bisulphide Effective and Kconomlcal. No more waHte of material or labor. Through the 
protection afforded by this tool, you may now ^row alfalfa on the uplands, preserve your lawn and 
flowers in the front yard, potatoes in the f?ardeu, and trees in your orcharil. 

Price, in Crate. ISa.OO. Weifcht, lO rounils. 

Sold by the trade, or may be ordered direct from the manufacturer ot WHEELER'S CARBON 

J. H. \A/HEELEF», 
Cor. I^tali and Alameda Streets. S»" KranclBco. 

W. B. EWER. 

a. H. STRONG. 


Patent Solicitors. 


Elevator, 12 Front St. 

* C H. EVANS k CO., * 

(SuccPSBors to THOMSON k K VANS. I 

110 * 1 la KKAI.K STKKKT, S. F. 


steam Pumps. > Steam Engines. 

. . Kiwis »l MM HISKUY. . . 






tw- !VUT*rM M TOO B. H Wl«ttn« ud unpta Vm» M 
boUdlnc tuttni altMnd baton hihiiiiiim. 


Twenty-flve per ceul chc'Liper than any other on the 
market. Sriid fur Catalofjue. 

C. H. LINDEMANN, Agent, 


School of Practical, Civil, Mechanical, 
Electrical and Mining Engineering, 

Surveying, Architecture, Drawing and Assaying 
San Fhancisco, Cai,. 
Open All Year : A. VAN DER NAILLEN, Pres't. 

Assaying of Ores, l^li; Bullion and Chlorinatlon 
Assay, liS; Blowpipe Assay, tlU. Full course of 
assaying. *S0. Established 1864. Send for Circular. 



5«<-. H year lii ■■ulvanct'. Sample cop.v mailed Kree 
on application. Addrt^sH 

THK MAKKKT «iAKI)K.> i:0.%ir.\XY, 


All kiri.ln.if tool-. ill. r l.v u.lng "Ur 
Ad«miintlntproc.>"i>; takeacor... P. rfi-iMi-d ►.. "Diim- 
l<-nl Arte«l«.n I'lliiininu Riin< to w-rk In '^'<'»ni, 
L«.tu8helpTmi. xheAMEMICAN MELLWOKKB, 
Aurora, lll.i Chlcmco. III.I DallM, Tex. 

January 5, 1895. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


Market Review. 

San Francisco, Jan. 2, 1895. 
WHEAT— The new year opens with softer tone 
to the market. Receipts continue to come along 
freely from the north, ovei 28,000 centals arriving 
to-day from Oregon and Washington. .Shippers 
are not disposed to pay over 85c "f*- ctl for standard 
shipping quality, while 86^c is a full figure tor a 
tjhoice article. Milling Wheat is held at old quo- 
tations, say 92"/2®97'4c ctl. Walla Walla wheat 
is quotable at 76^(3-78=^0 for fair average quality, 
82i4(ffi85c for blue-stem and 70@75c ^ ctl tor damp 

BARLEY— Quotations remain in stationary con- 
dition, there being comparatively no business do- 
ing at the present. OfTerings are liberal and values 
have easy tendency. Some improvement in trade 
is looked for, but it would require a very pro- 
nounced demand to give much buoyancy to prices. 
We quote: Feed, fair to good, 785^@81!4c ; choice, 
8214c: Brewing. 9f)@,95c K ctl. 

OATS — The demand has been quite slim of late, 
but better inquiry is expected now that the new 
year is entered, 'it will probably take a few days 
to wear off the holiday character of things, when 
dealers look for some impetus to be given to the 
market by a renewal of active trading. We quote: 
Milling, $1@1 12H; Surprise, $1 0S@] 15; fancy 
feed, $1 021/2(01.1 OTVi; good to choice, 92H@97'/4c; 
poor to fair, 87i4(a90c; Black, $1 15@1 30; Red, 
$1 07Vi®$l 15; Gray, 92Hc(3)$1 ^ ctl. 

CORN — The market is amply furnished for all 
ordinary requirements. Trade slow. Damp stock 
sells below quoted figures. Quotable at $1 10 
(ffl 15 * ctl. for large Yellow, $1 2fW/:l 25 for 
small Yellow, and $1 171/2 to $1 25 for White. 

FEED— Manhattan Horse Food (Red Ball Brand) 
in 100-lt) cabinets, $8; Manhattan Egg Food, 100-Ib 
bags. $11 50. 

SEEDS — We quote as follows: Mustard. 
Brown, $1 7502; Yel,low, .12 40((f2 45; Trlesie, .$2 30 
®2 35; Canary, Smo; Hemp, 3%(a:A]4c ^tb; Rape, 
l?i@2Mc; Timothy, 5H@6i/2C th; Alfalfa. Califor- 
Uia. 7®8c; do, Utah, 8c 1?. lb; Flax, $2fSi2 25 IB ctl. 

HAY — Demand rather light. Wire-bound 
Hay sells at $1 ton less than rope-bound 
Hay. Following are the wholesale city prices 
for rope-bound Hay : Wheat, $9(»$12: Wheat and i 
Oat, $8(3)11; Oat, *8(3il0; Alfalfa, *7 50(3)9; Barley, 
$6@)9; Clover, $9@10 .%; compressed, $9@I2; Stock, 
$6@7 ^ ton. 

STRAW— Quotable at 60@75c * bale. 

HOPS— The inquiry is almost nominal. (3hoice 
stock is in light offering, but common qualities are 
In fair supply. Quotable at 5c to 714c per ft. 

BRAN— Large receipts to-day, nearly 6000 sks. 
arriving from Oregon. Quotable at$ll(Sil2 f* ton. 

RYE— Quotable at 92V4(a.95c Tft ctl. 

BUCKWHEAT— Quotable at 90c(S)$l ctl. 

POTATOES— Receipts show no diminution. 
Prices remain easy. Volunteer New Potatoes, 
2c ^ ft; Early Rose, 35®.50c; River Reds, .30 
O.35o; Burbanks. 3.5@40c; Oregon Burbanks, 50@ 
75o; Salinas Burbanks, 75c(9$l ; Sweets, 50(^75 ¥ 

ONIONS — In fair demand "at easy rates. Quot- 
able at .50@70c f* ctl. 

BEANS— Trade is of quiet order. Really good 
stocks of all kinds is somewhat firmly held, but 
liberal concessions are obtainable on wet and 
damaged stock. We quote as follows: Bayos, 
SI 75(3)1 90; Butter, $1 7,5(311 85 for small and $1 90ra2 
for large; Pink, $1 10@1 35; Red, $1 60«),1 75; 
Lima, $4 10®4 25; Pea, $2 2,50)2 .50; Small White, 
»2 10@i2 50; Large White, $2 10@)$2 30; Blackeye, 
$.3@3 25; Red Kidney, $2 75@3; Horse, $1 50(3)1 60 
1* ctl. 

VEGETABLES— Trade slow. Sacramento As- 
paragus, lO@Aba H lb.; San Leandro Rhubarb, 
50(5:75c V box; Mushrooms, 5(3)8c ^ lb. for 
common and 10@15c for choice; Los Angeles To- 
matoes, SKffil 25 1* box; String Beans, .5W6c tor 
poor and 10(S)12i4c if* lb. for good stock; Rhubarb, 
750 1^ box; Green Peas, 6(38c f, lb; Marrowfat 
Squash, $5(3)6 ton; Hubbard Squash, $8(3~ilO; 
Green Peppers, 4®.5c V- lb; Turnips, 75c Iff, ctl; 
Beets, 75c I* sack; Parsnips, $1 25 "# ctl; Carrots, 
feed, ,^5(3)40c; Cabbage, 50(3i6.5c; Garlic. 3@4c ^ ft; 
Cauliflower, 60f3),70c IB dozen ; Dry Peppers, 15@17'/2C 
^ ft.: nrvOkra, 12i4(3) 15c ft. 

FRESH FRUIT— Apples are cheaper, offerings 
being large. We quote as follows: Persimmons, 25 
(8)500 box; Apples, 35c@$l IB box; Pears, 50(^750 
^ box. 

CITRUS FRUITS— The first auction sale of 
Oranges this season occurred to-day. We quote: 
California Navels, $2@2 50; Seedlings. $1(3)1 ,50 
9 box; Sonora Oranges, $1 5n,';iil 75 V box; Mexi- 
can Limes, $3 .50(34 .50 f> box; California Limes, in 
small boxes, .50(ff75o ^ box; Lemons, Sicily, $4 ,50 
<S)5; California Lemons, $2@2 50 for common and 
$.3(3)4 for Kood to choice; Bananas, $l(a)2 bunch; 
Pineapples Mf3i6 dozen. 

DRIED FRUIT— The market continues quiet, 
and will probably keep so all this month. Stocks 
are not particularly heavy, and dealers expect 
trade enough to clean up iu comfortable fashion in 
Hi me for next season. 

Following are the prices furnished by the Fruit 

Apricots — Fancy Moorpark, 814c; choice, do, 8c; 
fancy, 7Vtc: choice, 7c; standard, 6Hc; prime. 6c. 

Apples— Evaporated, 5!4@7c; sun-dried. 4@5c. 

Peaches — Fancy. 614c; choice, 6c; standard, 
b%c; prime. 5Vic; peeled, in boxes, 12(3 1. 3c. 

Pears— F;incy, halveSj5i4c;quarter.s,4i/jc; choice, 
4}4c; standard. 3!4c; prime, 3c. 

Plums— Pitted, 4(3>.5c ; unpitted, lH(ai2c. 

Prunes— Four sizes, iVi(aii)ic. 

Nectarines— Fancy, 7c; choice, 6!4c; standard, 
Oc; prime, SVio. 

Figs— White, choice, f>fi!>'4c; Black, choice, li4 

Raisins — 4-orown, loose, 4c ^ lb. In 5-lb. boxes ; 
3-crown, 214c; 2-crown, 2c; seedless Sultanas, .3o; 
seedless Muscatels, 2o ^ tb; 3-crown London 
Layers, $1 25 f. box In 20-lb. boxes: clusters. $1 50; 
Dehesa clusters, $2; Imperial clusters. $3; 4-crown, 
loose, $1 15; 4-crown, loose, faced, $1 25 ^ box. 

Dried Grapes— l!4c lb. 

BUTTER — The new year opened without any 
marked change in the situation Supplies of 
choice quality are moderate and prices keep steady 
for such goods, while common stock is plentiful 
and easy. Fancy creamery, 23@2.5c; fancy dairy, 
19(S21c; good to choice, 15@18c; store lots, 
13(3 Uc; pickled roll, nominal; flrkin, 15(a)16c ft. 

CHEESE— We quote: Choice to fancy, 9(aillc; 
fair to good, 7@8c; Eastern, ordinary to fine, 
l2V5(3)14c 1^ ft. 

EGGS— The market is not overstocked, but 
dealers look tor increased receipts, and an easier 
feeling prevails in consequence. We quote: Cali- 
fornia Ranch, 34(a'36c, with a small advance occa- 
sionally for something fancy; store lots, 2714(3) 
■'t;'4o; Eastern Eggs, 22(5i24c * dozen for cold 
storage and 2.5(3)26c for fresh. 

POULTRY— Now that the holidays are over, 
the market shows softer tone. A carload of East- 
ern sold this morning at $6(gi6 ,50 for Hens, 
$5 for old Roosters, and $9 ,50 for young 
Roosters. Turkeys brought $1 apiece. California 
.stock is quotable as follows: Live Turkeys- Gob- 
blers. Ilf<il3c; Hens, 11(3 I.3c 1? ft; dressed Turkeys. 
12@15c iS lb; Roosters, $4(3)4 50 for old, and fh(aA .50 
for young; Broilers, f4(3i4 ,50 for small and $4 50(35 
for large; Fryers, $5(®5 50; Hens, $5(3)6; Ducks, 
tbm 60; Geese, $1 5(^9 P»ir; PlgeoDs^JJ®! 50 
f aozeo. 

Patrons of Husbandry. 

A Lull in the Revival Effort. 

The meeting of the Executive Com- 
mittee appointed for last week took 
place on Thursday at the Rural Press 
office, all the members but Mr. Jones 
of San Jose being present. The whole 
day was spent ia going over plans of 
revival work, but no result was reached, 
final action being postponed to a meet- 
ing appointed for the 11th and 12th of 
January, to occur at Sacramento. At 
the same time and place a meeting of 
the Legislative Committee of the State 
Grange is to be held and a plan out- 
lined for urging the legislative work 
authorized at the Stockton meeting. 
The members of the Legislative Com- 
mittee are Thos. McConnell, J. D. Huff- 
man and Senator Johnson, and all are 
expected to be on hand at Sacra- 
mento on the 11th and 12th. 

This lull in the movement for a gen- 
eral grange revival, while unfortunate, 
need not be fatal to the plan, for it 
may be the means of bringing out some 
new and better scheme of work. The 
situation, however, is critical and the 
sooner active operations are begun the 
easier it will be to get the members 
and friends of the order interested. 

List of U. S. Patents for Pacific 
Coast Inventors. 

Reported by Dewey & Co., Pioneer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific Coagt. 


531.099.— Car Coupling— J. Clark, Hartland, Wash 
53^,022.-^ispLAY Rack— W. H. Conrad, Pasa- 

530,987.— Index— J. A. Fischer, S. F. 
531,172.— Harness— W. A. Fleming, S. F. 
531,178. — Harp Lock — F. A. Getze, Los An 
geles, Cal. 

531,045.— Lavatory Apparatus— D. Ketas. Se- 
attle, Wash. 

531,00.3.— Trunk— K. S. O'Keefe, S. F. 

531,059.— Sewing Machine- F. O'Neill, Red- 
lands, Cal. 

531,132.— Magazine Gun— W. H. Ostrander, S. F 

531.005. — Electric Converter— F C. Priestly, 
S. F. 

531.006. — Dynamometer— R. j. Rolfson, S. F 
B3U3^.— Fire-Proof Building— J. W. BoweU, 

531,068.— Ore Crusher— a. H. Schierholz S F 

531.231. — Fare Register— E. T. Taylor. Oakland 

631.232. — Suspensory— John Teuscher, Jr., Bridal 
Veil, Or. 

531,074.— Centrifugal Pump— M. Wagner, Ta- 
coma, Wash. 

Note.— Copies of U. S. and Porelgn patents fur- 
nished by Dewey & Co. In the shortest time possible 
(by mall for telegraphic order). American and 
Foreign patents obtained, and general patent busi- 
ness for Pacific Coast Inventors transacted with 
perfect security, at reasonable rates, and In the 
shortest possible time. 

Give and Take. 

Sacramento, Jan. 1st, 1895. 
To THE Editor: — I see that the 
grangers do not respond to the strong 
hints and invitations you threw out a 
short time ago, to write and give items 
and ideas to their grange paper. I 
want to get the patrons to look at it 
from a purely selfish view or stand- 
point, which I believe I can; then, that 
accomplished, I believe we will get the 
correspondence and ideas as fast as we 
can digest them. 

Tn the first place let us act in a re- 
ciprocal manner — give as well as take. 
Tn the second place I want to show 
that this is the cheapest and quickest 
way to receive and impart information, 
ideas, suggestions and corrections, be- 
sides acquiring the faculty of impart- 
ing information on paper. Now we 
can do our part for about three cents 
and Uncle Sam will do his for two 
cents, so you see the cost will not ex- 
ceed five cents. It is well worth five 
cents to any one who has a respectable 
name to see it in print, until we gain 
notoriety enough to be placed on the 
pay list. How much cheaper it is thus to 
relieve your head of a pressure "of ideas, 
than take horse and buggy and travel 
over the country and deal out in single 

What a gratification it will be to see, 
iu imagination, the head of some house- 
hold reading your article to his family 
and friends, commenting, approving 
and discussing its contents — not only 
one family, but hundreds and thou- 
sands; not in our land only, but in 
other nations and climes. I frequently 
see mentioned that the Rural Press 
makes its appearance in some far-off 
place where I little suspected that it 
was known. Do you realize this, my 
brother granger, that by the expendi- 
ture of five cents and a little part of 
your time you have set to work an 
entire new train of thought ? These 
new thoughts, if persistently followed, 
will bring back to you a hundred fold in 
the currency of gratification, intelli- 
gence and prosperity. 

You may say, "I have not got the 
ideas to write about." Do you ever 
expect to have them if your ideas and 
thoughts never arise above the horizon 
but three times a day — sunrise, high 
noon and sundown ? Do not let a day 
pass over your head without gaining 
and retaining a new idea. 

When T was traveling in an official 
capacity a few years ago for the 

{Continued on page IJf.) 



586 California Street. 

For the half year ending December 31, 1894, a 
dividend has been declared at the rate of five (5) 
per cent per annum on Term Deposits and four and 
one-sixth (4 1-6) per cent per annum on Ordinary 
Deposits, payable on and after WEDNESDAY 
January 2d, 1895. GEO. TOURNY, Secretary ' 


. .\ ciitaloBUe Kivinc ful. . 
information regurdintrJ 
nrtifirial hatchinii and" 
broodinK, also a treatisp| 
on poultry raisinc eent; 
FREE. WritH now to 

Bes Koiies Incnlutct To. 

Hoi n Deb Moim s. 1; 






OH\/e» Di|3. 

"Greenbank" Powdered Caustic 
Soda and Fdre Potash. 

T. W/. JrtCK.SON <fc CO. 

Sole Agents. - - No. 236 Market Street 




■AT • FOLKS • 

aslni? "ANTI-CORPULENK PILtS"lose 15 lbs. 8 
month. Cwofie no Bir-knpfli. contain no poi«on and opver 
toll. Sold bv I>raegi»ti pvprv-wfipr*" or BPDt h7 mall Par- 
■ tioal&rs (sealed) 4o. WILCOX SPECIFIC CO. Pbila. P&. 


postpaid for 50o. BICURA CO., 310 California 
san Francisco. 


Of forty or eighty acres near the coast. Send de- 
scription and price to C. KRUGER, Pfeifter, 


In exchange for Almond or French Prune Trees, 
one year old. R. J. STEVES, Box 8.53, San Jose, 




Largest Handlers 
of Dried Fruits. 

If you have a parcel to offer, submit samples to us. 
We are the principal handlers. 




Hf" General Commission Merchants, ^ 

310 CALirORNIA ST., S. F. 

Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange. 

*S- Personal attention given to sales and liberal 
advances made on consignments at low rates of 

Krogh Mfg. Co. 

Manufacturers of 

Triple Acting; Pumps, Centrlfugral Pumps, 
Steam Pumps, Deep- Well Famps, 
Wind Mills, Horse Powers, Wine Machinery. 

Link-Belt Klevators and Conveyors, 

Link-Chain and Sprocket Wheels. 

51 Beale Street, San Francisco. 




512 to 516 Sacramento St., San Francisco, Cal. 


BLAKE. McFALL & CO Portland. Or. 



In these days of rapid transit, i% miles per 
hour would be called slow, but if the traveler 
was making as he went along, the most per- 
fect, complete, self-regulating wire fence ever 
heard of, it would alter the case. Our factory, 
with Its increased capacity, will turn out 
that amount per hour, and as we run 24 hours 
per day in the spring, 64 miles will be the 
dally product. The demand always keeps 
up wltfi the supply. 



for your 


Any size you want. 20 
^ooriin high. Tires 1 
to S m wide— bubs to 
(it any axle. Kavcs 
: 'ity^t many times in 
V 903.pon to have Bet 
jf lov/ wheels to fit 
'cnn7P»g;on forhatiling 
.rain, fodder, m.Tnnre, 
■joffs, iVc. No reBettiiig of 
tir'^s Oatl'gfree. Address 


That's what the PLANET JR. Labo,' Saving 
Farm Tools represent for the farmer — an 
eud to plodding — a beginning of better 
results. The PLANET JR. Book for 1895 
gives you an introduction to 20 of these 
marvelous machines. Explains their many 
uses and advantages in detail ; shows you 
how to turn the tide of fortune jj/cwr way. 
Many a farmer dates the beginning of his 
success by the reading of this book. We 
eend it Free. Will you make a beginning? 
S. L. AILER & CO.. U07 Market St., PliUadA. 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

January 5, 1895. 

Give and Take. 

{Coiitiniiid from jxKjf IS.) 

arrange, I tried to get a new idea every 
day. I struck a field one day where 
the grass was oxceedingly short, the 
new things very scarce, and I was 
about to write it down as a blank. 
Where we stopped for the night was a 
narrow gate leading into the front 
vard, and as we passed through I said 
to my companion, " There is the new 
idea that I have been looking for all 
day." For the hinges of this gate they 
had cut the tops olT a pair of heavy 
miners' boots and put both posts 
through the legs. A new use for top 
boots— nothing very brilliant about it, 
but a new idea to me. 

Always travel with eyes and ears 
open; and if you do not want the ob- 
servation for your own use you can 
help a friend out some time wlien he is 
in a tight place. 

If some of the grangers do not re- 
spond, I will try to find their tender 
spot and hit them on the raw. I will 
do worse than that. T will speak right 
out in meeting and call on John Smith 
and Sam Jones. Tjct each say to him- 
self the other fellow has an idea, and 
now let us entice it from him. hold out 
some irresistible bait. One good orig- 
inal idea is worth a dozen second-handed 
ones. 1 hardly ever go on a farm but 
what 1 see a new idea, although it may 
be in a crude form. (J rangers, do not 
let your experience and ideas die and 
be buried with you, with the expecta- 
tion that they will petrify and be dug 
up by future generations, like our for- 
est trees. 

It will soon be time to plant and sow. 
What will you plant ? What sow ? See 
what trees are adapted to youi- soil 
and climate. Do not spend ten years 
in experimenting when by observation 
and inquiry it can be found out in ad- 
vance. How will you prune this year? 
What kind of shade trees, and distance 
apart ? Tf you are a little despondent 
and brooding over the financial failure 
of your adventure for the last season, 
think of some of youi- neighbors that 
are not as well situated as yourself, 
and extend to them mental if not sub- 
stantial sympathy. Daniel Flint. 

Secretary's Column. 

Before this issue of the Rt K.\i, 
reaches its readers the old yeai- will have 
gone and a new year arrived, and with 
the figures 1895 in view this office 
wishes you one and all a happy and 
prosperous New Year. 

May the progress of grange work 
this year come to our Golden State 
with the same interest and with more 
members and granges than fell to the 
lot of our New England sisters during 
the year 1894, and may their ranks be 
increased a hundredfold. And while 
my wishes may be well and the Grange 
spirit of many of the older heads of the 
order in accord, What is it that has 
caused this dormancy on the Pacific 
slope? It is not the financnal depres- 
sion that has been u])on us. nor the 
political crisis which we have just 
passed through. The report of the 
Worthy Treasurer of the National 
Grange shows conclusively that that 
body — the national organization, the 
head of this order — is in an excellent 
condition, the permanent fund amount- 
ing to about $(50,000. The current 
income the past year amounted to 
$20,768.93, and the expenses up to 
the close of the year, October 1st, 
amounted to $6,328.16, leaving a bal- 
ance in the treasury at that time of 
$14,440.17. Truly this is not a bad 
showing after having gone through a 
year of financial failures as reported 
from all over the land. 

The question that presents itself to- 
day for consideration in this State is, 
How can we promote a healthy grange 
advancement, not a mushroom growth 
but one that will constantly attract 
our influential farmei's. their sons and 
daughters, to our ranks ? As far as 
the principles of the order are con- 
cerned, there are none better, and as a 
matter of fact there is but one national 
farmers' organization in existence to- 
ilay, and that is the grange. It is now 
in its 29th year; its objects arc mainly 

educational and it is strictly non- 
partisan and non-sectarian. It is one 
of the well known conservative civic 
societies that is looked upon with re- 
spect by all who have observed its 
methods and noted its results, as we 
have in this State whei-e there are sub- 
ordinate branches of it that have been 
in existence for more than twenty 
years. At its recent annual meeting 
in Springfield thirt\' States were rep- 
resented and over 3(K) members in 
attendance. And as to the question 
just proposed, I find by refei'ence to 
njports of some sixteen years ago that 
we had many more granges, spread 
over more counties in this State, pay- 
ing in dues and fees a sum much larger 
than at the present time. Although 
this was accomplished at the time of 
the grange boom, yet those results I 
believe to be largely due to the fact 
that field workers wcntj'out every- 
where and pressed the work of organi- 
zation. We stand to-day in a better 
position to push the work than ever 
before, because of the solidil}' and per- 
raancy of our order. 

Let us again return to ovn- former 
plans of flooding the country with com- 
petent speakers and organizers, pay- 
ing them liberally for their services, 
confidently believing that the increase 
in fees and dues will cover all extra ex- 
pense and add not only nuMubers but 
great strength. Send out men and 
women who can devote their entire 
time to the work. Let them work in 
connection with our deputies. 

These should be continued as the 
strong right arm of the field workers 
and encouraged to enter every open 
door, and at the same time search for 
other doors to open. Follow up with 
open meetings at least once each 
(|uarter, with Farmers' Institutes 
always under the auspices of the local 
or Pomona grange. 

Invite every farmer, his wife, his 
sous and daughters to be present. . Let 
all matters of interest to the grange 
and farmers generally be thoroughly 
discussed, giving attention to the 
social feature. T^et our neighbors 
know our plans, objects and aims and 
I believe a large increase in members 
would be the result. 

Grange literature ought to be sown 
throughout our borders. 

Our membei's should be constantly 
in contact with all kinds of books and 
papers that will enlighten them in 
their varied daily pursuits. 

Co-operation is undoubtedly the most 
important question before the grange 
and the most diflicult to Ijring to a 
satisfactory conclusion. 

While the social features of the 
order are very pleasant, we must re- 
member that the railroad men, the 
sugar trust, the insurance combina- 
tion, and the whisky ring, and all the 
other great corporations don't hold 
conventions for the special reason that 
they want to improve their minds, but 
that they may form powerful combina- 
tions to enrich themselves. 

A convention of any of the above 
mentioned the size of our State Grange 
would be a controlling influence in the 
industry they would represent, while 
we only represent a small faction of 
the farming community, which is of 
itself one great reason why we should 
all work to add to our numbers. 

Procrastination is the thief of time. 
If the seed time is delayed the sunshine 
and the rain have no material from 
which to produce a bountiful harvest. 

The present year offers abundant op- 
portunity to go forth and scatter the 
seeds. 'The staunch patrons at the 
wheels in California are the ones to 
direct the harrowing in, if necessary, 
that they may be productive of great 
and lasting good to the order, and it is 
sincerely trusted that every member 
in this State will lend their personal 
attention to them. Let us say to them: 
Whither thou goest I will go. and 
where thou lodgest I will lodge; thy 
people shall be my people, and thy God 
my God I 

Pursuant to call, the Executive Com- 
mittee met in special session on Decem- 
ber 20th, as published in last week's is- 
sue of the Rural, at which time a 
special meeting was called for Decem- 
ber 27th. Present : Bros. Roache,\Val- 

ton, Loucks, Mills and HoUnan.. . Bro. 
Cyrus Jones was absent on account of a 
previous engagement for that date. 
The condition of the order was dis- 
cussed, but no definite action taken. 
The committee will meet again at Sac- 
ramento on Friday and Saturday, Jan- 
uary 11 and 12, 1895, in conjunction 
with the legislative committee ap- 
pointed by the State Grange. Head- 
quarters will be at the Golden Eagle 

This office acknowledges a short arti- 
cl(> and a list of officers from the worthy 
secretary of Tulai-e (Ji-ange, which ap- 
peared in last week's issue, covering 
the same ground as the article just re- 
ceived; consequently have concluded not 
to send it in this time. Thanks, sister 
secretary; let us hear from you often. 

All secretaries should send in a list 
of their newly elected officers and put 
their granges in good standing as soon 
as possible. The new A. V\'. will soon 
be ready to send out. Look to it that 
your grange is entitled to receive it. 

Some men ''jump at conclusions;" 
others reach them by a process of rea- 
soning. .Some men say the grange is 
of no account; others who have taken 
note of what it has done and is now do- 
ing, call it the greatest organization 
for the benefit of farmers that ever ex- 
isted, say our Eastern exchanges. 

Our (/)-(iiH/f //riiHfs reports the order 
in a good healthy condition all through 
the New England States. 

The progress of the grange, in some 
respects, has been slow and for this 
reason many have become discouraged 
and given up the work, while in other 
respects it has made immense strides 
and placed itself in the front rank as a 
means of social and legislative reform. 
On the whole, there are vastly more 
reasons for rejoicing than repining and 
every prospect that the wheels will 
move easier and faster in the future 
than in the past. 

Address all communications for State 
(irange to Don Mills, secretary, Santa 
Rosa, Cal. 

Sacramento Grange Officers. 

i Miserable 



— with— 




"Several yc;iis ago. iny bhnM was in 
bad condition, my system all nin down, 
and my general health very much im- 
paired. Sly hands wcic cMivcicd with 
large S(ires, discharjiinf; all tlio time. I 
had no strength nor energy and my feel- 
ings were niiserahli- in tlu' exlrrme. At 
last, I commenced taking Ay/r's Sarsa- 
parilla and .soon noticed a change for the 
better. My a|>i)ellfe returned and with 
it, rencwcil strength. Knco\iraged by 
these results, I kept on taking the Sar- 
saparilla, till 1 had used six bottles, and 
my healtii was rest<)re<l."— A. A. Towns, 
prop. Harris House. Thompson. N.Dak. 













iS£S2,« ? -9i?i?i ? ?-9-?-9-9-9-9 o o o o « 




RIFLES »l.7.5l 




ll.f'.r« you buj Kod 



McMullen; Overseer, Geo. Hamilton; 
Lecturer, Frankie (!reer; Steward, 
Bert Hayden; Ass't Steward, Geo. 
Burke; Chaplain, Mrs. R. E. McMullen; 
Treasurer, T. A. Lauder; Secretary, 
Adell Krull; (rate Keeper, \Vm. Sims; 
Pomona, Nellie Sims: Flora, Lillian 
Duden; Ceres, Mrs. A. N. Youngman; 
Lady Assistant Steward, Jennie Sims; 
Pianist, Gussie Wilcox. Installation 
on January 12th. 

1 also send you list of Sacramento 
County Pomona Grange, No. 2; Mas- 
ter, S. H. Jack man; Overseer, Jos. 
Holmes; Lecturer, Hat tie Jones; Stew- 
ard, D. Flint; Ass't Steward, A. M. 
Plummer; Chaplain. David Lufkin; 
Treasurer, .M. Sprague; Secretary, A. 
A. Krull; Gate Keeper, L. Schelmeyer; 
Pomona, N. Youngman; Flora. M. 
fvrull; Ceres, A. M. Jackinan; Lady 
Assistant Steward, Etta Plummer; 
Pianist, Adell Krull. Installation at 
next meeting. Respectfully, 

Adeli, Kruli,, 
Secretary Sacramento Grange. 

Sacramento, Dec. 81, 1894. 
To THE Rural: — I herewith send you 
a list of the elected officers of Sacra- 
mento Grange, No. 12: Master, E. G. 

Health Restored 

No Strength nor Energy 

Bkdwx'.s BKOscHiALTRfK iies are unequaled 
for clearing the voice. Public speakers and 
sing'ers the world over use them. 

Seeds, Plants, Etc. 


Citrus and Deciduous Trees, 


In the State, at ttie Home Nurseries, Pasadena, Cal. 

One and Iwo-ycar old Orango and Ui-mon Trees, 
the finest and thriftiest stock ever (irowu any- 
where, and all the best Viirieties. iilso Pomolo 
(Grape Fruit), and the JapaneKO Red Dancy Tan- 
gerine Orange; also the best deciduous trees. 
Raspberries, Blackberries and the Wnuderful 
Everbearing and other line varieties of Strawber- 
ries. Nothing but the best of all varieties of 
Fruits and Nuts. Don't fail to write for prices to 
HEWITT & COK.SON". rro'ps. PHSHdeiia, Cal. 




First -Class Fruit Trees. 


Grower and Dealer in 

Ge- tn e" ra 1 INuirse'ry Stoc-k.. 

Salesyard, Cor. Third and Davis Sts. 

Please send for Price Lists. 

223 Third St., Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, Cal, 

Spark's Mammoth 


Prices to Meet the Times. 

Befoic purchashing elsewhere write 

N. B. SMITH Ventnra. Ventura Co., Cal. 



Apple, Peach, Cherry. Apricot and Almond 

First-Class Trees at very low prices. 

E. GILL, Nurseryman, Oakland, Cal. 



For Sale at $10 per Thoasand. 

Also, a fine lot of Winter Nells and Bartlett Pear 
Trees, six to eight feet high, at prices to suit the 


it>a City, Sutter Co. 


•3f J CIWE BLOODED Cattle. Sheep. Hogs. 

ja**^*-^ r Poultry. Sportiiit; Dogs. .Send stamps 
for Calalngnes. 15(1 engravings. 

N. 1". 130YER.& CO.,.(,oatcsviUe,.Pa. 

400,000 Fruit Trees 

! Sacramento River Nursery Co., 

For sale at Cut Prices. No better trees in Cali' 
fornia. Terms and discounts satisfactory. 
Address OSfAK KNOTT, ^Valnut (Jrove. 
Or, .V. K. H.VKMi;. l»l. toii. 

r~» pzr IZr ' — ' A FINE ASSORTMENT. 
1 rvl— ^1— best varieties, free from 

— AND pt'sts of any kind. I'ruiiuH 

OI a IVIT^S slinoni. Blue, Kostravor 
f^l^^^l^ I ^3 «nil .Murdoch Cherrlen; 
KlHck (California FIkx: Ki<-« Soft Sli«ll and 
other Aliu<inUF«; Aiiierl<*an .Sweet ClieKtiiuts; 
Prseparturleus WalnutH. Hardy niouniatn trrown 
I Oranjfe Trees, Our oranges have stood 22 degrees 
this winter without Injury. Dollar Strawberry, 
the best l>erry for home use or market. Address 
(;, M. SII.VA X SON, l.lncolii. Placer C<iuiity, 

•tanuary 6, 1895. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


A Happy New Year 

is bound to be your portion if you put i n t your ground the right kind of 
garden goods — the resultful grade of fruit trees. Send for our hand- 
somely illustrated fruit tree catalogue, or for our illustrated general seed 

and plant catalogue. 

Sunset Seed and Plant Co., 

427-g Sansome St., San Francisco. 

" Plums — tell your people to grow the best 
lums ; they will always lind a good market." 

So said several of the largest handlers of fruits 
in Chicago when the quesliou was asked them re- 
cently, " What is the most profitable fruit to plant 
now ?' " 

Clymaii. Burbank. Mikado. Normand. 

Satsuma. Tragedy. Kelsey. Diamond. 
Grand Duko. Simon. lekworth. Pond. 

These are the besl. Wrile for prices, which will 
be made very low. 

Also, almoet everything else in the Fruit and 
Nut Tree line. Seeds, Bulbs, Plants, etc. 


Napa \ alley N ui seru K, 

NAPA, t'AL. 

James A. Anderson, 

Lodi, San Joaquin County, Cal. 

Has a Clioice Stuck of YEARLING NURSERY 

TREES for this season's planting. Guaranteed 
free from disease and insect pests, and at prices 
to suit the times. 

Blenheim, Royal and Freuch Apricots. 

Hungarian, Tragedy aijd French Prunes. 

Burbank, Salsunia and Kelsey Plums. 

Ne Plus Ultra. La Prima. Texas Prolilic, I. X. L , 
Nonpariel and Limguedoc Almonds. 

Sahvay, Crawford. Muir and twenty other vari- 
eties of Peaches. 

Also Nectarines, Apples, Pears, Cherries, Figs, 
Oranges. Lemons, etc. 

Your prices are mine. Don't forget to write for 
particulars. Correspondence solicited and cheer- 
fully answered. Address all communications, 
J. A. ANDERSON, Lodi, CaL 



ALEXANDER & HAMMON. Orange Trees. 

No Irrigation. 

Grouyers of all the Leading; 
Varieties of Frt-ilt Trees. 

Correspondence solicited. 

JAS. O'NEILL & SON, Haywards, 

Alameda County, Cal. 

FINE SMALL FRUITS a specialty. 


Best Market Beriy known: huge, linn and lus- 
cious, stands travel liuely. beais Ininieu.sely, and 
has iwo crops a year; 'M cents per dozen; per lUU. 
Also Strawberries. Blackberries. Gooseberries. Cur- 
rants, etc.. of the tini.'st imported varieties. Prices 
on application. L,. II. MrCANN. Santa Cru/., Cal. 


01i\/e^ Xre^e^s, 

Mission and Nevadillo, 

Three- Year-Old Stock, 

4 to 6 Feet and 6 to 8 Feet High. 



Pomona, California. 

TDCnC Af rni n plum, splendor prune, van 
I ntuo 01 UULU DEMAN <|Uiiice-ohoire of 
liuvbauk's -JO I»I illion •■new cri'atioiis." STARK 
Trees PREPAID i vervwiiere. SAFE ARRIVAL guar, 
aiiteed. '1 hc- greal uurseries"saveyoii over HALF. 
Miliionsof lb.' best trees 70 ye:irs' experience cau 
grow; tliey "live longer and bear better."— Sec. 
Afurtciii. STARK, B 14, Louisiana, Mo. .Rockport, III. 

RIO BONITO NURSERIES, Biggs, Butte Co., Cal. 


The most Complete Assortment of General Nursery Stock grown on the Pacific Coast. 

1,000,000 Trees for the Season of 1894=95 in Stock. 

*9" Acknowledged everywhere to be equal to the best. Guaranteed to be healthy and free from 
cale or other pests. 

Send for Catalogue and Prices. Correspondence solicited. Address: 

Alexander & Hammon, 

B'SSs. Butte CountVt Cal. 


mi ACRE,^. 

California Nursery Company, 

INILES, Crt L I F="0 R PM I ft . 


Fruit IVees, Nut Trees, Small Fruits, Ornamental Trees 
and Shrubs, Palms, Flowering Plants, Etc. 

SPECIALTY: — All the Italian, French ^and Spanish Varieties of Olives of 
Note True " Spanish Queen, Rubra, Regalis, Etc. 

Write US for new Catalogues and Estimates. Prices to suit the times. 

JOHN ROCK, ::::::: flanager. 







(Successor to \'an Gelder &, Wylie.) 
Write for pri<'4's on ljirj;e anil sikiiill oriiers. 

i\( : f\ rv\ I > . ( ; /\ L. 


^^-^^ ✓-r 1^-^^^ Get our Catalogue and Prices be- 
^5 L"^1V Lvli I fore purchasing: your Trees or 


Anything in the Nursery Line. 

Clean, Thrifty, Healthy Stock at 
Prices to Suit the Times. 

E. C Clow/es, 


Awutded VVorld'B Columbian Oriuiil Prize MoiIhI ft)r Purity 

QPP.fiTAT. nTTTm For only lUc I will send onn liberal 
tizXi^Z^iti^ I.nckHue ench of New Everhloominij 
Pansy and Oill Kiltied Swfet Pens Beautiful Seed und 
Plant Cataloeue FREE. AddresH nt ouco. 


P. O. Box}QlC. Rockford Hetd Farms. 

Hucide<l trees of tlie leading: varieties, one and 
two-year buds, also seedlings trees from 
one to four years old — all good, thrifty 
stoeli. free from scale. 

Also, a general variety of 

Nursery Stock and Trees. 

Prices to suit the times. 

OSoviLLE C™ AssocimoM, 



Large Stock of Unirrigated Trees 

on whole Seedling Roots, warranted free 
from scale and root knot. Prices low. 
Cherrie.s, Grapes, Nut and Shade Trees 
very low. All leading varieties. 
Normand, Abundance, Willard and Slmoui 
Plums; Buugounie Japan ApricotSj Early 
Bearing Apples, and Earliest Yellow 

New Price List Free. 

R. W. BELL, 


E. J. Bo\A/en, 


Alfalfa, Grass, Clover, Vegetable 

and Flower Seeds. — Onion Sets. 

Largest Stock and JVIost Complete Assortment. 

Send for large illustrated descriptive and priced 
Catalogue, mailed free. 

New crop Salt Lake Alfalfa. Inquire for samples 
and prices. 


815, 817 and 819 Sansome St., San Francisco, Cal. 
65 Front St., Portland, Or. 
Or 2U Commercial St., Seattle, Wash. 


Doubtful Seeds alone. The 
are easy to get, and cost no 
more. Ask your dealer for 


Always the best. Known 
everywhere. Perry's Seed 
Annual for 189!} tells you 
^what, how, and when to plur 
Soul Free. Get it, Addrcs 
D. m. FERRY & CO., 
Detroit, Mich. 

01i\/e^ Xree^s 


For prices and a pamphlet on Olive ('uUure, ad 


i*oiiiou», L.OH Aa|;«leFt iv'ii., (JhI. 

Olive Trees. 

our Hook on Olive Culture. 

HoxA/Iand Bros., 



Send for Catalogue. 
C. P. LOOP & SON Pomona, Cal. 


January 5, 1896. 


'\re Headquarters for Comi)Utte. S|)r,i\ iivj^ and 
Whitew ishing Outfits. 

The Best Spray Pump, Best Spray Nozzles 
and Best Spray Hose. 

Noizles arranged to spray at any angle ordered. 

THE BEAN CYCLONE NOZZLE — a new Invention this 
season — is self-cleaning and throws a line and pene- 
trating spray. 

Tlie HKAN and NEW BEAN NOZZLES, so well Itnown, 
are also our Invention. 

Bean Spray Pump'Xo. 

Los Gatos, Cal. 


umm SAN JOSH, CAL. i— I 

Agrioultural Implements. 


The creamer.v men of these Uiiiltil status an- siMisible mi-ii They «ic not to tf cajoleil liy silly 
challenges nor impractleuble " practicahility." They liavf iri,"d 


And know exactly what it will do. Tlii' ri-.suU is that our shi^ps are Hlled w ith orders wLilu others are 
doing comparatively nothing. 


What a creamery man demands is l"!lean SUimniiiig. Economy of l'"uel and Small CotH for Re- 
newal of Worn-Out Parts. The Russian is the only niarhiue iu thi' worlil that c:>mbiufs all these. 
Send for circulars and please meulion Ihis paprr. 

Wet* H^tnil^on 


GATHERERS, STEEL WINDMILLS, WAGOMS. j Sole Pacific- <:::oast Afzerits, 

^ ■nrrr""^"-'*' — ""-^ '■'giy^^\mTi-.. ^ I SAN FRANCISCO. SACRAMENTO. LOS ANGELES. NEW YORK. 


Also BCCKKYK SHOt': AM» HOK DRILLS. AUo UlC, < \ C I.ONK, «1EM nnil < AII<»«*N SEKDEKS. 





Vol. XLIX. No. 2. 



OfBce, 220 Market Street. 


Our New Qovernor. 

Before this issue of the Rural reaches remote 
readers the gentleman whose face adorns this page 
will probably be duly inaugurated Governor of Cali- 
fornia. He enjoys the distinction of being chosen as 
a Democrat while the whole galaxy comprising the 
rest of the State ofiBcers came from the Republican 
camp. James H. Budd has been a Californiau nearly 

all his life. He was educated in California schools 
and graduated at our State Univensity. Following 
in his father's footsteps, he chose the professif)n of 
the law and residence and soon became prominent in 
public affairs in San Joaquin county. He has 
occupied various minor positions of trust and repre- 
sented the State in Congress about twel''e years 
ago. Of Mr. Budd's views and actions on public 
questions the Rural has discoursed on other pages, 

and will probably have future occasion to do so. On 
this page we merely present his handsome face to 
show our readers the manner of man who is their 
chief officer. He knows California and Californians 
well, and both for the honor of the State and his 
own we hope his administration may be character- 
ized by purity, public spirit and disinterestedness. 
We certainly need such an administration and will 
honor the man who achieves it. 


January 12, 1895. 


(>ffict,No.220 ilarket at.; Elevator, No. VJ Front .S/.,,V«« francuco, (3al. 

All subscribers paving f3 lii advance will receive 15 months' (one 
year and 13 weeks) credit. For tl In advance, 10 mouths. For »1- lu 
advance, Ave months. 

Adxicrti»lng rates made known mi appUcation. 

Any subscriber seiuUrifr an Inquir.v on an.v subject to the KrKAL 
PHKS8, with a postajfe stamp, will receive a repl.v. either throuirh the 
columns of the paper or by personal letter. The answer will be given 
as promptly as practicable. 

Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening. 

Chicago Office CHAS. D. SPALDING, m ISf La Salle St. 

Registered at S. F. PostofSce as second-class niall matter. 


E. J. WICKSON Special Contributor. 

San Francisco, January 12, 1895. 


ILLUSTRATIONS.— Hon. James H. Budd, Governor of Califor- 
nia, 17. , , 

EDITORIALS.— Our Governor, 17. The Week, 18. From au lude- 
peudent Standpoiut. 19. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— From Two Rock Grange: Installa- 
tion at Yuba City, IW. 

CORRESPONDENCE.— Distant Shipment of Nursery Stock: Apples 
Grafted ou Pears. -M. 

WEATHER AND CROPS.— Crop Conditions and Outlook, 21. 

FRUIT MARKETING.— The Exchange Method In Selling Pro- 
duce. 22. 

HORTICULTURE.— Nursery Irrigation. 22. Lye for Olive Pick- 
ling, 23. 

THE ORNITHOLOGIST.— Beueflcial vs. Injurious Birds, 23. 

THE HOME CIRCLE.— In the Homestead Barn: My Own; Estelle's 
Christinas Punishment; Gems of Thought, 24. A Good Wife; 
Hanging Pictures; The Farmer s Boy; The Farmer's Girl, 2.5. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— Kitchen Lore; Hints to Housekeepers, 25. 

MISCELLANEOUS.— Temperature and Rainfall: A Car for Ship- 
ping Fruit in Bulk: Gleanings, 2(). Coast ludustrial Notes, 28. 
Four Hundred Degrees Below Zero; The New Constituent of Ihe 
Air; Armor Plate for Russia. 27. Wages of Steamship Building: 
War Craft of Samoa: How Thoughtful : '28. Commercial Products 
Obtained from Sharks, 29. Horseshoes of Cast Steel, 3U. 


Agricultural Implements- Hooker & Co :tl 

Nursery Stock- Thos. Meherin HI 

Annual Meeting— California Fruit Union 29 

Pure Food Exposition 29 

Prune Trees for Sale— F. N. Woods, Santa Clara, Cal 30 

Trees— W. T. A. Stratton, Petaluma, Cal 30 

Nursery Stock— Aloha Orange Nurseries, Penryn, Cal 31 

Pure-bred Poultry— R. G. Head, Napa, Cal 28 

The Week. 

Weather and 

We call attention to the interest- 
ing report by Sergt. Bar wick, on 
another page, showing the situa- 
tion as locally considered, in view of this year's gen- 
erous rainfall. It looks as though we should have an 
old-fashioned year of great produce figures, and that 
counties which have not carried the banner for grain 
output for several years would be in the strife for it 
next harvest. Of course, this prospect for the arid 
regions always means too much for the low and 
otherwise moist lands, but so far injuries have been 
as little as could be expected under the circum- 
stances. Some seed will be lost by overflow and 
some land will not be tit for the seeder fur days or 
weeks, and this means rather late sowing, which is 
not desirable. Men and teams, too, have been idle 
for most of a month. ;uul Ihis means much cost of 
bacon and barley without anything to show for it. 
But this will be forgotten if the weather will only be 
contented with its record and give the people a show 
to go to work and do their part for a good year. 

Pure Kood 

There is soon to be inaugurated in 
this city an exposition of a very 
practical kind, namely, a Pure 
Food Show. It will be at the Mechanics" Pavilion, 
and, opening on Jan. 28th, will continue until Feb. 
15th. The plan of this Show is to exhibit and adver- 
tise food commodities absolutely pure and to give in- 
struction in their preparation. This will be done 
Oy Mrs. Lincoln, author of a widely known cook-ljook, 
wh) will accompany her lectures with practical 
demonstrations. This exposition has a special rela- 
tion to Ihe fruit interest of California because it 
affords a means of advertising our fruit products 
and of instructing the public in their i)reparalion 
:ind use. It is a fact that it is not possible in any 
hotel or restaurant of San Francisco to get a dish of 
California dried fruits properly cooked; and this 
being the sii nation at home, what can we fxi)eet 
abroad ? Tiiis ignoi ance. of course, works against 
the California fruit market; and if we are ever to 
have a great market the people must be taught how 
to prepare and how to use our product. A good 
place to begin is at home, and this coming Pure Food 
Show affords a good opportunity. Tiiere should be a 
magnificent display of California dried fruits, and in 
connection a cooking department in prac- 
tical hands, with cooked samples for all who will eat 
them. This is good work for the State Horticultural 
Society or the State Boai-d of Horticulture, or both. 

There seems no doubt that the 
wheat "deal," which was repre- 
sented last year by Mr. Louis Mc- 
Glauflin by very large purchases in the San Fran- 
risco Produce Exchange, was backed by the late 

Fair and the 
Wheat Deal. 

James G. Fair. One broker who watched the wheal 
deal very closely has made some calculations, and he 
estimates that the lo.sses to Fair will not exceed $1,- 
21.5,000 on the whole deal. The broker possesses an 
extensive knowledge of Fair's operations in the 
wheat market, and in discussing the matter said: 
" Those who have watched the big deal closely be- 
lieve that the average price Fair paid for his wheat 
was $1,072 per cental, and not $1.20, as has been 
quoted. The price for spot wheat yesterday was 90 
cents, and even at the latter price there would be a 
loss of only 17^ cents per cental. Add to this 7} 
cents for storage and 2] cents for insurance, and 
the total loss per cental would be 27 ' cents. It is not 
believed that Fair has over 200.000 tons of wheat at 
Port Costa. He has not to exceed 2.), 000 -tons in the 
i-est of the State. A total of 225,000 tons would 
amount to 4,500,000 centals, figuring on a loss of 
27J cents per cental, Fair s entire loss ou his wheat 
transaction would be $1,215^000. Even these, I con- 
sider, are high figures." There has been some fear 
that the death of Mr. Fair would suddenly release 
his accumulations upon the market, to its utter and 
complete demorali'/.ation, but this is hardly to be ex- 
pected. The trustees of the estate have ample au- 
thority; thev understand the situation thoroughly, 
and it is believed that they will be careful to protect 
the market. There is, we are assured, no foundation 
in fact in the stories so industriously circulated that 
certain large lots of wheat at Port Costa are in- 
fested with weevil. 

Mail advices confirm all that the 
telegraph has said about the great 
allliction which our friends upon 
the Peninsula have undergone. The .Jacksonville 
Tlmis-rnliiii of .January l^rd comes with five columns 
of reports from ail parts of the State, which show 
that the injuries are about as bad as could be in- 
fiicted. The heading of the long series of reports of 
evil give an impressive summary, thus; 






111 Flnridii mil B, 
Than a Milliiiii 



Antl Vrry Grave Fears An- Knter- 
taineit for llir Safely nl 
)'tiiniii (Iriinn. 


Mireurii 14 Decrees in Jiic/.xiiii riV/c 
(iiiii IS Degrees at 7'fiiii;iii 
iMid TilUKVille. 



Fnrze W ill fiisl llie Florida /.iiiin 
Altine FiiUu Half a Millinn Dol- 
lars — .\i> Section of Ihe 
Slalc Esvapeti — Pine- 
apple Crop fx Said 
To Be Rnined. 

Reading the records of disaster upon which the 
foregoing rests, wi^ find mention of ice two inches 
thick on standing water; icicles ten feet long hang- 
ing from water tanks; mercury as low as 12" in some 
places, etc. Apprehension is great for the safety of 
the trees, and for the next year's crop, even if the 
trees survive. On the whole, the visitation is about 
as bad as it can be without giving Florida up as a 
semi-tropical country. It will no doubt bring great 
hardship to many peojile. 

. .Ml those interested in the problem 

of fruit marketing by producers 
will read with avidity the letter 
by Mr. Righter on another iiage, in which he cites 
with such good effect the example of co-operative 
selling as carried on by the dairy exchanges at the 
PJast. We can personally indorse what Mr. Righter 
says of the uniqueness and economy of the method 
there employed. It was not originated at Elgin, but 
at Utica, New York, ui the year 1871, and the writer 
was associated with the enterprise at that time. 
For a few years previously New York buyers had 
made weekly visits to the region of the cheese fac- 
tories, going from place to place and driving as hard 
a bargain as they could with the sellers, isolated as 
they were and unacquainted with the state of the 
market. Then came street markets at I^ittle Falls 
and Herkimer, wliich v\ ere better in that the sellers 
met the buyers at one point, but, best of all, they 
were able to get some notion of the state of the mar- 
ket before closing with the buyers. From this arose by 
evolution the dairy exchanges of which .\lr. Righter 
speaks, where there was a meeting room specially fit- 
ted up with blackboards upon which special dispatches 
and cables for the trade was almost wholly for ex- 
port. The sellers now met the buyers fully in- 
formed upon the state of the market and a 
new era of dairy commerce began, of which 
Mr. Righter gives the recent results at 
Elgin. The dairy exchanges are continued in the 
New York points and constitute a decidedly unique 
feature in prodm e selling, as already stated. To the 
Utica Dairy Excliange there frequently came that 
distinguished New Yorker, Horatio Seymour, bring- 
ing his guests to show them the only place in the 

world, as he said, where the producer met the buyer 
upon terms of equal advantage. It is true, the Cali- 
fornia fruit producer has much to learn from this ex- 
perience of the dairymen. We are glad Mr. l\ightcr 
has brought it iqi. 

The elevation of California oranges 
by the Florida freeze still contin- 
ues. It is reported from the South 
that there is brisk inquiry by telegraph and other- 
wise for fruit. The following facts come by telegraph 
from San Bernardino, .Jan. 8th: 

The Kedlaiitls As.sooiatioii has already .shipped ten carloads 
to cities east of the Mississippi river, and this morning had 
orders for ten carloads more from the .same iiiarltet. This is 
phenomenal. The c-ousumers for whom these oranges are pur- 

I cha.sed have been accustomed to use Florida fruit until that 
source of supply was exhausted, and toward March 1st they 

I coniinenced sending in orders for California fruit. 

j Along with the increased demand conies a condition in prices 
which is certainly satisfactory. The first Navels which were 
shipped East last year were sold at *l..'jO, and that was six 
weeks later than the present date. Ko Navels have yet been 
shipped East for less than *'J. 50, a clear gain of -Sl over last 
year s prices. S^eedlings are quoted at *2, and cannot be hud 
for less, and prices are not only firm at those figures, but al- 
ready a move to advance theni has been made. The Colton 
Exchange announced to-day that it would flU orders already 
received at for Navels, but that no more orders would be 

accepted at those prices. The Exchange has not announced 
at what figures they will accept orders, but it Is understood 
that no more oranges will be sold by the Colton Exchange at 
less than *;< per box. 

It is announced that in San Bernardino four-fifths 
of the crop in the county is within the control of the 
Fruit Growers' As.sociation. Oranges are ripening 
one month earlier than last season, owing to the 
long-continued hot weather late in the season, and 
the quality is superior to that of many years pre- 
vious. This is very fortunate, in view of the ))reseiit 
demand in Kastern markets. 

Poultry Sliov 

The Fruit 

As the Rural goes to press this 
week there is in progress in this 
city the greatest Poultry Show 
ever made on the Pacific coast, and one of the best 
ever made anywhere. The whole fioor space of the 
Mechanics' Pavilion is occupied by coops in which 
about two thousand birds, representative of the 
standard and fancy breeds of chickens, turkeys, 
pigeons, etc., etc., are on exhibition. To those who 
have not kept track of our development in poultry 
lines it is a revelation to learn that California is close 
up to the head of the list for scientific breeding, and 
that the jiractieal result is an interest which ranks 
with the larger and most profitable lines of industry. 
As an exposition the show is a pronounced success, 
and it is bound to stimulate fancy breeders and 
others to continued effort. As a business project, 
we fear the show has not been profitable, A succes- 
sion of wet days have limited the attendance, and, as 
the expenses are heavy, it is to be feared that the 
association will be the loser for its enterprise. We 
omit premium statements until a list of the awards 
has been made uj). but hope to be able to give it 
next week. 

An advertisement on another page 
I iiiuii announces the tenth annual meet- 

ing of the stockholders of the Cali- 
fornia Fruit Union. It will be remembered that at 
its last annual meeting the organization resolved to 
retire from active business, and, if we are not mis- 
taken, the Fruit Union, as such, made no shipments 
during the last fruit season. Those growers who, 
toward the last, constituted the exchange, probably 
found they could dispose of their fruit in other ways 
to greater advantage, and so allowed the organiza- 
tion to take a nap. We presume it will never be 
awakened. Such au end to an atVair which was be- 
gun with .so much spirit ten years ago is not pleasant 
to contemplate. We hope it had rather advanced 
until, by this time, we could have a comprehensive 
co-operative marketing organization which would 
have prevented the intrusion of all the greed and ex- 
actions of t raiisportation. refrigeration and selling 
comijanics which have so far flourished and grown 
fat, that the grower has found little or nothing for 
him ill the grand business which covers so many mil- 
lions of dollars. Still, though it has come .so very 
far short of realizing the anticipations of its found- 
ers, the Fruit Union certainly did some distinguished 
services to the fruit interest, and it is upon these 
that the mind should rest, in view of its approach- 
ing dissolution. If it should conclude to die. let it 
rest in peace. 


Next week, Wednesday, Januiiiy 
Itith, tlie American Pfimological 
Society will convene in Sacramento 
ill the hall provided for the purpose by the citizens' 
committee of Sacramento. Excursion parlies of 
Eastern members are already on their way west- 
ward, one of them including the president of the so- 
ciety. Prosper J. Berckmans of Georgia is expected 
to reach San Francisco on the 13th. The American 
Pomological Society is the oldest and most distin- 
guished American society in the horticultural in- 
terest. It was established forty-five years ago and 
is therefore a twin sister of the State of California, 

January 12, 1895. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 

That these babes of '49 should first meet in '95 is an 
interosting fact. Roth have had distinguished ca- 
reers in their own linos. When the American Pomo- 
logical Society was established, no charter member 
knew of Califor-nia except as a sort of far-away ophir; 
and, to return the compliment, certainly no Cali- 
fornian of '49 had an idea that such a society would 
ever have any use for this country. But so much 
lias been accomplished in American pomology during 
the last half century that no one could possibly have 
foreseen the attainments of the present day nor the 
vast area of earth's surface which a national pomo- 
logical society must look upon as its parish. The 
work of the American Pomological Society has been 
upon progressive lines, and yet quite different from 
those which occupy most societies. It has labored 
long and earnestly for more scientific methods in po- 
mology. It has done great things for the pomo- 
logical nomenclature of America, and its lists are 
accepted as the most accurate attainable. It in- 
cludes among its members, and always has, more of 
those who regarded pomology as a science than as an 
industrial affair, and yet it has never neglected the 
advancement of fruit production upon industrial lines. 
It has had among its officers and members such dis- 
tinguished men as Marshall P. Wilder, Charles Down- 
ing, Patrick Barry, Wilson G. Flagg and others, 
who have gone to their reward. It has now as 
members the most distinguished Eastern pomolo- 
gists. It will do Californians good to meet such 
people and to shake the kindly hands of the fathers 
of an industry which has reached such unexampled 
greatness on this coast. We trust there may be a 
general rallying of California fruit growers in Sacra- 
mento next week to welcome the guests of the State. 

The Almy Olive Co. has been formed at Oroville. It has 80 
acres planted to olives and will plant 160 more this season. 
Following are the ofiticers : President, Hon. John C. Gray; 
Secretary and Manager, H. N. Almy; Treasurer, Bank of 
Rideout, Smith & Co. Directors— Hon. John C. Gray, E. W. 
Fogg, Warren Sexton, C. W. McAfee and Hon. W. A. 

The Ontario 0/(seriJC/- says that in Uiverside county a wail 
is going up over the threatened extermination of the quail. 
In this county, and especially in this locality, quail are still 
numerous — so numerous, in fact, as to be regarded during the 
grape season as an unmitigated pest by vineyardists. During 
the grape season the killing of quail is permitted within one 
mile of a vineyard. 

GoNz.tLEs Trilmne: About 1200 tons of 1893 wheat have been 
sold in Gonzales during the past two weeks at an average 
price of 70 cents to the holder, or $1 in San Francisco. The 
Sperry Flour Company of Salinas was the heaviest purchaser, 
some 600 tons belonging to the Quirk estate having been 
shipped to that company. Owing to the recent strengthening 
of the wheat market, this 1200 tons sold fur aboiit «4000 more 
Ihau it would have brought a month ago, 

From an Independent Standpoint. 

The project to keep Mr. Budd out of the Gov- 
ernorship has, as we predicted a month ago, com- 
pletely exploded. It was never anything more than 
a personal scheme without even a partisan backing, 
and its promoters had only the hope of forcing from 
Mr. Budd some concessions in the way of patronage. 
With this hope they kept up the farce of threats 
until the last moment; and it is believed they were 
finally compelled to give up without reaping any 
advantage whatever. Budd is not the sort of man 
easily made afraid; he is a fighter "from away 
back," and this fact has been found out by those 
whose scheme it was to scare him into compromises. 
His inauguration has been fixed for Friday (we 
write on Wednesday), and before this paper reaches 
its readers he will be the Governor of California. 
The RuKAL gives him greeting and GodsjDeed ! 

W^e have never made any pretense of enthusiasm 
about Mr. Budd, but his warmest personal and 
political supporter does not wish him greater success 
in his new duties and dignities than does the RuRAr- 
Press. We have had a long succession of inefficiency, 
venality, ignorance, drunkenness, imbecility and 
foolishness in the Governorship, and it is time for a 
change. Mr. Budd has youth, energy, education 
and fine talents and he ought to make — we believe he 
will make — a better Governor than California has 

The impression seems to be general that, inasmuch 
as the Legislature and the State officers generally 
are in political opposition, the new Governor will 
have small chance to enforce his plans. There is 
some foundation for this idea, for it is quite true that 
in legislative matters he will have no partisan co-op- 
eration. However, in the appointment of the vari- 
ous State commissions there is a very large 
measure of power. Even if his scheme for re- 
organization of the system should be rejected, 
there is still a large opportunity for him. Besides 
his office force the Governor appoints the Adjutant 
General, at his pleasure. The salary is $3('00, and 
there is an assistant at $2400 and a clerk at $1200. 
The Governor appoints one San Francisco Harbor 
ComniissioHer, March 12, 1895, and another (giving 

I him control of the Board) March 12, 1897. Control 
of the San Diego and Eureka Boards will be obtained 
in March, 1896. The San Francisco Port Wardens 
(four in number) will be appointed in January and 
March of this year. The San Diego Port Warden- 
ship will be vacant in December. The pay is by fees 
— a system which should be changed for a fixed sal- 
ary. The Pilot Commissioners also are paid by fees. 
They hold office at the Governor's pleasure. Three 
are in San Francisco, with a secretary at $1200; one 
is in San Diego and another at Wilmington. Control 
of the Bank Commission will not be obtained until 
May, 1898. The Insurance Commission holds until 
April, 1898. Four Yosemite Commissioners go out 
in April. 1896. This will give the Governor control, 
and enable him to put a stop to some of the abuses in 
the management of the Valley affairs which have be- 
come so notorious. 

In March of the present year the Commissioner of 
Labor Statistics will be appointed. The Board of 
Silk Culture, which receives no money, will be ap- 
pointed in April, 1896. It consists of seven persons. 
The State Board of Arbitration, three members (pay, 
$5 a day and traveling expenses while employed), are 
appointed "at the Governor's pleasure." The Gov- 
ernor obtains control of the Sutter Fort Board, of 
five members, in March, 1897. The Governor ap- 
points the guardian of the Marshall monument ($600 
a year). The State Board of Health holds till Janu- 
ary, 1897. The San Francisco Board of Health is 
appointed at the pleasure of the Governor, Control 
of the State Board of Dental Examiners will not be 
obtained till March, 1896. All the seven members of 
the State Board of Pharmacy go out of office next 
April. The State Mining Bureau is controlled by 
five trustees, who hold at the pleasure of the Gov- 
ernor. The Governor can appoint in May, 1897, 
the Commissioners of Building and Loan Associa- 
tions. He appoints at pleasure the three Fish Com- 
missioners. The term of the Commissioner of Public 
Works ends next March. The Debris Commissioner 
holds office till July 27, 1897. Salary $3600, secre- 
tary $1500. The two Commissioners of the Sacra- 
mento Funded Debt are reappointed in September, 
1895, and September, 1896, respectively. In March, 
1897, the Governor appoints the five members of the 
State Veterinary Medical Board. Each receives a 
salary of $5 per diem when on official duty. There 
is no reason why this Board, like the Dental Exam- 
iners and the Board of Pharmacy, should not serve 
without pay. The Governor appoints "at pleasure" 
the three trustees of the State Burial Ground. He 
also appoints the San Francisco Registrar of Voters, 
salary $3000, clerk $1800, messenger $1200. He is 
supposed to appoint the San Francisco Police Com- 
missioners, whose term of office is so indefinite. 
There are nine members of the State Board of Hor- 
ticulture. Five of them go out next September, and 
this will give the Governor control. The Viticultural 
Commission cannot be controlled until April, 1896. 
The State Board of Agriculture has twelve members. 
The Governor can appoint three next February, 
three in February, 1896, and three more, getting a 
control, in February, 1897. The forty-three district 
boards all come under his control by December, 1896. 
Governor Budd can appoint for 1896 two Regents of 
the University. The retiring members are Hon. 
Timothy Guy Phelps and Columbus Bartlett. He 
will appoint two more Regents in 189S, the retiring 
members being Hon. J. West Martin and George T. 
Marye, Jr. The Governor can appoint at pleasure 
all the trustees of the State Normal Schools; five for 
Chico, five for San Jose and five for Los Angeles. 
Next March the Governor appoints three of the five 
trustees of the Home for P'eeble-Minded Children 
(Glen Ellen). This month he appoints one Director 
of the Stockton Insane Asylum, but the other four 
hold till 1897. He appoints two directors of the 
Napa Asylum in 1896; the others in 1898. At Ag- 
news, three Directors, a majority, go out next Feb- 
ruary. Control of the Mendocino Asylum will be 
obtained next March, and control of the Southern 
Cafifornia Asylum in May, 1896. All five of the Di- 
rectors of the Deaf, Dumb and Blind Asylum at 
Berkeley go out of office next March. The Governor 
appoints at pleasure the five Dinn-tors of the Home 
for the Adult Blind in Oakland, There are five State 
Prison Directors, appointed for ten years. The 
Governor will appoint only two during his term of 

„, „ . Mr. Adams, of the State Fruit 

The ExrhaiiKC ' 

Exchange, informs us that the Ex- 


change has received the names of 
over sixty authorized delegates to the Convention of 
Exchanges to be held in this city during the coming 
week. These delegates are from the several local 
Exchanges, with power to fully I'epresent the bodies 
which sent them. It is understood that the future 
of the State Exchange rests with them — hence the 
great importance of their meeting. 


Palermo will ship thirty carloads of oranges this season. | 

The Point Arena Creamery has paid a dividend of ten per 
cent for 1894. " ' 

Vacaville shipped upward of 1200 carloads of fresh and 
dried fruits in 1894, according to the Rcpni tcr. 

Luther Bukbank will represent the Sdnnnia fruit gjrowcrs 
at the Pomological Society meeting at Sacramento. 

The Sonoma fruit growers have warmly approved the ap- 
pointment of' Mark L. McDonakl as a member of the State 
Board of Horticulture. 

It is reported that the Orange Growers' Association will 
build at FuUerton one of the largest packing-houses in southern 
California. The contract was let this afternoon. 

Ouaxge COUNTY shipments for 1894 were as follows : Green 
and dried fruits, .3,300,000 pounds; raisins, 800,000; honey, j 
110,000; grain, 14..'j60,000 ; wine, 1!)S,000; wool, 885,000; total, I 
14,4i;3,000 pounds. i 

A creamery planned to take care of the product of 1000 
cows is to be established at Bodega. It is to be owned in the 
neighborhood. J. D. Williams is president; L. S. Goodman, 
treasurer; and J. VV. McCaughey, secretary. 

The Riverside Picus reports the death of several horses from 
eating damp alfalfa hay. It was found that the hay had 
balled up in the intestines. The theory is that the animals 
do not chew the hay when it is wet r.s they do when it is dry. 

San'ta Axa Tilddc: The bee men of this locality expect a 
good yield of honey the coming season. The thorough- satura- 
tion of the earth by the recent copious rains insures plenty of 
flowers, and hence there will be good forage for the busy bee. 

Rohnerville llrvald: The Fortuua fruit drier, which has 
just completed its first season's work, has proven a great boon 
to apple growers this fall in furnishing a market for a large 
portion of their product which has been heretofore ne.xt to 

A West End correspondent of the Hanford .Jan nidi reports 
that the acreage of grain sown will be larger than ever be- 
fore, as all feel confident of a bountiful harvest. The rains 
held off till late and we will get the benefit of all the 
moisture that falls. We therefore hope for a harvest again, 
even on the West Side. 

had for twenty years. He has the chance, if he has 
the resolution, self-control and moral poise, to make 
himself the pre-eminent leader of the people in the 
new era which is upon us. It remains to be seen 
whether he will do it. 

On Tuesday of this week, for the first time since 

his election, Mr. Budd talked frankly of public affairs. 

In conversation with a reporter, he said : 

I am glad to know that there is on foot in the Assembly a 
movement for retrenchment and reform. Those were the 
only great doctrines I preached in the campaign, and they 
will dictate my policy as Governor. I am greatly pleased to 
know that the members cf the lower house have already seri- 
ously discussed the matter, and I am convinced that if we 
work together upon this line, the people of the State will be 
saved from $1,000,000 to $'3,000,000 in taxes. It will be my aim, 
and from what I have heard of the purpo-ses of the leaders of 
the Legislature, it will be theirs, to take much of the State 
government out of politics and establish it upon a plane of 
civil service, where merit and efficiency will be the only 
badges for preferment. I believe in abolishing many com- 
missions which I now deem useless. I believe in remodeling 
many others, preserving their beneficial phases and destroy- 
ing their dangerous elements. I will under no circumstances 
urge any interference with institutions which serve a worthy 
purpose in the State. Such an idea is furthest from my 
mind. For instance, nearly every commission having scien- 
tific value, such as the Boards of Horticulture, Viticulture 
and others, can be withdrawn from politics and from govern- 
mental patronage in the form in which it is now given. It is 
my plan to place all of these commissions under the direction 
of the University of California and of Stanford University, 
giving certain boards to the care of one institution and other 
commissions to the second college. In that way at least 
seventy-five per cent of the expense now shouldered by the 
public will be removed. The Regents of the University of 
California will prescribe the duties of the commissions under 
their charge and t lie trustees of Stanford University will de- 
termine the work to he done by those under their direction. 
In that way no evil will be done to the State in the with- 
drawal of benefits now received. Officers who show their 
fitness for their positions will be retained. A system of civil 
service reform will be established, and I think will be found 
working to advantage. I have been so pressed with work 
that I have not the opportunity to investigate every in- 
stitution as thoroughly as I wish, but I will accept the first 
chance. The encouragement of the members of the Assembly 
will stimulate me to harder work. I am glad to assume the 
position that partisan polities cuts no figure with us. We are 
officers of a great State, and, leaving out of consideration 
anything which may be done in the Governor's office, I think 
that California will have one of the best governments in its 

This programme shows at least that our new Gov- 
ernor is planning a careful revision of State expendi- 
tures and that he is a man of ideas and not afraid of 
innovation. We shall, doubtless, have his plans in 
greater detail later on, and it will then be time to 
consider them critically. 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

January 12, 1895. 

office, one in 1896, another in 1898. The Governor 
will appoint two of the three trustees of the Whit- 
tier Reform School in 1895 and 1896. Control of the 
Preston School will be obtained in July, 1896. 

This list shows how extensive are the appointing 
powers of the Governor, indirectly controlling as 
they do the disposal of very large sums of money and 
affecting the administration of public institu- 
tions. There are serious absurdities in the sys- 
tem. For instance, the prison directors hold 
for ten years and so require two terms of 
gubernatorial control to bring about a reorganiza- 
tion. In many cases the Boards are too large and 
cumbrous. Three members ought to be enough for 
the most important department, and in a majority of 
cases one trustee, or director, or commissioner, 
would be much better, reducing expenses, and serv- 
ing to fix responsibility. There is an especial need 
of great care in appointments on the Board of Re- 
gents of the University and as trustees of the Nor- 
mal Schools. Broad gauge, capable, well-educated, 
public-spirited men who can give time to the work 
will reflect credit on the administration. There is no 
valid reason against the appointment of educated 
women on the Board of Regents and as Normal School 
trustees, and there are many strong reasons in favor 
of such a course, since women as well as men are 
educated at these institutions. This would be in 
accord with a plan already announced by Mr. Budd 
to appoint a woman on each of the asylum boards. 
Wiser still is his purpose to have a woman physician 
employed in each of the State institutions wherein 
women are confined. 

Sacramento is having a "cl'aring out spell." For 
several months the city has been infested with 
tramps and hobos, and within the past few weeks 
there has been a succession of murders and robberies. 
The regular police organization confe.ssed its inability 
to handle the problem, whereupon the citizens came 
together in mass-meeting, provided for the service 
of one thousand volunteer officers, and under the 
leadership of the Mayor preceeded to investigate the 
character of the floating population and to drive all 
questionable persons beyond the city limits, with 
warnings to remain away or suffer the penalty of a 
severe vagrant law especially provided for the 
emergency by the city council. As a consequence 
Sacramento is now rid of the hobo class and life and 
property are safe for the first time since the great 
strike. Among the vagrants thus driven from the 
city were a considerable body of men under the 
leadership of ''Gen." Kelly of Industrial Army fame. 
While this method of dealing with the hobo class is 
very effective in one sense, in reality it only shifts 
the infliction from one locality to another. The 
tramps who have been driven from Sacramento will 
simply move on to some other place. What is needed 
is some means of dealing with the tramp as to make 
him give up vagrancy and go to work. 

The young Czar of Russia, from whom such 
dreadful things were predicted by the European 
political critics, is proving himself to be a man of 
thoroughly modern ideas, of great energy of char- 
acter, of high manly courage and of most humane 
disposition. He began by mingling freely among 
the people as if there were no such things as 
anarchists and bombs. His first political act was 
one of general clemency to State prisoners. Next 
he displaced certain high officials known to be 
corrupt. Now he is proposing a general system of 
reforms calculated to bring Russia more nearly into 
line with the governments of Western Europe. In 
order to maintain the respect and co-operation of 
his uncles he is about to convene a family council to 
consider plans of reform which, it is reported, include 
the establishment of an aristocratic body of State 
Counselors. This is probably as far as it is safe to 
go at this time, for Russia has not yet reached the 
stage of political development when it would be de- 
sesirable or safe to inaugurate a representative 
parliamentary system. 

Rainfall and Temperature. 

The following data for the week ending 5 a. m., 
January 9, 1895, are from official sources, and are 
furnished by the U. S. Weather Bureau expressly 
for the Pacific Rural Press: 



£ 1 : -^S. 


p ft 


(6 « 

• 'a 

■ » 


Apples Grafted on Pears. 

To THE Editor:— In reply to R. M. Town's com- 
munication of Dec. 22d, I would say, after five years' 
experience, I have decided that apples on pears are 
not a success. Any kind of apples will grow and 
bear fine fruit, but the graft will not hold. The 
apple grows so fast that it absorbs all the sap and 
lets the pear stoi'k decay, so it is easily broken off. 
' would advise trving a few before grafting all. 

Soquel. Cal, ' ' S. B, Wali.aok, 


Red Bluff .f. IS 

Sacramento UK 

San Francisco 2.99 

Fresno l.W 

Los Angeles 1.12 

San Diego 87 

Yuma T 

I- 10 
1.1. (M 
I.') «6 

26 00 
9 W 

7 J6 



Distant Shipment of Nursery Stock. 

To THE Editor: — In your issue of the 29th inst., 
and under the above heading, Messrs. Alexander 
and Hammon of the Rio Benito nurseries claim that 
they have solved the problem of shipping trees suc- 
cessfully to distant lands, especially where the equa- 
tor has to be crossed; the claim being based upon 
the safe arrival in Australia of a lot of walnuts, the 
very class of trees that will stand transportation to 
distant lands the best. 

Now, I will tell these gentlemen that if they have 
solved the problem of shipping nursery stock to dis- 
tant lands, as far as t/n;/ are concerned, the other no 
less enterprising nurserymen of California have not 
waited this long to solve the same problem for them- 
selves. As I have had a twenty-five years experi- 
ence in this kind of business, 1 thought it would in- 
terest the readers of the Press, near and far, to 
know fwic I did successfully ship trees of kinds to 
distant lands, this side or the other side of the equa- 
tor; and I will add that during these twenty-five 
years, I have imported, and am imporning yet, every 
winter, trees of one kind or another from France, 
and shipped nut and fruit trees and grapes to such 
distant lands as New Zealand, Japan, Sandwich 
islands, Mexico, Bahama islands, etc. 

My first importation of trees from France was in 
1869, having ordered then 200 mulberry trees for 
silkworm feeding, via the Isthmus of Panama; the 
trees were packed in chaff in a box and arrived 
rather dried up, though I succeeded in growing 40 
per cent of them. My second importation was in the 
winter of 1870-71 (the winter I started my present 
place), my consignment consisting of a general as- 
sortment of nut and fruit trees, shrubs and plants, 
but which, on account of the war with Prussia, was 
129 days on the road; it came across the continent 
from New York to Sacramento, thence to Nevada 
City, arriving in the latter place on the 30th of 
March, 1871. Most of the trees were from five to 
six years old, regular large standard trees, and were 
laid in a box with roots at both ends solidly packed 
in moss, with no packing whatever at the center of 
the box. Well, I didn't lose a single tree, shrub or 
plant, except artichokes. However, in importing 
trees from Europe to California, I found out that hay 
and straw do not do for packing, and that dry moss 
is the best packing to use, especially when the trees 
have to remain a certain length of time in the hold 
of a steamer; for whenever such material as hay or 
straw is used for packing, the moisture of the roots 
will evaporate and be absorbed by the hay or straw, 
whic:h will soon ferment, and the heat so created will 
kill most all the tops of the trees, sparing only the 
roots — exactly the reverse of frost, that will spare 
the tops but kill all the roots. 

In 1887 I shipped a large consignment of trees to 
Wanganui, New Zealand, consisting of walnuts, 
chestnuts, almonds, filberts, prunes, plums, apricots, 
etc. I packed them in moss in boxes as solidly as I 
could, placing the roots at both ends. I used no pack- 
ing of any kind; it is unnecessary when the bodies of 
the trees lie in the center of the box. The party who 
ordered the trees didn't have much confidence in dry 
packing to cross the equator, and he instructed me 
to use wet packing in one of the boxes, which I did. 
The trees left San Francisco by steamer on the 21st 
of October and arrived safely at Wanganui after 
having been thirty-two days in the hold of the 
steamer. They were all in tolerably good condition; 
those packed in dry moss succeeded much better 
than the ones packed in wet moss. 

In the ensuing fall I shipped another large consign- 
ment of such trees to several parties of the same 
place, who had clubbed together to procure the kind 
of nut and fruit trees I advertised. This lot also left 
vn October ilst, reaching New Zealand In pretty 

good condition. A year afterward the success in 
growing the trees was reported to me as follows: 
'The trees that did the best were the walnuts. This 
is easy to understand, for walnut trees have a long 
and thick tap root which would take a long time to 
dry up. Ninety per cent of the seedling walnuts 
succeeded as did all of the grafted ones; but only 
sixty per cent of the chestnuts and fifty per cent of 
the filberts grew. The fruit trees did well enough, 
but not as good as the walnuts. Trees that are out 
of the ground for a certain length of time and that 
have to remain in the hold of a steamer for several 
weeks, are bound to dry up some if dry packing is 
the method adopted. If the roots of the trees are 
plunged for several hours in water after being taken 
out of the box, the trees will soon revive and become 
as fresh and green as when taken out of the ground. 
If wet packing is used, there is a double danger to 
; fear. Heating might set in; this would kill the trees 
I down to the roots. Or, the moisture around the 
1 roots, coupled with the tropical heat, might induce 
! the trees to prematurely bud out, particularly with 
; fruit trees, which would be no less fatal to them. 

As a general rule, this is the way I have trees 
' shipped to me from France and the way that I ship 
I to distant lands: I use boxes, not caring to have 
I them hermetically closed, which should be avoided. 
I line the bottoms and sides of the boxes with heavy 
packing paper, and put in them a thick layer of 
moss, using dry moss altogether. In putting the 
trees in the boxes, with the roots at each end, I pack 
I the roots solidly in moss and do not let them touch 
I the sides, having them, in fact, completely sur- 
j rounded by a thick layer of moss, pressed in well 
with the hand. If using wet packing do not let the 
tops of the trees, packed at the other end, rest on 
the wet packing, otherwise they may be liable to 
mold and rot. Such has been my whole secret in 
having trees successfully shipped to me, or in ship- 
ping trees myself to distant lands. For a shorter 
distance, as to any State of the Union or to Canada, 
and the trees being transported mostly by rail, I use 
wet packing, for there is no fear of the trees heating 
or budding prematurely. Wet packing keeps the 
roots and consequently the tops of the trees quite 
fresh. I have never received an unfavorable report, 
unless it be one of delay, this being on account of the 
trees being detained for an unreasonable length of 
time on the way to their destination. 
Nevada Citv, Dec. 30, 1894. Felix Gillet. 

A Car for Shipping Fruit in Bulk. 

We have received from R. H. Shoemaker, Jr., of 
Los Angeles, circulars describing the car used by 
the " Santa Fe Bulk Fruit Express Co.," which is 
intended to supersede box shipping. The entire car 
up to the doorway on each end is filled with trays 
and braced securely in center of car, thereby holding 
the trays together, so there is no jarrmg. 'The trays 
are made of slats, so as to give proper ventilation; 
are twelve inches wide, six inches deep, and are as 
long as the car is wide. They rest on tracks nine 
inches apart, giving three inches of air space be- 
tween every six inches of fruit. The trays are 
folded and packed in the top of the car for the re- 
turn trip. 

It is claimed that one of the great advantages ob- 
tained by shipping in this manner over the old 
method of packing in boxes is that there is no neces- 
sity to wrap and pack in a vary tight space and 
apjjly pressure in order to nail on the lids. The 
fruit may be loaded as soon as picked and graded, as 
it will cure on the way East, making it unnecessary 
to have large storage space in the packing houses to 
" sweat down " the fruit before packing. It is also 
claimed^that the method saves about 3000 pounds on 
each car in weight on bo.xes alone, thereby allowing 
the shipper to load about 3000 pounds more fruit in 
each car at same cost. Packinsr expenses in the 
East are held to be less per car by about $20 than 
they are here. 

Napa Valley Nurseries Sold. 

Nap.\, January 8. — Leonard Coates yesterday sold 
the Napa Valley nurseries to Messrs. Armstrong, 
Parker & Co., of Mountain View. This sale em- 
braces all of Mr. Coates' nursery interests in this 
county. The new firm is coniposed of gentlemen 
well acquainted with the nursery business. Mr. 
Armstrong was for several years superintendent of 
Timothy Hopkins' Sherwood Hall nurseries at Menlo 
Park, and the other gentlemen have had years of ex- 
perience in the nursery business. It is the intention 
of the new firm to erect extensive hothouses and 
rent more land than was held by Mr. Coates and to 
go into the business of floriculture to suj^ply the San 
Francisco market with cut flowers and hothouse 
plants. It is said that two acres will be put into 
sweet peas this spring, and that other plants will be 
grown in proportion. 

W. H. MvLLEX of Yankee Hill, in the foothills at 
an elevation of 1900 feet, sends us a table of rainfall 
for December up to the 22d, which shows a precipi- 
tation of 15.99 inches. Mr. Mullen says there is room 
up his way for those who desire mountain homes with 
plenty of water and productive soil. 

January 12, 1895. 


Crop Conditions and Outlook. 

Report of the State Weather OfHoe for December — Promise 
of a Great Crop Year. 

The average monthly temperature for December was as fol- 
lows for the Weather Bureau stations named : San Francisco 
50°, Eureka 46°, Red Bluff 45°, Sacramento 47°, Fresno 48°, 
Los Angeles 54°, San Diego 55°, Independence 38°, and San 
Luis Obispo 51°. 

As compared with the normal temperature there was a defi- 
ciency of heat reported from all parts of the State of from 1° 
to 3°, except at Fresno, where an excess of heat of 1° was re- 

The total precipitation was : For San Francisco 9.01 inches, 
Eureka 12.31, Red Bluff 11.01, Sacramento 8.86, Fresno 4.09, 
Los Angeles 4.62, San Diego 2.26, Independence 1.90, and San 
Luis Obispo 8.96 inches. 

As compared with the normal precipitation an excess is re- 
ported at all points of from .16 of an inch at Los Angeles to 
5.70 inches at Red Bluff, while San Diego reports a deficiency 
of .11 of an inch, the normal being 2.37 inches, while the De- 
cember rainfall was 2.26 inches. 

By special reports received from over 150 different parties 
in all portions of the State, the excess of rain over the nor- 
mal has put one of the brightest phases on the rural industries 
of this State than has been known for many years past, especi- 
ally in the great San Joaquin valley and in southern Cali- 
fornia. This thorough soaking of the soil, ranging from one to 
two feet deep, according to the quality of the ground, has 
brought great rejoicing to the farmer or granger element and 
thousands of acres will be plowed and sown to hay and grain, 
which would never have been thought possible under less favor- 
able circumstances. A great many new orchards will be set 
out. In fact, to read the various reports from the different 
points of the State, one would be led to believe that the crop 
prospects for the coming season of 1895 will be the banner ones 
of this State, the like of which have not been enjoyed for 
years. At least, this is the tenor of the reports, which gives 
one who reads them a most pleasing and fascinating idea of 
the glittering prospects in store for our great State in 1895. It 
is therefore hoped that this gratifying outlook will continue 
to the end of the season, so that when it .shall be asked "What 
will the harvest be ^ " the answer will proclaim it one of the 
most bounteous for years; for such a harvest is badly needed. 

Feed was never better so early in the season than at pres- 
ent, and stock that was starving a tew months ago in certain 
districts, is now sleeking up and looking in tirst-class condi- 
tion. Dairy cows are averaging a pound of butter a day per 
cow. Such changes could only occur in a climate like that of 
the Golden West. 

Amauok (lone) — Under the U inches of warm rains for the 
season, grass is well advanced and grazing is good. Early- 
sown grain in the foothills is also well advanced, but little 
grain has, however, been sown on the bottom lands because 
they are too wet. 

Ala.meda (Niles)— This month has been notable for the 
number of days that rain fell, which was twenty-one days — 
the highest record since December, 1852, when it rained 
twenty-two days. There has been very little plowing done, 
although in the hills some has been done; but no seeding has 
been done. Early potatoes, peas, etc., are doing well. Pas- 
tures have done well and stock is picking up fast. Pi-uning is 
nearly all done, and the prospects are most excellent for an 
abundant fruit crop. Light I' rests were seen on but four days. 

Bi'TTE (Oroville) — There has been over sixty carloads of 
oranges shipped from this vicinity this season .so far, and many 
small growers have not picked their crops yet. (Palei'mo) — 
Grain is doing well and everything is looking remarkably 
well. (Honcut) — There never was a better prospec^t for good 
crops in this vicinity, (Biggs) — Crops look well and have not 
been injured by too much water so tar. A large acreage has 
been sown in western Butte and all crops are looking bettor 
than usual. (Durham) — Early-sown wheat on summer-fal- 
lowed lands is doing well. 

Cai.avekas (Milton)— Summer-fallow looking well. Feed is 
excellent, but the ground is too wet to work. The outlook is 
an average one. 

Con sA ( Williams) — Grain that was supposed to have been 
dried up has nearly all come again, so the conditions in this 
section are very favorable. (Sites) — The heavy rains have 
sprouted all the grain not up before, and has revived most all 
that which seemed dead or dying from long dry weather. 
Heavy frosts at night retard the growth; but if we continue 
to have a fair amount of rain, the prospects for crops are very 
good. ( — The late rains have been very beneficial. 
The cold is causing the grain to stool out, and there are pros- 
pects for a good crop. 

Fresno (Reedley I — Wheat crop less than half seeded. Sum- 
mer-fallow looking well. Green feed in great abundance. 
Frosts very light. (Fresno)--Rain has fallen in sufficient 
abundance to insure full wheat and alfalfa crops. (Easton) — 
The memory of the oldest inhabitant runneth not to the season 
when the crop prospects were more flattering than they are 
now. Wheat in many fields is several inches high. Every 
available acre will be sown. Orchards and vineyards thor- 
oughly soaked ; mountains covered with snow. Water for ir- 
rigation will be plentiful. (Huron)— There are 12,000 to 13,000 
acres of grain sown within three miles of this place. Grain is 
all up and growing nicely and never looked better. There 
has not been quite as much grain put in as usual, but the 
farmers think there will be from 8000 to 12,000 acres put in in 
the next two weeks. At Pulvedero there has been from 6000 
to 7000 acres seeded, and more will be put in. Grain and feed 
are improving every day. 

Glenn (Fruto) — Frosts and rain have alternately prevailed, 
with no perceptible bad effect on growing crops. Suminer- 
fallow grain generally is coming up with a good stand, except 
such as was sown dry, much of which was sprouted by the 
early rains and died during the dry period following, and" from 
present indications part of the early-sown grain will have to 
be resown. 

Inyo (Independence)— Killing frosts destroyed vegetation. 
Poor crops this year on account of dry weather. Plenty of 
rain this month, and with heavy snow on the mountains the 
prospects are very good for next spring. 

Kings (Hanford) — There is promise of a bountiful harvest, 
and the ranch people are busily engaged plowing and seeding. 
Feed is growing rapidly. 

Kern — Agricultural Experiment Station near Bakersfield 
says rain has been of great advantage to farmers. The out- 
look is very bright. There is a large acreage of land in prepa- 
ration for alfalfa — 17,000 acres at least — ami about 12,000 acres 
for grain, much of which is up and looking well. Potato dig- 
ging has been practically finished. The crop is rather light, 
but quality excellent. The acreage is large and hard to 

Los Angeles (Pasadena) — The rainfall was six inches, but 
fell so as to all soak in the greatest acreage of grain ever 
planted, and is already showing green. The general outlook 
is such as to warrant great rejoicing. Oranges are proving to 
be a large crop, and in \iew of the recent freeze in Florida are 
being looked after with more than ordinary care. (Agricul- 
tural Experiment Station near Pomona) — Farmers are busy 
plowing and seeding. It is expected that the largest crop of 
nay ever known will be gathered the coming season. Every 
availat>ie acre in the Pomona valley will be planted to hay 

and oats. Everybody anticipates a good year. Highest and 
lowest temperatures, 78° and 34°, with 8.46 inches of rain. 
(Gorman's Station) — Copious rains have fallen. Slight frosts 
have occurred on two occasions. Grass is appearing on the 
hills, and the outlook for pasturage is good. These conditions 
obtain to Antelope valley. (Claremont) — The condition of 
crops is unusually good. Oranges a little later than usual, 
but there is a large crop, and they are in line condition. There 
is alSb a large crop of lemons and olives, and all are now 
ripening. Recent rains have carpeted the whole country. 

Mendocino (Ukiah) — Weather has been very favorable to 
all crops. The rain, though much in excess of ordinary sea- 
sons, has fallen so graduallj' as not to pack the ground or 
cause overflows or washing or drowning out. No damage 
from wind or water to report, but two killing frosts during 
the month. As a consequence, our pasturage and crop pros- 
pects are much better than an average condition. 

Monterey (Jolon)— The rainfall for the month is 8.30 inches. 
The outlook never was better in this valley for good crops of 
grain and feed. 

Madera (Berendo) — Prospects for crops are good. Rainfall 
for the season, 7.30 inches. (Raymond) — Crops for December 
are in good condition. 

Merced (Merced) — Prospects for large crops are most ex- 
cellent. Rainfall for the month, 4.23 inches, and for the sea- 
son, 5.98 inches, as against 1..53 inches to a corresponding date 
last season. (Livingston) — Farmers are satisfied, although 
they have been delayed some by the rain. Most of them have 
their crops all in, and the rest are finishing. (Volta) — 
Weather conditions very favorable for grain crops and for 
pasturage in this vicinity. Nearly a full acreage of wheat 
and barley have already been sown. The grain has come up 
quickly and is looking well. Rainfall, 4.78 inches for the 
month. (Los Bancs) — The crops are looking splendid. 

Mariposa (Mariposa) — Crop conditions are very favorable. 
Although there has been for the season to date 18.34 inches of 
rain, there is no excess of moisture to injure the growing 
crops. The rains have delayed the putting in of crops, only 
about half having been put in. Grass generally looks fine, 
and stock is doing well. 

Napa (Rutherford) — Grain sown before the rains is looking 
well. All crops will be good. (Napa) — Grain and grass never 
looked more promising. Very little frost, and many fruit 
trees are in bloom. 

Nevada (Chicago Park) — Very little plowing wasdone before 
the rains, therefore no crop has as yet been put in. 

Placer (Loomis) — Rains delayed planting seed for hay, but 
that which was put in before the last storms of the month is 
up and doing well. Fruit prospects are very good. There 
will be quite an increase in the number of new orchards to be 
set out this year as compared with last year ; oranges slightly 
split by the excessive rains, but not badly ; the crop has been 
all gathered and sold. (Newcastle) — Ori'.nge picking has been 
somewhat delayed, but crop is about all gathered and 

Riverside (Arlington Heights)— The storm has been of great 
value to all interests. (Riverside)— No killing frosts, and 
mean temperature rather higher than usual ; rainfall gentle 
and uniformly distributed, with the ground thoroughly soaked. 
The grain acreage will be large and the recently planted 
grain is well up. Oranges (Navels) a^e a larger crop than 
last year; seedlings light, Mediterranean Sweets increased, 
and other varieties about the same as last year. Fruit is 
maturing well and of exceptionally fine flavor; season's pack 
will be 22.50 to 2.">00 cars. Rainfall for the month 5.7() inches. 
The soil is in fine condition for plowing. Seeding is prog- 
ressing actively in all parts of the county ; prospects are very 
fine for a splendid crop of gi ain and hay. There will be a large 
acreage of alfalfa sown this month and next. (San Jacinto! - 
There will be thousands of acres put in now shortly. The 
weather is all that coujd be desired. 

SisKivof (Yreka)~The ground has been covered with snow 
since the 6th, which is favorable for it has been very cold. 
Some of the fall-sown grain was up, but made very little 
growth for lack of rain. The heavy rains in the middle and 
southern portions of the State early in the season did not 
reach us here, as we had had a very dry season, so much so 
that there has been but little plowing done, and the farmer 
without summer-fallow laud will have a very busy spring to 
put in much of a crop. Acreage sown to wheat will be very 
much lessened the coming season. The present month, as the 
records show, has been considerably below the avei-age tem- 
perature and very much above the average precipitation, 
there being, at the end of the month, over seven inches of 
snow on the level. 

Si tter (West Butte)— The sunjiner-fallowed grain is bac-k- 
ward on account of excessive cold rains, and but very little 
winter-sown grain has been put in. (Yuba City) — The total 
rainfall for the month was 11. 13 inches and for the season 14.78 
inches. The wet weather delayed wheat seeding but did not 
effect grain already in the ground, except in a few places on 
the low grounds where a few acres will be lost. Plowing will 
be rapidly carried forward as soon as the ground dries out 
enough to allow plowing to commence. 

Sacramento (Sacramento) — Grain is looking very well and 
promises to be a heavy crop. Fruit trees of all kinds are set 
full of buds. The red land is a little too wet to work, but 
bottom land is in fine order and is being seeded as fast as 
possible. Highest and lowest temperatures 58° and 30°, with 
8.86 inches of rain. (Union House)— Crops are looking fine. 
Summer- fallowed wheat is looking remarkably well. (Orange- 
vale) — Grain looking fine. No frost yet to speak of, and no 
damage has been done in this section by the heavy storms of 
wind and rain. (Isleton)--The rains of the latter part of the 
month have delayed the harvesting of the potato crop. There 
has been but one heavy frost on the 26th, which did no ma- 
terial damage. Hay has grown wonderfully, such as volunteer, 
and also alfalfa, which has to be pastured down. Wheat and 
barley is about all sown and is up above the ground about 
three inches ; is beyond any danger from frosts. Rainfall for 
month, 8.05 inches. (Elk Grove)— There was a fair acreage of 
grain put in before the rains. The rains have filled all low 
places in the fields, and unless it is drained off it will be apt 
to drown out some grain. (Trask) — The heavy rains have re- 
tarded the harvesting of the late potato crop. There will be 
some loss on the extreme low lands and some alfalfa will be 
drowned out. A considerable loss may be looked for on trees 
which are set in low land, many acres of which are now under 
water. The seeding of alfalfa land will be put off; feed is 

Sonoma (Sonoma) — Conditions favorable for a bountiful 
harvest. This is a "clover year," indicated by the remark- 
able growth of alfileria. (.Jutlook very favorable for fruit. 
The rainfall for December is 12..52 inches— greatly in excess 
of any previous season. (Petaluma) — There is an unusually 
large acreage of grain of all kinds sown and the outlook is 
very promising. Feed was never looking better and the fruit 
prospects are extremely good. (Sebastopol) — Stock find plenty 
of feed and are in good condition. 

San Joaquin (Lodi) — Owing to the long-continued rains and 
lack of sunshine and warmth the growing crops have made but 
little progress, and but little plowing has been done. Not 
a fourth of the intended acreage has as yet been seeded. 
(Stockton) — Crops are in good condition, except in a few low 
spots where the seed has rotted on account of the lack of 
proper drainage. We look for no great growth until there has 
been a lot of sunshine. (Bethany) — The prolonged rains have 
been a great inconvenience for the farmers, many of them 
not having dene any work for nearly a month, and from pres- 
ent appearances the acreage planted or sown to grain will be 

much smaller than was expected. The grain already sowui; 
growing rapidly. 

Stanislaus ( Westley)— Crop prospects never better. (New- 
man)— The weather has been more favorable to crops in this 
.section so far this season than it has been for twelve years 
past. There is more acreage under cultivation than ever 
before, and as there was hardly any crops raised here last 
season the land is expected to produce an immense crop. The 
ground is wet nearly three feet, which, with a few showers in 
March and April, will give us a good harvest. Rainfall for 
the month 7.35 inches. (Crows Lauding)— Early sown grain 
is growing finely, as is also vegetation of all kinds. The pros- 
pects for the coming season look prosperous, and with a favor- 
able spring the output will be a good one. About two-thirds 
of the crop is sown and the rest will be put in as soon as the 
weather will permit. Rainfall 7.79 inches. (Turlock)— The 
weather has been generally beneficial to all crops. On account 
of the excessive rains plowing has been stopped on the heavy 
lands. The only killing frost of the season occurred on the 
25th. Rainfall for the month was 5.38 inches, and for the 
season 7.30 inches. Highest and lowest temperatures, 58° 
and 29°. 

Santa Clara (Milpitas)— Crops are looking good for the sea- 
son of the year. There has been no bad effects from the con- 
stant rains except the retarding of seeding. (San Jose) — Some 
sunshine and warmth would bring along the early sown grain, 
and also pastures, with a rush. There was a heavy frost on 
the 25th, with a temperature of 31°. (Evergreen) — The farm- 
ers are principally plowing and seeding for another season. 
The early sown grain is already up and looking quite well. 
There has been some delay on account of so much rain and the 
ground too wet to plow. 

Santa Cruz ( Watsonville)— Crop prospects never better. 
The rain for December was 14.30 inches, and for the season, 
24.45 inches. (Santa Cruz) — The long continued rains have 
materially interfered with the farming interest; the ground 
is thoroughly .soaked and will be in full condition for plowing 
and seeding. There have been no frosts of any consequence. 
The pro.spects are good for a large acreage of grain to be put 
in. There has been no damage from high winds or excessive 

San Luis Obispo (Paso Robles)— There has been plenty of 
rain for all kinds of crops that the farmers intend to plant or 
sow. Grain and grass are making a fine showing. Most all of 
the land is seeded, and the grain is above the ground and is 
looking fine. (Santa Margarita)— With over fourteen inches 
of rain for the season the prospects are really bright. Farmers 
are busy plowing in all directions. Stockmen are happy, as 
the grass is so far advanced that there is little fear of damage 
from frosts. (Arroyo Grande)— Cattle are looking well. The 
barley crop is partly sown, and a great acreage is being 
plowed and prepared for seeding to barley. The ground is too 
wet to plow. No damaging frosts. (San Luis Obispo)— The 
late rains have left our county in a better condition than it 
has been for years at a date so early in the season. Cholame, 
Shamdon, Creston, Estrella and San Miguel, our best wheat 
districts, are well cultivated and a large acreage of wheat has 
been put in. The wheat that was sown early, which is now 
up, looks fine indeed. On the coast there is considerable 
plowing being done, but very little sowing. There is plenty 
of time for the barley crop. The dairy districts of San 
Simeon, Cambria, Cayucos, Chorro, More, San Luis Obispo, 
Arroyo Grande and Nii»mo are all doing well on account of- 
the feed. Pasturage is excellent now. On some of the dairies 
where they were not overstocked, the fall cows are making al- 
mcist one pound of butter per head per day. There has been 
some sickness among cattle on two or three dairies, but it is 
about all over at present. 

S.vnta Bakh.vra (Santa Maria) -Weather very favorable 
throughout the month. Feed is fine and cattle are thriving 
well. No frost since the 3rd, when it was light. Highest and 
lowest temperatures, 74° and 36°, with 3.86 inches of rain, and 
for the season, 5 72 inches. (Los Alamos) — Season not far 
enough advanced to report upon the crop condition, as seeding 
has only just begun in this section. The rains of the month 
have put the land in an excellent condition for cultivation. 

San Bernardino (Chino) — The season's rain, which com- 
menced on the 5th, came very opportunely. The precipitation 
for the month was 8.22 inches. Plowing, and .sowing barley, 
commenced immediately. A great deal of barley is now up 
and it is doing nicely. About 5000 acres of Chino land will be 
sown to grain that were never cultivated before, and nothing 
short of a calamity can now prevent a heavy harvest. About 
8000 acres will be planted to sugar beets, of which over 2000 
acres will be new land. The prospects could not be better for 
a good crop at present. (Redlands) — Rainfall for the month, 
7.3S inches, and for the season, 7.71 inches. The largest acre- 
age of grain for years has been and is still being sown. The 
orange crop has commenced to move, and while there will not 
be an extra-sized crop, the quality is very tine. Shipments 
from this locality will probably aggregate 4.50 cars. The crop 
for the season will not amount to more than 6000 carloads for 
all of southern California. Prospects for agriculture and hor- 
ticulture in all lines never looked better'. 

San Diego (Fallbrook) — No general crops are standing here 
this month, except dry sown grain, which is sprouting vigor- 
ously, caused by the late abundant rains. No damaging phe- 
nomena have occurred. Tender vegetation, tomatoes, sweet 
potatoes, bananas, citrus shoots, etc., are still growing. 
Fruits are rapidly superseding field crops here. (Escondido) — 
Early sown grain is coming up finely. This season, so far, 
gives better prospects for good crops than have been known 
here for twelve years past. The recent rains wet the ground 
to a depth of ten to fifteen inches. The greater portion of the 
area devoted to grain is now seeded, and hundreds of acres 
are beginning to show green. 

Tehama (Red Bluff) — Little, if any, outdoor work has been 
done, and plowing and seeding is behind. Vegetation is in an 
advanced stage, grain being well up and grass on the ranges 
also plentiful. The ground is thoroughly soaked and every- 
thing points toward good crops for the coming year. (Tehama) 
— Weather has been good for early sown grain. Most of the 
winter sown will be late, it being too wet this month to plow. 

Tulaue (Tulare) -The croi> conditions are excellent; never 
were better. Early sown grain up and liwking fine. More 
acreage has been sown than for many years. (Goshen)^ — The 
rains have put the ground in fine condition for seeding, and 
plowing is going on rapidly. Feed is starting nicely and mak- 
ing the ranchers look pleasant. (Grangeville)— Tliere will be 
quite a number of trees set out this season; much over 4000 
will be planted in this immediate vicinity. (Tipton) — Since 
the late rains farmers have begun operations in earnest. The 
majority of them seem to have great faith in the coming year. 

Ventura (Saticoy) — Crop prospects are good, the weather 
being mild and warm, and everything has grown rapidly. 
(Santa Paula)- The month has been a very favorable one for 
farmers. There have been about five inches of rain, putting 
the soil in good condition for bean and corn planting when the 
planting time comes, ( Fremontville) — Feed has started nicely 
and the anxiety of the farmers has been relieved. Much bar- 
ley was dry .sown on account of the scarcity of feed, and it 
has started very nicely. The remainder of the crop is being 
put in. (Ventura)— Warm weather and frequent rains have 
been unusually favorable for feed, which, in the hills, is good. 
The most severe windstorm experienced here in years blew 
from the northeast on the 34th, 25th, 26th and 27th, drying up 
the soil greatly. This was followed by a rainfall of .56 of an 
inch, thereby overcoming all damage done by the dry winds. 
Fruit growers report the buds on young apricot trees to have 
set well, promising, with favorable weather, a fair crop. Thii 


Ihe Pacific Rural Press. 

January 12, 1895 

is true generally of all deciduous fruits. Orange buds quite 
as full as usual." Rainfall a. 15 inches. Highest and low est 
temperatures tttt° and :«t^. ( Huenerae I— The weather has been 
favorable the early part of the month to crops of barley and 
wheat that were sown, but the last few east-wind.v days dul 
no good. The rainfall for the month is inches. The rains 
of the last days of the month were needed to counteract the 
effects of the few days of drying easterly winds which, coming 
from off the desert regions, were dry instead of moist. 

Yuba (Marys ville I— The summer-fallowed wheat is nearly 
all up, and has not been affected by the late storms. Plovvmg 
is suspended everywhere, the ground being too wet. The 
rivers have not risen sufficiently high to overtlow the bottom 
lands, so there is plenty of feed available there yet. There 
is little if any water standing on the lands, and everything 
looks quite favorable for good crops up to date. The slight 
frosts do not appear to have affected the orange and lemon 
trees. Orchard work is a little behind. ( Wheatland i— Early 
sown grain looks remarkably well, notwithstanding the ex- 
cessive rains. Winter plowing and sowing will be late and 
the acreage limited. Rainfall for the month 10. TS inches. 

Yolo i Duunigani— Crops are in very good condition on higli 
lands Highest and lowest temperatures tit;° and :iO'^, with a 
rainfall of 11.22 inches, and for the season 14.20 inche.s. (VV in- 
ters!— Weather has been unusually mild for the .season, ac- 
companied bv gentle rains amounting to 10.40 inches for the 
month and 21 inches for the season. Highest and lowest 
temperatures 55° and 35°. 

Hi MBuLDT (Eureka)— Grass is looking well and the cattle 
are doing well. The continuous rains have retarded outdoor 
work considerably. Highest and lowest temperatures; tiO° and 
30°, with 12.31 inches of rain for the month. 

cost they sold products through the Exchange that | buyers, if not the retail dealers, throughout the 


The Exchange Method in Selling Produce. 

To THE Editor:— I believe that all of our dried 
fruits should be sold by the Exchange nmetbod, for 
the reason that both the buying and selling can be 
done by this method at the least possible cost to botl» 
parties. The present ruinously low prices of dried 
fruit render its adoption an urgent necessity. It is 
not only by far the cheapest, but one that secures to 
the seller the highest price the buyer will pay. No 
seller can obtain more. For the benefit of those 
who may not be familiar with this method, permit me 
to very briefly and, so far as I am able, clearly ex- 
plain it. 

As the Producers' Exchange at Elgin, Illinois, 
known as the "Elgin Board of Trade,'" is not only a 
very simple organization, but also the most success- 
ful one of which I have any knowledge. I will, there- 
fore, refer to it in exemplifying this method. In the 
room where this Exchange's sales are made is a large 
blackboard divided into columns. In the proper col- 
umn opposite the name of each factory is written the 
quantity, quality and.the selling price, if it is given; 
if it is not given, the letters "op." are written in- 
stead, which mean it is optional with the factory 
whether the bid is or is not accepted. Sales occur 
weekly and occupy one hour. The sales are all f. o. b., 
net spot cash. The seller's responsibility ends when 
he puts the goods on board the cars. Nothing is 
consigned. There is no storage, in.surance or com- 
mission paid on products sold by the Exchange. The 
secretary does the selling and makes a record of the 
sale. The following will further illustrate the 
method : 


Advertising Space. 

Offered by 

Butter Quality 



25 Al. 




Woodstock . . . 



South Elgin . 












Sold to 

28c E. L. Newberry, 
28 (W. E. Lawrence, 
2«»4|J. D. Stockton, 

1 New York 

27% S. R. Udell, 


2.S |S. Sands, 

Cincinnati. O. 
28 ,W. D. Stoi-er, 

88 L.W.Wood&Co., 
San Francisco 

If the seller accepts the price bid, his product is 
checked off; if not. it remains there to be sold at a 
subsequent sale. If the buyer is not present, he is 
usually represented by his broker, and the sellers 
are generally present or are represented by the sec- 
retary or .some one else. The buyers pay their 
brokers one-foui-th cent per pound for their services. 

The Exchange expenses are equally borne by the 
equally benefited parties, namely, the buyers, sellers 
and other members. In this Exchange about two- 
thirds are sellers. There are but two salaried of- 
ficers in the Exchange, namely, the secretary and 
sergeant-at-arms. The former receives $250 a year 
for his services in making and recording the weekly 
sales and the latter $25 a year. The principal por- 
tion of the secretary's salary is paid by a large num- 
ber of newspapers for reports of the Exchange's 
weekly sales. For these weekly reports each paper 
pays him $1. 

The cost of conducting this Exchange — at least to 
the buyers and sellers — is next to nothing. For ex- 
ample, during the year 1892 its membership was 278. 
Each member paid $2 annual dues, making in the 
aggregate $556. The entire year's running expenses 
were paid out of this $556. Since the membership 
consisted of about two-thirds producers, the entire 
cost to them was about $372. At this pittance of 

j year to the amount of $8,815,286.22, the average 
price of butter being 25.^ cents per pound. The 
I membership during 18it3 was 29H, and the sales were 
in the aggregate $8.6H9,057.87. The average price 
of butter that year was 26 cents per pound. Not- 
withstanding the great financial panic of 1893i the 
producers sold more butter and at a higher price 
that year than during the year 1S92. Like other 
Exchanges, this one has a Committee of Arbitration 
and a Committee of Appeals, both jointly selected by 
the buyers, sellers and other members. Tiie de- 
cisions of the latter committee are final and binding 
on both parties. These two committees settle all 
matters of dispute relating to Exchange sales. 


In 1898 the prune crop of Santa Clara valley was, 
in round numbers, 40,tKIO,000 pounds. The usual 
commission paid for selling dried fruit in this State is 
five per cejit. or one-twentieth of the gross value of 
the crop. Hence, 2,t»00,(l(MI pounds valued at five 
cents per pound, or $1(M),0(IU was paid for merely 
selling that year's prune crop. Add to this the cost 
I of selling the apricots, peaches and the other dried 
1 fruit.s of this valley and the sum is enormously large. 
It goes witliout saying that it is a great deal larger 
than the producers ought to pay, and more than I 
believe they will long continue to pay. It is cer- 
tainly far more than would he required to sell all the 
dried fruit of the whole State, raisins included, if 
sold by the Exchange method. 
I By this method the fruit can be sold for the cost of 
' selling it, the fruit growers paying only their Jiait 
proportion of that cost. This would leave in the 
j fruit growers' pockets a large sum that is now taken 
out to pay for selling. Those to whom you are pay- 
ing this very large sum for this very small service 
will urge you very earnestly not to make any change. 
If the Exchange method promised them more than 
the one now employed, they would as earnestly urge 
you to adopt that method. In other words, they are 
t impelled solely by their interests, not yours, as you 
must certainly know. If you adopt the Exchange 
method, you will do so to protect your own interests, 
and not to increase the income of others by decreas- 
ing your own. This is not a love-and-affection 
matter on the part of either party; but, on the other 
hand, is simply pure, clean-cut, unalloyed, cold- 
blooded business on the part of both. It is business 
on the part of those who are now selling your fruit 
to the jobbers to take for their services all the traffic 
will bear, and it is business on your part to get that 
service at as little cost as possible. 

I do not blame these people for buying youi- fruit 
at the lowest price and then selling it to the jobbers 
at the highest price. Neither is the jobber at fault 
for buying at the very lowest price. Their self- 
protection, like those of whom they buy, forces them 
to buy at what they believe to be the lowest price. 
They are not to blame: the fault is not in them. I'nt 
ill tilt iu< thud of xiili . If one jobber buys at a lower 
price than the others, he is thereby enabled to force 
the others either to lose Xhe'xr money or their cus- 
tomers as they may choose. 

Fill All Jiin/t ix nil tin iSa-mr Fnotiiif/. — The method 
of sale should be such as to place all buyers on 
the same footing in buying and thereby give each an 
equal chance with the others in selling. This the 
Exchange method does, and hence is popular with 
the wholesale trade. If the fruit-growers will not 
put themselves into the hands of those seeking to 
prevent the adoption of this method there is nothing 
to prevent its adoption. Unless the fruit-growers 
make themselves the tools to be used in effecting 
their own financial interests they are not in imme- ■ 
diate danger of financial ruin. If you will work 
together you have ample capital, credit and ability 
to do all that is suggested. 

Will Nil/ Frodiwiix Fiiiir.' — l have often heard it 
said that producers are so ignorant, dishonest, 
jealous and suspicious that they would not trust each 
other, and hence could not co-operate. Do you sup 
pose your morals are of a lower grade than are the 
morais of those who thus criticise you or do you pre- , 
sume to be their moral equal? Many fruit-growers i 
are either retired business men or those still engaged ' 
in active business. Are they less capable on account 
of being producers Are they not more in sympathy j 
with fruit-growers than those not engaged in that 
business";' Other things being equal, is it not wisest 
to trust those whose business interests are identical 
with yours, or. in other words, trust yourselves 'f 
The reasonable presumption is you will trust your- 
selves to do your own business, at cost, rather than 
pay a great deal more to have others do it for you, 
since you are not in need of ways and means of keep- 
ing your income down nor of making a further reduc- 
tion. The fruit-growers' co-operative associations 
of this State prove that you are trying, instead, to 
chcreaxf your expenses and thus incnnin- your in- 
come. They also prove that you have the capacity 
to do your own business — that you are not afraid to 
trust each other both in the preparation and sale of 
your products and that you can do something toward 

What tlif Exchaiiyis Hui i- Duiiv. — The truth is you 
have, through these organizations, not only protected 
yourselves to some extent, but also all the wholesale 

entire country. While the prices of dried fruits 
have been and' still are ruinously low, no one pretends 
to say that they would not have been much lower 
I had it not been for the course pursued by those or- 
ganizations. They steadied and maintained prices 
in spite of all the ettbrts to force them lower. They 
have thus been giving, and will doubtless continue to 
give the jobbers well nigh a guaranteed price, not- 
withstanding its being an " off year." By thiscourse 
they hoped to obtain for this year's labor at least a 
poor living. It was the i)nly course that promised 
! that much. Had j'ou acted less wisely in the man- 
agement of these organizations your fruits would 
most probably not have paid the cost of production. 
You would not only have injured yourselves very 
seriously, but those also who bought large quantities 
of you believing you would manage the sale of your 
products more wisely. Before the fruit of the State 
can be sold at the least possible cost it must all be 
accurately graded, which can be cheaply done by the 
use of a modern dried fruit grader, thus producing 
j grades that will be identical throughout. Type 
samples of each of tliese ditlerent grades can be fur- 
nished to every carload biyer in the United States 
and Canada as well as to all large foreign buyers. 
With these samples befoie them they can buy 
[ through the Exchange understandingly, even though 
1 not i-epresented at the sale either in person or by a 
broker. The Exchange would of course have to 
guarantee the fruit sold to be of the same grade as 
I the sample. 

/'(/(■/• Ihuling FriiiiiDtiil.—'Vhe Exchange method 
keeps the buyers and sellers in the closest possible 
touch, which relation is very important to both. 
The producers are in position, and judging from the 
past have the disposition to give the facts relating 
to the supply, and the jobber's position enables him 
to give the facts i-elating to the demand. When 
these facts are known to both parties the law of sup- 
ply and demand may be relied upon to govern the 
prices. For either party to attempt to deceive the 
other with reference to either the supply or the 
demand is not business, since the effort serves to 
accomplish little if anything more than to destroy 
confidence in each other. It is now known that the 
producers' estimate of last year's fruit crop was 
worthy of credence, and there is nnijih i*<ixi>ii to 
believe that this year's estimate will pi-ove to be. 
Last year's pi-une crop was estimated too high, and 
so also was this year's in the early part of the 
season, but as soon as a close estimate could be made 
it was made and published, so that jobbers might 
icnow as fully as the producers what the supply Is. 
This was done on the theory of things that to estab- 
lish and maintain business relations. .i)ermanently 
satisfactory business must be conducted ou right 

T/u Siii iiiii Ai/iiiii. — In order to c6mpare the cost 
of the present method of sale with the Exi hange 
method. T will again call your attention to the Elgin 
Exchange sales of 1892. This Exchange's sales dur- 
ing that year amounted in the aggregate to $8,315,- 
286.22, and they cost the producers $372. Had 
dried fruit of that value been sold for California pro- 
ducers it would have cost them five per cent of 
that sum, or $415,764. Ml, or $415,892.31 more; or, in 
other words, more than 1117 times as much as it cost 
the Elgin producers. 

These figures prove l onclusively that an astonish- 
ingly large sum can be saved by adopting this long 
tried and very .successful method of selling. Will the 
producers of California dried fruits show as good 
judgment in the preparation and sale of their prod- 
ucts as the Elgin producers have shown in the prep- 
aration and sale of theirs ":* If they will not they can 
only look forward to irreparable loss. The facts and 
figures given in this article relating to the Elgin 
Exchange were taken from the records of that or- 
ganization and hence are entirely reliable. 
Campbell, Santa Clara Co. F. M. Rioh i kr. 


Nursery Irrigation. 

To THE EulJ'oK: — It occuri-ed to me when reading 
the article of Mr. Kirkman in the Ri ral Press of 
Dec. 29th, that, were I a novice in horticulture, this 
article would tend greatly to cause me to forever 
shun irrigated nursery trees. The theory of the ir- 
rigated tree with its multitude of little root fibers 
sounds plausible. l)Ut how little fibers are going 
to be kept alive during packing, shipping and plant- 
ing is more than 1 ean see through from ;i practical 

I have planted many such trees, many years ago, 
and the little rootlets always had to be trimmed off, 
being dead or bruised. Here is a great expense in 
labor. Facts do not bear out Mr. Kirkman s theory. 
It is only of late years, comparatively, that there 
wei-e any irrigated nui-series. and yet it seems to me 
there are many thousands of acres of fine orchards, 
bearing before nurseries were started in the arid 

Mr. K. speaks without full knowledge of the sub- 
ject. In rich lands in all the bay counties, and along 


river bottoms, the moisture is sufficiently near the 
surface at all seasons of the year to keep growing a 
plentiful supply of lateral roots without the addition 
of water artificially applied. 

We had, however, a sample growth of " irrigated " 
trees this year, owing to the early October rains and 
the subsequent hot weather — many little rootlets near 
the surface. But let the north wind blow on them a 
few hours while trees are being dug, or while they 
are being hauled or planted, and the last state of 
that tree is worse than the first. 

Another practical objection to the irrigated tree 
is that it is too large for any but the amateur with a 
yard ]fix20 feet. A large, rapidly grown tree, 
with necessarily softer wood than one of smaller 
diameter, when cut down to fifteen or twenty inches 
from the ground, has great difficulty in getting its 
cut surface healed over. A great many of the larg- 
est and most successful growers in the State make 
this a condition when purchasing trees — that they 
shall be of a medium size.. 

The statement of Mr. K. that the roots of the un- 
irrigated tree are found ' ' certainly not within the 
foot or more of dry top soil. They have lost their 
functions long ago through lack of action," is about 
as far from a statement of fact as if he had said the 
roots had gone on until they broke the earth's crust 
in the antipodes. In all the bay counties, through 
all the rich Sacramento valley in the river bottoms, 
in hundreds of thousands of acres, any crops can be 
grown that require moisture within a few inches of 
the surface, and with no irrigation. 

Irrigate, by all means, u^here it is riffled, but those 
in the arid regions cannot make us believe what is 
contrary to the evidence of our own senses, or per- 
suade us that a healthy irrigated tree (like a green- 
house plant) is better or hardier than a healthy tree 
grown naturally. Leonard Coatks. 

Napa, Dec. 29, 1894. 

Lye for Olive Pickling. 

To THE Editor: — In the publications of the Uni- 
versity Experiment Station, attention has repeatedly 
been called to the very unequal strength and value 
of commercial " concenti'ated lye," which forms so 
important an ingredient in the preparation of in- 
secticide washes in the curing of olives for pickles 
and for many other domestic uses. Of late a good 
many inquiries as to the proper strength of lye to be 
used in olive pickling have come to us, and we are 
experimenting on the subject with different varieties. 
Our stock of "Greenbank " alkali being out, a few 
cans of concentrated lye were procured from a 
neighboring grocer. On testing the strength of the 
preparation sent — " Keystone Concentrated Lye" — 
it was found that it ranged from only thirteen to 
about seventeen per vent of caustic soda, the rest 
being, in the main, common salt. 

Imagine the result of using such low-grade stuff 
instead of the eighty-five to ninety-eight per cent 
article supposed to be employed in either of the 
above agricultural operations. We would doubtless 
receive many indignant letters, and spicy paragraphs 
would be sent to the newspapers commenting on the 
uselessness of relying on anything that the station 
at Berkeley advised. 

In view of these facts, it should be fully understood 
by those testing prescriptions given, whether for 
washes or for curing olives, that the quantities given 
refer to such standard brands as the " Greenbank " 
or equivalent grades, ajid that "concentrated lye" 
bought at random from grocery stores may contain 
less than one-seventh of the amount of alkali in- 
tended to be used and prescribed tav us or others. 

Berkeley, Jan. 5, 1895. E. W. Hilgard. 


Beneficial vs. Injurious Birds. 

It is useful and important to every man and woman 
who cultivates the soil for either pleasure or profit — 
and doubly .so to every teacher— to know the benefits 
from the injurious birds in the locality where we live. 
Unfortunately this knowledge is too limited among 
all classes. Each woman who desires to adorn her 
grounds with attractive fiowers knows how persis- 
tently she must combat the slugs, beetles, plant lice, 
and grasshoppers. Every man realizes that from 
the moment a seed is placed till the fruit is ready to 
pluck he has to contend against injurious insects, 
hence it is of the greatest impor-tance to be able to 
distinguish which of the hundred species of birds in 
our country are beneficial to him and aid in keeping 
down the countless swarms of insects that are injuri- 
ous to vegetation. When he knows a feathered 
friend from a feathered foe it behooves him to guard 
the life of the former and not suffei- it to be sacrificed 
through the cruelty of men and boys. Every lady 
here is interested in this matter, for her love of 
adornment has led to the slaughter of millions of in- 
sect-eating birds. Each year in Euroi)e and America 
$300,000,000 worth of food and fiber plants are de- 
stroyed by insects which birds keep in check, yet in 
the face of this enormous loss 5,000,000 birds ar^ an- 
iiuuUy destroyed in the two e(>i)tinoi)ts immod, (or 

feminine embellishment. In many States laws have 
been passed protecting the beneficial birds from their 
hmnan enemies, but in California protection to our 
feathered friends is too little appreciated. 

Some instances of wholesale destruction of birds 
and the resultant evils may show the importance of 
this. At North Bridgewater in 1820 birds were kill- 
ed in such quantities that cart loads of their bodies 
were used for mauring the ground. The woods and 
orchards were decimated of their feathered tenants 
and as a result gi'eat injury was done to vegetation 
by insects that had hitherto been kept in check by 
their natural enemies. In 1860 the residents of a 
town in Pennsylvania organized a shooting match 
and killed oft' all the birds in the neighborliood. Not 
only the game birds but the larks, robins, swallows, 
and all others. The kiUing took place about the last 
of May and during that summer scarcely a bird was 
seen in the neighborhood. As a result the cut worms 
ravaged the cabbage fields, whole orchards were 
destroyed by borers and caterpillars, and army 
worms devoured a third of the grain crops. The 
farmers realized their mistake but the damage was 
not remedied in a single season for there were not 
birds enough for two or three years to prevent the 
ravages of the insects. 

Locusts were unknown on the Isle of Bourbon till 
some were accidentally brought from Madagascar. 
They increased so rapidly that the people were 
frightened and sought birds that would destroy the 
pests. The blackbird was brought from India but 
the farmers watched these pecking in the fields and 
believed they were eating the crops .so the birds were 
quickly killed. The locusts now increased so prodigi- 
ously that no means could be found for exterminating 
them and more blackbirds were brought to the island. 
In a few months the locusts were greatly lessened in 
numbers and were finally utterly destroyed. 

A farmer's son in Ohio watched a flock of quail in 
his father's corn field, and, after the birds had spent 
an hour industriously running from hill to hill, shot 
one of them and ripped open its stomach to see how 
much corn had been devoured. There was one cut 
worm, twenty-one striped vine bugs and 100 chinch 
bugs but not a single kernal of corn. 

More than forty years ago horticulturists near 
Boston petitioned the Legislature to repeal the law 
pi'otecting the robin from being Killed by .sportsmen. 
Prof. Jenks was one of a committee to try the robin 
and ascertain whether he deserved death or not. He 
found on a careful examination of the bird's stomach 
that from the first of March till the last of April the 
robin lived upon the larvfe of the hibio alhipenms 
which was very destructive to strawberries, vines 
and other food plants. Dui-ing May and June he 
lived upon worms and injurious insects, while in 
August and September he lived largely upon the 
seeds and berries of noxious plants. When Prof. 
Jenks made his report showing what the robins fed 
upon, the fruit growers at once withdrew their peti- 
tion and thus warfare upon this beneficial bird was 

Nearly a hundred years ago the forests of Saxony 
were almost destroyed by insects which fed upon the 
foliage and tender wood. When a careful examina- 
tion was made by competent naturalists it was learn- 
ed that the vast increase of these pests was due to 
the killing of their natural enemies the woodpeckers 
and titmice. 

In Prussia at one time sparrows were thought 
destructive to wheat and the authorities ordered the 
peasants to kill as many birds as possible. The 
result was so destructive to wheat fields — owing to 
the rapid increase of injurious insects — that the third 
year the sparrows were protected by law and all 
further killing of them was prohibited. 

Wilson Plagg, one of the most accurate of American 
ornithologists, says that forest tracts in Virginia 
and Cai'olina were stripped of leaves by a borer of 
the beetle family. These beetles had been allowed 
to increase by a warfare waged upon their natural 
destroyers the woodpeckers. 

It is but a short time since we saw an article in a 
local paper saying: " Bluejays will raid the vine- 
yard and steal every grape if let alone. He will 
perch upon the boughs of the fruit tr-ee and stick his 
bill into the most luscious fruits and what he cannot 
eat or carry away he will spoil by nibbling. He will 
eat more acorns than a hog, steal into the chicken 
coops and suck the eggs and then as if in contempt 
fly upon the clothes drying in the sun and wipe his 
dirty bill upon the clean sheets. If you succeed in 
killing one a hundred strangers come to attend his 
funeral and supply his place." It will be seen that 
the writer gave only the bad qualities of the jay and 
said nothing of insects that he destroys Audubon 
says two blue jays and five young require in 100 days 
fully 20,000 insects. 

Bradley, the Euglish naturalist, writes that in one 
day he counted 500 caterpillars brought to a swal- 
low's nest and that a pair of swallows will destroy 
in a single week 3,300 caterpillars. As the young 
birds are fed for four weeks this would give 13,440 
insects, but as the old birds and their young continue 
to live largely upon caterpillars till they migrate 
from the colder to warmer climes it is calcuated that 
in a single season they devour many more than this 
of these insects, 

The orow, on other h{i,nd, though he efits many lu' 

sects he devours the eggs and the young birds of 
species that are beneficial, and E. A. Samuels cal- 
culates that a single crow in one season kills young 
birds that would devour in that year ninety-six times 
as many injurious insects as the crow itself would 
eat. Yet the crow has his friends and the eccentric 
John Randall would not permit one to be killed upon 
his farm for he believed that they did more good than 

Careful observers have ascertained that the robin, 
considered by many farmers in this State injurious, 
is really beneficial 142^ days during the year, even 
in the East where the cold of winter kills most of the 
injurious insects. Here the number of days he 
would be beneficial is greater than in colder lands. 
Mr. Samuels watched two robins and in a single hour 
they brought fifty-one cut worms to their nest. 

In a late issue of the San Francisco Chronicle there 
is an article claiming the lark to be injurious 
and that farmers ought to wage war upon this bird. 
A recent government report, however, made by com- 
petent naturalists, states that a careful examination 
was made of thirty larks' stomachs, when it was 
found they contained 100 seeds, 25 caterpillars, 57 
grasshoppers and 80 beetles. When the amount of 
damage that could be done by these insects and their 
rapidly increasing progeny is considered it will be 
seen that the lark is the farmer's friend. 

A well known fruit grower in this part of the 
country has a standing reward for the woodpecker 
known as the sap sucker. He, like others, asserts 
that it girdles the trees and does much damage. A 
careful examination of its food shows it to live al- 
most entirely upon beetles, ants and borers. 

Several Placer county growers waged war upon 
the woodpeckers, asserting that the bird devoured 
their apples. A gentleman who knew their habits 
declared that the birds attacked only the wormy 
apples that were not worth saving and at the same 
time killed the insects that would rapidly increase if 
it were not for the birds. When he offered twenty 
dollars for a sound apple that had been attacked by 
the woodpecker no one claimed the reward. 

A pair of road runners in a single season will des- 
troy multiplied thousands of noxious insects and these 
birds are of incalculable benefit to farmers and fruit 

The tall blue herons kill so many gophers on the 
bottom lands along Feather river that D. N. Friesle- 
ben and J. S. Hutchins will not allow anyone to shoot 
these birds on their ranches. 

Nearly every boy believes he is doing just right in 
shooting hawks, yet each hawk in one season will 
destroy thousands of field mice, rats, lizards, snakes 
and beetles. 

Owls feed upon myriads of night-flying moths and 
beetles, keep the field mice down and lessen the num- 
ber of rats. I read lately that in Norway and 
Sweden the entire mountain vegetation would in a 
few years be utterly destroyed by rats were it not 
for their destruction by their natural enemies the 
hawks, owls and foxes. 

The pewee, flycatcher and titmouse are all insect - 
eating birds. Tifie wren is a ravenous devourer of 
cut worms and other destructive insects. The bright 
little bluebii-d clears the ground each year of thous- 
ands of codlin moths and canker worms. Neithei 
the blackbird nor crow care as much for wheat or 
corn as they do for grubs. The robins, the orioles 
and the bluejays all do the farmer and the fruit 
grower untold good. The nuthatch and the little 
gray creeper live exclusively on tree insects. Even 
the destructive butcher bird kills great numbers of 
beetles and locusts. Unless your attention has been 
called to the matter you may not realize how much 
damage insects do to fruit. The strawberry borer 
which plays sad hovoc with the strawberry plants 
also kills the terminal buds of the peach and in .spme 
portions of this State half the peach crop has been 
killed by this single insect. 

The twig borer, a small chestnut-colored beetle, 
does much damage to young fruit. The wooly aphis 
is the most persistent enemy of the apple while the 
codlin moth, the peach root borer, the sun scald 
beetle, the striped squash beetle, the red spider, 
the flat head borer, the pear slug, the army worm 
and grasshopper do immense damage to fruit trees, 
vines and grain. 

Talking with Mr. Hatch, the noted fruit grower, 
lately, he told me that in one season the grasshopper 
ate down for him and others near Lodi nearly 500 
acres of young almond trees. It is quite important 
to know the beneficial from the injurious birds. 
Caution the children never to kill a humming bird 
which is not a honey seeker but an insect eater. 
Teach them that wo have in the United States 
more than 500 species of birds that live almost 
entirely upon insects. Hunt up the facts and 
show children the value to man of sparrow hawks, 
martins, nighthawks, cranes, bluebirds and swallows. 
If boys must wage warfare upon birds let it be done 
upon linnets, English sparrows and magpies and not 
upon birds that are beneficial. Show them that 
birds are absolutely needed to keep down the enor- 
mous number of insects that would soon devour 
every green thing upon the earth were it not for 
their destruction In vast numbers by their natvral 
enemies, thes birds.— Orov 11 1§ Register, 


The Pacific Rural Press 

January 12, 1895. 


In the Homestead Barn. 

In that summer mow, how fair the hours flew, 

'Mid billows of blossomed hay, 
In a barn we knew, where the light stole 

A fresco of roof -chinks gray .' 

The shadowy distances, magnified. 

To our wondering eyes seemed vast ; 
There we loved to hide from the world out- 

When our sunny plays were past. 
Half lost in the hay wo would laugh and leap. 

Then wearv still we would lie 
And languidly keep a sweet truce with sleep 

While the afternoon went by. 
'Twas cool and quiet and deep as a thought 

Unguessed in mind of a child, 
With rich hues inwrought and rare odors 

From clover and lilies wild. 

There the pigeons murmured in tender strain 

Unseen, in some sheltered nook. 
Until we were fain to listen again. 

To hush and listen and look. 

The barn-swallow strayed not farther from 


Than we in those far-off days, 
Or the bee lured there by such peerless fare 
Mistaken for meadow ways. 

No traveler will find such a resting place, 
Though the quest be summer-long: 

No such dreaming-place can a poet trace, 
Wherein to fashion a song I 

— Ellerton. 

riy Own. 

Brown heads and gold around my knee 

Dispute in eager play ; 
Sweet, childish voices in my ear 

Are sounding all the day. 
Yet, sometimes in a sudden hush, 

I seem to hear a tone 
Such as my little boy's hM been 

It I had "kept my own. 

And when ofttimes they come to me, 

As evening hours grow long, 
And beg me winningly to give 

A story or a song, 
I see a pair of star-bright e.yes 

Among the others shine — 
The eyes of him who ne'er has heard 

Story or song of mine. 

At night I go my rounds and pause 

Each white-draped cot beside, 
And note how flushed is this one's cheek. 

How that one's curls lie wide ; 
And to a corner tenantless 

My swift thoughts fly apace — 
That would have been, if he had lived. 

My other darling's place. 

The years go fast : my children soon. 

Within the world of men, 
Will find their work and venture forth. 

Not to return again. 
But there is one who cannot go — 

I shall not be alone ; 
The little boy who never lived 

Will always be my own. 

—Mary W. Plummer. 

Estelle's Christmas Punishment. 

"Nice old fellow!" said Estelle 
Priestly, as she leaned wearilj' among 
the cushions and looked into the eyes 
of Pierce, who stood beside her. " You 
don' t know it, Pierce, but I'm awfully 
glad you can't talk. If you could go 
on to me as Aunt Maria does, positively, 
I think I should hate you. because, you 
being only a dog, I don't suppose it 
would be very wicked to hate you if I 
wanted to.'' 

Pierce lifted his great, intelligent 
eyes to her face, and looked grave. It 
is possible he understood more of the 
talk than Estelle gave him credit for; 
and it is perhaps barely possible that 
he thought the morality of even such 
hating doubtful. Something in his eyes 
made Estelle lean forward and pat his 
splendid head, as she said tenderly. 

" You needn't be so afraid, dear old 
fellow; I shall never hate you. and you 
will never talk any language but that 
which I love. "We are friends forever, 
you and I." 

Five minutes after she was tired of 
him, and asked to have him let out of 
the room. The truth was, Estelle was 
too weak to interest herself in anything 
for a great length of time. Magazines 
full of choice pictures lay at her feet, 
and one was in her lap — new magazines 
which she had expected would last for 
a long time, and already she felt like 
throwing them from her. Everybody 
in the house was busy, and she was left 
almost entirely to her own resources, 
which this morning were slight. 

"Oh, hum I " she said at last with a 
weary yawn. "This day is fifty hours 
long, I believe, Just to think that it 

lacks only three days to Christmas, and 
everybody but me getting ready for it; 
j and I sitting here with pillows at my 
back ! And then to think that it is my 
I own fault ! Oh ! dear me. ' 

She was talking aloud, as her fashion 
was, and believed herself to be quite 
alone, but Aunt Maria had entered the 
next room a few minutes before and 
heard the words. She came to the 
door now and looked in. 

"Yes, "she said, pressing her thin 
lips together in a way which for some 
reason particularly annoyed Estelle. 
' • That is the worst part of it. I am sure 
I am glad you are coming to your senses, 
and begin to feel it. I told your mother 
that if something could be done to make 
you feel that this sickness, and the 
trouble which it has brought upon us 
all, is all your own fault, it would be 
the best thing that could happen to 
you. Just think ! if you hadn"t been so 
headstrong the other day, and per- 
sisted in going against my express 
directions, you might have been getting 
ready for Uncle Robert's this minute, 
instead of being unable to leave your 

The tears which had been gathering 
under Estelle s closed lids before her 
aunt began to speak were suddenh' 
dried, and her eyes flashed as they had 
not since her illness. "I don't think 
you need come creeping into the room 
and listen to what I say to myself. At 
least, my thoughts are my own, I sup- 
pose; and it is being no better than a 
thief to try to steal them I was not 
talking to you by any means, and I 
don't want to think anything that you 

' ' Hoity, toity ! we are getting well 
too fast, I think. No need for your 
mother to lie awake and worry because 
j'ou are not growing strong. Anybody 
who can fly into such a passion as that, 
and accuse her own aunt of stealing, 
just because I am in the next room do- 
ing up the work, and can t help hearing 
her, must have a goofldeal of strength. 
I advise you to be careful, Miss Estelle; 
your father wouldn't approve of such 
talk as that to me, even if j'ou are sick. 
If I should tell him about it, you would 
have trouble laid up for you; and like 
as not I will. I can t stand every- 

"Tell him right away, if you want 
to; you are just hateful enough to try 
to make more trouble for everybody. 
You would have been glad if I had 
died, I believe; you would have said it 
served me right. I wish you would go 
away and let me alone; you make me feel 
hateful all over." 

Then the poor, naughty girl burst in- 
to tears and sobbed away what little 
strength she had, and had to be put to 
bed and have her mother sit beside her 
bathing her hot temples and hushing 
her into quiet. Poor Estelle ! she had 
not learned to control her temper when 
well, and found it now too much for her 
feeble strength. She was having a 
hard time. Six weeks ago — the day 
her father and mother went to town 
for the day, and her aimt Maria came 
to keep house — was when the trouble 
came. Estelle had permission to go 
with her dear friend, Hattie Dunlap, 
and the entire Dunlap family, on a ride 
of eight miles, to be followed by a 
nutting frolic, and a dinner on the way. 

"You are sure Mr. Dunlap is go- 
ing ? " her father had asked, and 
Estelle had replied promptly, "Oh! 
yes, sir; Hattie told me last night that 
her father said he was as pleased at the 
idea of a nutting frolic as though he 
were a boy again. "' 

" And they are going to drive the 
brown horses'/'" chimed in Estelles 
mother. Estelle had explained that 
the gray horses of which her mother 
was afraid were to be in town with 
Ralph Dunlap, and because of these 
things, permission had been given her 
to go. 

Father and mother had not been gone 
an hour when Hattie Dunlap came for 
Estelle, and in the course of a few 
minutes' conversation which she had 
with Aunt Maria, made it known that 
"father" had lost the frolic after all- 
having had a telegram which would 
take him to town, and that Ralph was 
going to drive and to take his own gray 
ponies. Then Aunt Mftria bad risen in 

her authority and insisted that Estelle 
must not go. Her father had as good 
as said that he gave permission because 
Mr. Dunlap was going, and because the 
gray horses were not. Hattie argued 
excitedly that Ralph was as good a 
driver as his father, and that it was 
absurd to be afraid of those gray horses; 
he drove them everywhere. Aunt 
Maria was firm, but so was Estelle; 
father had said she could go, and she 
was certainly going. Go she did, and 
came home lying on a bed on the floor 
of a wagon, with the doctor holding her 
head, and Mrs. Dunlap bending over 
her in a fever of anxiety. The gray 
horses, though generally under Ralph's 
control, had grown frightened at a 
strange-looking machine which was 
coming down the road, and had tried to 
run awaj' from it. Both Hattie and 
Estelle were thi-own, but in was Estelle 
who was hurt. Hattie escaped with a 
few bruis(\s. Estelle, on the contrary, 
barely escaped with her life, and a long, 
hard illness had followed, fronj which 
she was now slowly, very slowly, creep- 
ing back to health. Ever since she had 
been pronounced out* of danger Aunt 
Maria had been anxious that she should 
be reminded that she brought all the 
trouble on herself, but father and 
mother Priestly had forbidden any 
talk about it until their daughter was 

They did not fully understand the 
cause of this severe attack of headache, 
for Aunt Maria had grimly told her 
own words, with not a hint of Estelle's 
reply. It was not until the evening 
of that same day, when the pain had 
spent itself, that Estelle, with her hand 
in her mother's, whispered out her 

" O, mamma ! I never can be good, I 
am sure. I have resolved and resolved 
since I have been sick, and here I 
blazed out at Aunt Maria this morning 
just dreadfully. She said she would 
tell papa, and I should think she would. 
I pretty near called her a thief, and I 
was awful. O, mamma, mamma ! what 
shall I do '? I can't help being bad 
when Aunt Maria speaks to me." 

Mother Priestly talked then, as some 
mothers know how todo; talked to such 
purpose that Estelle of her own accord 
said: " Mamma I know what todo next. 
I must ask Aunt Maria to forgive me. 
I hate to I I want her to forgive me, 
but I hate to ask her, because she will 
be sure to say something which will 
make me feel mad inside: but I mean to 
do it. Mamma, why cannot sisters be 
a little bit alike ':* If Aunt Maria was 
only like you ! '" 

■The forgiveness was asked the very 
next morning; and Aunt Maria said: I 
thought, my lady, that your father 
would bring you to your senses." And 
Estelle answered not a word. 

She was quite and sad all that day. 
She had made a sacrifice. Mother and 
father were going to Uncle Robert's 
for the Chri.stmas dinner, just as had 
been planned long before, and Estelle 
was to have Nurse Wade stay with her. 
She had arranged it herself, and in- 
sisted upon her mother going; but it 
was a doleful Christmas to look for- 
ward to. for all that. It was not until 
Christmas morning that she knew 

' ■ We thought it would excite you too 
much, dear, to tell you before," her 
mother said, " but we planned two 
weeks ago to have the Christmas din- 
ner come to us. Uncle Robert and 
all the others and Aunt Kate and the 
baby are coming; and the doctor says 
if you will be very careful and quite, 
you may sit in the wheel chair in the 
dining room and enjoy them all. Did 
mother's little girl tliink mother would 
U-ave her for a Christmas alone '! '' 

On Estelle's table at her side ticked 
a tiny gold watch, her Christmas gift 
from father and mother. Estelle 
privately thought that she did 
not deserve the gift. One thing she 
asked her father which made him 
smile and brush away a tear. Two 
things she wanted graven inside the 
watch cover: " Estelle s Christmas 
Punishment," and " As one whom his 
mother comforteth." 

"Papa, I want it very much, " she 
said earnestly. " I am sure nothing 
could punish roe like that dear little 

lovely, beautiful gift after I have been 
so wrong; and, papa, nobody can tell 
how mamma helped and comforted me, 
and showed me what to do when my 
heart was broken." 

Estelle had another "punishment" 
that very day. What was Aunt Maria's 
gift but a wonderful little gray pony 
with a side saddle on ! He had to be 
led to the dining room window for Es- 
telle to give him a lump of sugar with 
her own hand. " And he won't run 
away, neither, for any kind of a ma- 
i-hine," said Aunt Maria grimly; " I've 
had him well broke." — F. A. Power, in 
the Pansv. 

Gems of Thought. 

But surely modesty never hurt any 
cause, and the confidence of man seems 
to me to be much like the wrath of 
man. — Tillotson. 

Light as a gossamer is the circum- 
stance which can bring enjoyment to a 
conscience which is not its own accuser. 
— W. Carleton. 

I am very sensible how much nobler 
it is to place the reward of virtue in 
the silent approbation of one's own 
breast than in the applause of the 
world. — Melmoth. 

And suddenly there was with the 
angel a multitude of the heavenly army, 
praising God, and saying: "Glory to 
God in the highest; and on earth peace 
to men of good will. ' — Luke ii. 

He that will often put eternity and 
the world before him, and who will dare 
to look steadfastly at both of them, will 
find that the more often he contem- 
plates them, the former will grow 
greater and the latter less. — Colton. 

I have very long entertained an am- 
bition to make the word wife the most 
agreeable and delightful word in 
nature. If it be not so in itself, all the 
wiser part of mankind, from the begin- 
ning of the woi"ld to this day, has con- 
sented in an error. — Sir R. Steele. 

There is a great measure of dis- 
cretion to be used in the performance 
of confession, so that you neither omit 
it when your own heart may tell you 
that there is .something amiss, nor 
over-scrupulously pursue it when you 
are not conscious to yourself of notable 
failings. — Jeremy Taylor. 

Economy is the parent of integrity, 
of liberty and of ease; and the beaute- 
ous sister of temperance, of cheerful- 
ness and of health; and profuseness is 
a cruel and crafty demon that gradu- 
ally involves her followers in depend- 
ence and debts; that is, fetters them 
with "irons that enter into their 
souls." — Dr. Johnson. 

The felicity and beatitude that glit- 
ters in virtue shines throughout all her 
apartments and avenues, even to the 
first entry, and utmost pale and limits. 
Now, of all the benefits that virtue 
confers upon us, the contempt of death 
is one of the greatest, as the means 
that accommodates human life with a 
soft and easy tranquility, and gives us 
a pure and pleasant taste of living, 
without which all other pleasure would 
be e.xtinct; which is the reason why all 
the rules by which we are to live center 
and concur in this one article. — Mon- 

Highest Honors — World's Fair. 





A pure Grape Cream of Tartar Powder. Free 
"rom Ammonia, Alum or any other adulterant 

January 12, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press 


A Good Wife. 

Bill Nye's jokin^^ columns are some- 
what monotonous at times, but here is 
a screed from him that appeals to the 
heart of every male biped : 

"My ideal wife is a comrade who 
wins me from down town, and who 
agrees with me generally, and if not, it 
is quite likely to be because I am 
wrong. She is one who has repeatedly 
proved that her impressions are better 
than the expensive opinions of my at- 

" She sees where danger lies, while I 
am groping about, by means of cum- 
bersome logic, to arrive later at the 
same conclusion. 

" She does not claim to be literary, 
but discovers at once when an author 
becomes artificial and writes from the 
head rather than the heart. 

'.' She is level-headed, rather than 
strong-minded. She knows when to 
applaud her husband without making a 
goose of him, and how to criticise with- 
out offending him. 

"She delights in benefiting the 
needy, whom she knows, rather than 
make blanc mange for the people on 
the upper Congo. She does not say 
kind words by long-distance telephone, 
but anticipates the wants of the de- 
serving in her own neighborhood. 

" She can give pointers to a profes- 
sional cook, and compels good service 
because she is familiar with all the de- 
tails of good housekeeping. 

" She can transact business when an 
emergency arises, but is glad to turn it 
over to the husband when he is at 

"The ideal wife is also an ideal 
mother. She has no abnormal affec- 
tion for wheezy dogs. 

"She is a good fellow with her hus- 
band, and the confidante and comrade 
of her sons and daughters. 

" She I'everes the honest elements of 
religion without being a beggar or a 
hustler for the church. She does not 
neglect her home or her children in or- 
der to wipe out a church debt, which 
should not have been incurred. 

"She is the kind of woman to en- 
courage wedlock by her glorious ex- 
ample. Sh° is the kind to make con- 
firmed bachelors and old maids pity 

"Finally, she compels her husband 
to congratulate himself, and to wonder 
what he would have been without her. 

"She is unselfish. She is healthy in 
mind and body, and she is the mother 
of good citizens. She makes the world 
better for having lived in it, and of 
such is the kingdom of heaven." 

Hanging Pictures. 

By hanging pictures low you increase 
the apparent height of a room. 

Colored pictures should not be hung 
in hallways or on staii'cases unless 
there is plenty of light for them. In 
such places, strong photographs, en- 
gravings and drawings in black and 
white go best. 

A picture should not be hung from 
one nail; the diagonal line.s formed by 
the cord have a very discordant effect. 
Two nails and two vertical cords, or, 
what is far more safe, pieces of wire 
cordage, should be used instead of the 
single cord. 

Picture cord should be as near the 
color of the wall upon which they are 
put as possible, so that they may be 
but little seen. When one picture is 
hung beneath another the bottom one 
should be hung from the one above, and 
not from the top; we thus avoid multi- 
plying the cords, which is always objec- 

A good hue for walls where prints or 
photographs are to be hung is a rich 
yellow brown, or a leather color. Lus- 
ter to the black of the print or the 
tone of the photograph is thus im- 

The wall paper should have no 
strongly defined pattern, and should be 
of one uniform color, such as red in- 
clining to crimson or tea green. 

The center of the picture, as a rule, 
should not be much above tb« level of 
the eye, '-Art Amatgur, 

The Farmer's Boy. 

Has wide-open eyes. 
Is mirthful and jolly. 
Gets up with the sun. 
Is generous and kind. 
Is truthful and square. 
Has a voice like a bell. 
Is not vulgar or coarse. 
Grumbles hardly at all. 
Likes to frolic and play. 
Is prompt and obedient. 
Is always ready to help. 
Is his mother's chief joy. 
Has clean hands and face. 
Is his sister's great chum. 
Has a mind like a sponge. 
Thinks his father is great. 
Is near the head of his class. 
Seldom whimpers or whines. 
Never loafs at the "corners." 
Keeps himself tidy and sleek. 
Wants to grow up a true man. 
Often asks the wherefore and why. 
Says "I thank you" and "Please, 
sir. " 

And grows like a turnip in June. 


Kitchen Lore. 

The Farmer's Girl. 

Is honest. 
Is sensible. 
Is not saucy. 
Is contented. 
Helps mother. 
Is thoughtful. 
Is wide-awake. 
Is always polite. 
Amuses the baby. 
Is always pleasant. 
Is gentle and kind. 
Does her work well. 
Is careful in speech. 
Keeps her dress neat. 
Never neglects duty. 
Learns her lessons well. 
Always speaks the truth. 
Makes father comfortable. 
Is respectful to old people. 
Teaches little brother and sister. 
Tries to be in word and deed a true 
little woman. 

Needlework should be ironed on the 
wrong side on a piece of flannel, and it 
should be kept long enough under the 
iron to thoroughly dry it. 

Boston Pudding.— Peel a dozen and 
a half of apples, core and cut them into 
small pieces and put them into a small 
saucepan that will just hold them, with 
a little water, a little cinnamon, two 
cloves and the peel of one lemon. Stew 
over a slow fire till quite soft; then 
sweeten with sugar and pass it 
through a sieve. Add to it the yolks of 
four eggs and the white of one, one- 
quarter of a pound of butter, half a 
nutmeg, the grated peel and juice of 
one lemon. Beat all well together. 
Line the inside of a pie dish with good 
puff paste, put in the pudding and 
bake it. 

Turkey Stuffed with Chestnuts. — 
Draw, singe, pare and truss a young 
turkey. Chop up ten ounces of kernel 
of veal and sixteen ounces of pig's leaf 
lard, both to be chopped separately, 
then mixed together; season with salt 
and spice, adding a little shallot and 
the liver, both well chopped. Put this 
into a mortar with a gill of stock and 
pound well, remove and place in a 
saiitoir to cook for fifteen minutes; let 
cool, and stir in sixty cooked chestnuts; 
stuff the turkey with this, roast, dress, 
and pour over it a little good gravy. 

Turkey Truffled and Garnished 
WITH Black Olives.— Take a fine, fat, 
tender turkey, weighing about eight 
or ten pounds; truffle it three days be- 
fore using with two pounds of leaf lard, 
three bay leaves, thyme, salt, pepper, 
a very little crushed and chopped 
garlic, and two chopped-up shallots. 
Peel three pounds of truffies, chop up 
the parings, and place all together in 
a vessel, cutting the large truffles in 
pieces. Strain the melted lard over 
these and let get cold, stirring the 
whole well together with a gill of 
brandy, and season. Fill up the tur- 
key with this, and insert a slice of thin 
fat pork between the breast and skin; 
place on this fat pork slices of truffle. 
Truss for roasting and wrap in but- 
tered paper and cook for an hour and 
a half or two hours, on a cradle spit, 
basting frequently. Unwrap it fifteen 1 
minutes before serving; salt and let | 
acquire a good color. Dress on a long | 

dish, garnish around with black olives, 
and serve separately some clear gravy, 
taken from the drippings, well 
skimmed and strained. 

Turkey with White Oyster Sauce. 
Truss an eight-pound turkey, put it 
into a saucepan, moisten to cover and 
two inches higher with stock and let 
boij. Skim, season with salt, whole 
peppers and a bunch of parsley gar- 
ni.shed with bay leaves; boil this slowly 
until thoroughly cooked. When done, 
drain, untruss and dress on an oval 
rice border. Serve with a white sauce 
containing small, lightly blanched and 
well drained oysters and raw fine 
herbs. A part of the sauce should be 
poured over the turkey and the re- 
mainder served in a sauce boat. 

Hints to Housekeepers. 

Milk which is turned or changed may 
be sweetened or rendered fit for use 
again by a little soda being stirred in it. 

When the burners of lamps become 
clogged witli char, put them in strong 
soapsuds and boil awhile to clean them. 

It is said that a pinch of salt placed 
on the tongue and allowed to dissolve 
slowly is a certain cure for sick head- 

The creases can be taken out of velvet 
and the pile raised by drawing it across 
a hot iron over which a wet cloth has 
been spread. If there are pin marks 
over which the pile refuses to rise, 
brush it up with a stiff brush and steam 
it, repeating the operation several 

Women cannot be too cautious in the 
use of face lotions or powders. Recent 
chemical of hair dyes and cos- 
metics .show an appalling lack of con- 
science in their ingredients. Out of 
many sam])les examined at official 
laboratories, not one was free from 
lead. Of thirteen samples of face lo- 
tions, ten were found to contain corro- 
sive sublimate. Harmless lotions were 
merely soap, borax, citric acid, cal- 
omel, alcohol and water. It is wisdom 
on the part of any woman to ignore all 
so-called "skin rejuvenators," and 
cling to nature's free gifts of water, 
sun and fresh air, with perhaps a slight 
massage every night. 

Accept None of the Pretended Substitutes 






ECAUSE inferior and cheaper made baking preparations are 
sold at wholesale at a price so much lower than Royal, some 
grocers are urging consumers to buy them in place of the Royal 
the same retail price. 

If you desire to try any of the pretended substitutes for Royal 
Baking Powder bear in mind that they are all made from cheaper 
and inferior ingredients, and are not so great in leavening strength 
nor of equal money value. Pay the price of the Royal Baking 
Powder for the Royal only. 

It is still more important, however, that Royal Baking Powder 
is purer and more wholesome and makes better, finer, and more 
healthful food than any other baking powder or preparation. 


Coast Industrial Notes. 

—The past twelve months made a meager 
vear in the annals of railroad buildiu^r. The 
total new mileage was l',il9.i:i Of this, Ari- 
zona contributed l'.>.i.4!l, and California -fi::. 

— Expert Moore figures that the Santa Fe 
system must expend *4,0()(),()t)0 within the 
next live years to keep up its ro;id ami rolling 
stock. Of this amount the A. P. will have 
to expend *2,:iS0,(K)0— *l,T(Hj,-.'(K) for new I'ails. 

—The Pacific Coast Lumber ComiMiny and 
the Puget Sound Shingle Company, of Tacoma, 
are in the hands of a receiver. The liabilities 
of the former will reach nearly .^CiKK) and the 
latter about .*1-J,(KK(. 

—The Mexican Northern railroad is to be 
extended from Sierra Mojada to the rich min- 
ing camp of Carmen on the Rio Grande border, 
and thence across Presidio county, Tex., to 
Marathon, where connection will be made 
with the Southern I'acilic. 

—The San Diego. Pacific and Eastern Kail- 
road Company has incorporated. Capital stock 
?l,0(XJ.OOO. The object of the incoriwration is 
to build a railroad from San Diego northeast- 
erly through El Cajon valley and to San Felipe 
pas's, with a di%'erting road also from El Cajon 
valley via Poway to Escondido. 

— Capital has been secured for carrying out 
the plans for car works, blast furna(^e and 
steel works at Salmon bay, Puget Sound. D. 

H. Gilman of Seattle is at the head of the en- 
terprise. It will require S:i,0(iO.liO<) of capital 
and give employment to 3(i00 men. It is pi'o- 
posed to .secure motive iK)wer by generating 
electricity at Sno<iualmie Falls, and a com- 
pany already has been organized for this pur- 

—There are two values in flax— fiber and 
the seed. Our Northwest Pacific States arc 
the best flax-growing district in the world. 
Many years ago the fiber was extolled by ex- 
perts who saw it. But we were distant from 
market and did not this branch of indu.s- 
try. Conditions are changing now. and the 
products of flax, fiber and seed or oil, will now 
or soon bear transport. This is one of the 
industries tn be studied in these States. 

— The proi)osed new system of waterworks 
for Astoria, Or., will cost when completed the 
sum of $'JIM»,(HKI. It will have a gi-avity system of 
eighteen inch pipe, twelve niileslong, a 6,(K)(),- 
(KX) gallon reservoir, a masonry lined tunnel 

I, 200 feet long, an aerating foundation seventy- 
five feet in height, and dLscharging 
gallons a minute; a [wwer plant driving a 
dynamo for public lighting. The ix)wer is 
developed bv the fall of the gravity .system of 
over 600 feet. 

— A big irrigation scheme in .southern Cali ■ 
fornia is known as the Columbian Colonization 
Company, with a I'apital st(H'k of •*4,0lHi,iKHl. 
.r. G. Foster, representing foreign capital, is 
in San Bernardino pcrfecling scmie of the 
minor details preliminary to beginning work 
on the construction of a dam at Victor, which 
will impound sufticient watci- to irrigate li.'iO,- 
ftOO acres of land. The Santa Fe road passes 
through the land, and the whole can be brought 
under cultivation at comiKiratively little cost. 
The parties interested are the principal owners 
of the Bear Valley Iriigation Comiwny. 

—The Monterey v(; Fresno Kailroad is de- 
signed to afford direct railroad transportation 
from Fresno to Monterey. Preliminary sur- 
veys have been made for the entire line -171 
miles -and the permanent location of the 
greater part of the route has been completed. 
In .luly last, forty-six miles, from Monterey 
bay east, were put under contmct and work 
on this division is progressing, with nine 
miles now graded ready for the track. The 
line will jmss through Salina.s, San .(uan, Hol- 
lister, Pirebaugh and Madera. It is expected 
to push work vigorously during IS'.I5. 

— The biennial report of the State Board of 
Fish Commissioners for IS'.i:) 4 states that 
California ranks sixth in the Union, with 
products valued at .<t.044,:ilO with an annual 
appropriation of *sr,5(), while Massachusetts 
ranks first, with an appropriation of ^l.^TtK) 
I)er annum. It has been slated that Eastern 
States required greater api)ropriations in this 
direction on account of greater ix)pu!ation, but 
the report says the reverse is true, as the ex- 
pense of prote<'tion is almost nothing in 
densely [Kipulated regions. The Commission 
recommends the appointment of a game 
warden in each county. 

—The long-talked-of electric railroad be- 
tween Los Angeles and Santa Monica is rap- 
idly approai'hing materialization. The plan is 
the utilization of the old Los Angeles and Pa- 
cific Railroad by a corporation, which is under- 
stood to be practically the same as the Los 
Angeles Consolidated Company. A contract 
of sale has been signed by the owners of the 
old Los Angeles and Pacific whereby, on cer- 
tain terms, they transfer all the property to 
Mr. Stevens of this city, who is operating in 
behalf of the Los Angeles and Pasadena Elec- 
tric Railway Company, which is part of the 
Consolidated, the <ibieet being to make a con- 
tinuous line through Los .\ngeles from the 
mountains to the sea. 

The Pacific Northwest can now boast of 
having the longest telephone line in the 
world. The Sunset Telephone companv has 
put in operation a system of lines throughout 
the lower Sound country as far as the mouth 
of the Fraser river, reaching from Seattle to 
New Westminster, Vancouver, ixiints on the 
Fraser river as far as Ladner's I.,anding, 
Blaine, Anacortes, Fairhaven, LaConner, 
Marysville and intermediate ijoints. This 
completes a continuous line about l,;iO<) miles 
long, beginning at Moscow, Idaho, running 
thence through Spokane, eastern Washington, 
eastern Oregon, along the Columbia river to 
Portland, thence through western Washing- 
ton and <}own Puget Souqd to, Ladqer's Land- 

—The San Franclsoo and Los Angeles Rall- 
pntMl '^1^ t)oen Ineorpor^tpd again, fho Ineor- 

' porators are : Frederick Homer, W. H. C. 
, Fowler, W. H. Martin. W. J. Behan and A. 
Judson. The road is de.signed to run through 
Alameda, Contra Costa, San Joaquin, Stanis- 
laus, Meived, Madera, Fresno, Tulare, Kern 
and Los Angeles counties, and will be about 
.iOO miles in length. The capital stock is 
placed at .*:'_'0,(K)O,(M)0 and ?!.">(M),(K)0 of that amount 
has been subscribed, ten percent of which has 
been paid into the hands of the treasurer of 
the companv, A. .ludson. Mr. Homer, who has 
had charge of the entetijrise from the start, 
takes J^.>0,(K)0 of the strx-k as trustee, and 
says that he represents Eastern capitalists 
( who are behind the enterprise. 

—The Columbian Colonization Com|)i»uy is 
incorixirated by .1. W. AVilson, H. P. Sweet 
! and .1. G. Foster to irrigate and colonize a 
tract of government land in San Bernardino 
county, on the Atlantic & Pacific and the 
I Southern California Railroads, and on bram'hes 
of the Santa Fe system. At the upper nar- 
! rows at Victor on the Southern California 
Railwav. the river flows through a gorge m) 
feet deep and l.iO feet wide. By building a 
dam 1.50 feet high at this point the company 
propose to obtain a water supply sutticicnt to 
irrigate f!4(),(M10 acres of desert land. It is 
I their intention to lay out a city to be called 
i Columbia, with water jwwer for electric 
I plants, a beet-sugar factory, canaigre works, 
I a creamerv and a cold-storage warehouse. 
I The capital sta-k is *4,000,(K)0. 
'• —It is stated at Union Pacific headquarters 
' that for some time past it has been the ambi- 
tion of Receiver McNeill of the O. R. & N. 
( Co. to bring about a separate receivership for 
the Oregon Short Line and Utah Northern 
with the Oregon Navigation Company, there- 
I by making the two roads an independent .sys- 
t tem. But the scheme was not to end there, 
i A California line was to be secured by extend- 
: ing the branch a distance of 4(Hi miles, con- 
; necting the O. K. & N. Co., thus giving the 
company a through line from Huntington to 
t the coast via Portland. For months this has 
j been the dream of Major McNeill, but when 
he broached the subject of indeiicndent line 
to Mr. Boissevan, who has large interests in 
both properties, it is understood that gentle- 
man told the Navigation Comiwiny's receiver 
I he was entirely satisfied to have the manage- 
ment in the control of the Union Pacific. 

- A conservative epitome of California pro- 
ductions in ■'.•4 show that California mines 
vielded -<ls.tKKl,00(l in the i)ieceding twelve 
months, of which over -Sl'i.Oim.iKMl was gold; 
i the value of the salt pnxhict in IS'.M was 
?!120,0<K(; borax product, l.SiU, jiSCo.tKKl ; mineral 
i waters. s:!(K),0(M»; natural gas, ^i(),lK)i): [wstro- 
leum and bitumen products, •<l,i;.">0,(KIO ; ((Uick- 
silver, u'f>,40ii flasks; value of San Franci.sco 
manufactures in Is'.M, .*H:i,:!io,0(Hi; beet sugar 
pro<Un-ed. :<."i.(H)(l,(M)0 ixumds; wheat crop, 
l!-,'.414.'.HH) bushels; brandy distilled from 
grapes. 1.;^(I0,()00 gallons; California canned 
fruit, 1,:.'4(),(M)() cases; barlcv crop, .^OtHKOOO 
bushels; bean crop, 7'.2,iMK),(M»o (Kninds; raisin 
crop, .i4.ii(K).(KM) jKiunds; dried fruit prinlucl, 
l'.i.">,0(H).000 ixiunds; prune crop, :W,.iOO,(i(li) 
pounds; w(H)l product. ■2ti,(KK),(MHl i«)Unds; hoii 
product, 40,000 bales; orange crop, 10,IHH) car- 
loads; butler. .■)0,(KM),(KK» pounds; cheese, 
l.i,(MM>,(HiO i>ounds. 

Complete Fertilizers 

for iK)taloes, fruits, and all vepjctablcs rcqtiire (to .stctirc the larj,'e-t 
yield and best (luality) 

At Least 10% Actual Potash. 

Rcsiilt.s of cxpciimcnts prove this concliisi\c]y. How and 
why, is toKl in our pamphlets. 

'Ihvy are sent free. It will cost you nothing to rp.irt thmi. and Ibrv will s,Tve you 
dollars. GERMAN K.ALl WORKS. 93 Nassau Sirect, .\ew Vork. 

MK'* EK, WILSON * i U.. aiO Battery Street, San Frani'lsoo. Sole AgentH for the Pacific Coast 


Made In 'Z.tO Strle«. 

For either road or stable use. 
* All shapes, sizes and qualities. 

W'M. AvuKS (fe Sons, Phicada. 



Tt'iW ('aliforiiia Strei't. 

For the lialf yc;ir cnilini,' Uercmbcr 31. I8SI4. a 
dividend has lieen ilcelai-eU at the rate of five (.i) 
per cent per annum on Term Deposits and four and 
one-sixth |4 l-S) per cent per annum on Ordiuar.? 
Deposits, pavable on and after WEUNBISDAV, 
.Tunuarv -.'d. IW.i. CEO. TOfRNV. Secretary. 

TREE - \A//\SH. 

OH\/e> Di|D. 

"Greenbank" Powdered Caustic 
Soda and Pure Potash. 

T. W. JftCK-SOIN «fc CO. 
Sole Agents. - - No. 'i'ilj Market .Street 



postpaid for 50c. UICURA CO., :illi Califoroia 
San Francisco. 


Of forty or eighty acres near the coast. Send de- 
scription and price to C. KRUOK.R, PfeilTer, 

VWrtlNTED ! 
PoHltloii aK .Manager c»n a I.arg^e F^ariii. 

Thorougrh aequalmauee with Stock Ralslnif. Dairy 
Business. General Karnilng-. K.xperlenee In roreign 
couutries; French. Rnglish. Ueruian correspond 
ence; Bookkeepiui?; Graduate of Agricultural 
Academy In Germany. P. i). Iinx liaki rsti>-ld. 

Kern Ceunty, C:\\ 


HOOKER & GO. 16-18 O8UIUI STREET. 8. f. 

\/er Vour Barns, 




F». 8c B. P/\IINX. 



Highest Awards at Chicago, 1893, San Francisco, 1894. 


221 South Broadway, 116 BATTERY STREET. No. 49 First Street, 

Protect Your Trees 


Gilman's Patent Tule Tree Protector. 

PATK„VTK.U AUGUST 1, l«i:i. 

FIRST PRIZK— Medal .ind Diploma— California Mid-Winter internationel 

Cheapest, best and only one to protect trees and vines from frost, sunhum, 
rabbits, squirrels, borers and other tree pests. 

For testimonials from parties who are iikIok them, send for deseriptive eir- 


S^ole /V\« n uf a c- 1 u r e r of Mf»tet-it Tule C^ox/ers. 

420 Ninth Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

Price's Traction 

We have one of lliese eu^ines that was used 
about one month last season and was taken baek 
by us by reason of illness of purchaser. Knginc is 
in perfect order, and in better working order than 
when first sent from the factory. A BARGAIN. 
Indicated power. S>horse; Cylinders, 8x8; Wheels, 
8 ft. high. 1^ in. wide: weight, less than Hi tons. 
Price when new, $4800. 


Hi hikI is Druiiiiii Street. Nan KrHiu-irtcu. 



OlIR Pr.MPS hnve Vuton, . 
right. Oiii |;ARF1KI,I> K\ \ : 
KINO lead all othi-ri.. J > 
CatRlofrtie and instruction book, i. ciii 
FIEI.n roRlE ri'Hl- CO., Ul Srl.tol Av 

, Lockiiort, \. 

C « L I F - *_> R IN I PI . W 



Capital Paid Cp •l.OOO.OOO 

' Reserve Fund and I'ndlTlded ProlttH, 130,000 
\ Dividend* I'ald to Sti>ckholder«. . . . S.'i^.OOO 
okkickhs — - 

A. P. LoriAN Preslrtenl. 

, I. C. STKELK Vice-President. 

ALBKRT MONTPELLIEB.... Cashier and Manitfrer. 

FRANK MrMULLF.N Secretary. 

' General Banking. Depos'ts Received. Gold and 
; .Silver. Bills of Exehang^e BouKht and Sold. Loans 
I ou Wheat and Country Produce a Specially. 

January 1. isia. A. MONTPELLIER. Manafcer. 

" THE MARKET GARDEN," Ofapge Cyltbre ip California. 

A MONTHl.V .Illl KN.M. roK 

AOe. a year in julvanc*'. Sample copy mall*Hl Free 
on application. Adtlress 



AU klnils uf tiKjb ■ 
Adainnntine proce 
lci,l Art«elan Punipinir Ktirs to w<.rk h\ st,*am, Air, etc. 

Aurora, III; <hlfniro. III.: I»nll«.. Tri. 

168(18 DRUMMS7 $. 

• 1 • 

Now that the interest in the culture of the oraiise 
is extending so aa to embrace iiearl.v all parts of the 
State, a book (rivlnir the results of experience In 
parts of the State where the ifrowth of the fnill has 
been lonnresl pursued will be found of wide useful- 

■'Oranee Culture iu Callforula " was written by 
Thomas A. Gai-ey of Loh Aiiireles. after many .vears 
of praptlcal experience and observation In the 
(jrowlh of the fruit. It Is a well printed hand-book 
of '22; paifes. and treats of nursery practlo>-. planting 
of oranu'e orchards, cultivation uud irripatlon. 
pruning, estimates of coat of plautatlous, tjest va- 
rieties, etc. 

The book Is sent, postpaid, at ths reMuued price of 
70 rent* per puiU'. In o'lOth blndlQt Adore** TFK 
PACIFIC ftrR/ii, PRHW, m Miti'kHt ^irvot. 
Priin«|«tMi, (1«1 

.lanuary 12, 1895. 


Four Hundred Degrees Below 

Four hundred and twenty-foui' de- 
trrees Fahrenheit below zero ! Just 
what this means it is almost impossible 
to imagine, and yet it is one of the 
temperatures which have been reached 
and used in laboratory research, and 
has been made the subject of some 
highly interesting experiments and ex- 
planations by Prof. Dewar before the 
British Royal Institution. Four hun- 
dred degrees below zero is not an every- 
day temperature, nor can it be reached 
by more every-day means than the ex- 
pansion of liquid air, which latter Prof. 
Dewar has succeeded in producing in 
comparatively large quantities, and in 
storing by novel and ingenious methods, 
to be used as required in the study of 
matter at abnormally low temperature, 
exactly as a spirit lamp or a Bunsen 
burner is used in studying the proper- 
tie§ of different bodies at the higher 

The tensile strength of iron at 400 
degrees below zero is just twice what 
it is at 60 degrees above. It will take 
a strain of sixty instead of thirty tons 
to the square inch, and equally curious 
results have come out as to the elonga- 
tion of metals under these conditions. 
It was an idea of Faraday that the 
magnetism in a permanent magnet 
would be increased at very low tem- 
peratures, and experiments with com- 
paratively low temperatures had rather 
negatived Faraday's suggestion, but 
Prof. Dewar has completely verified 
the opinion of the famous savant, hav- 
ing shown that a magnet at the ex- 
tremely low temperature made possi- 
ble by the liquid air had its power in- 
creased by about 50 per cent. Very 
low tempei-ature was shown also to 
have a remarkable effect upon the color 
of many bodies. For example, the 
brilliant scarlet of vermilion and mer- 
curic iodide is reduced, under its influ- 
ence to a pale orange, the original 
color retui'ning with the rise of the 
temperature. Blues, on the other 
hand, are unaffected by cold, and the 
effect is comparatively small upon or- 
ganic coloring in matters of all tints.— 
Cassier's Magazine. 

The New Constituent of the Air. 

Lord Rayleigh's curious discovery is 
that the gas obtained by taking vapor 
of water, carbonic acid, and oxygen 
from common air is densei- by than 
nitrogen obtained by chemical processes 
from nitric oxide, or from nitrous oxide, 
or ammonium nitrite, thereby render- 
ing it probable that atmospheric air 
is a mixture of nitrogen and a small 
pi'oportion of some unknown and 
heavier gas. Rayleigh and Ramsey 
(who joined in the work at this stage) 
have since succeeded in isolating the 
new gas, both by removing nitrogen 
from common air by Cavendish's old 
process of passing electric sparks 
through it, and taking away the ni- 
trous compounds thus produced by 
alkaline liquor; and by ab.sorption by 
metallic magnesium. Prom this occur- 
rence Lord Kelvin deduces "a fresh 
and most interesting verification of a 
statement which I took occasion to 
make in my presidential address to the 
British Association in 1871: 'Accurate 
and minute measurement seems to the 
non-scientiffc imagination a less lofty 
and dignified work than looking for 
something new. But nearly all the 
grandest dis('Overies of science have 
been but the rewards of accurate 
measurement and patient, long-con- 
tinued labor in the minute sifting of 
numerical results.' 'fhe investigation 
of the new gas is now being cai'ried on 
vigorously, and has already led to the 
wonderful conclusion that the gas does 
not combine with any other chemical 
substance which has hitherto been pre- 
sented to it." 

Armor Plate for Russia. 

The Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, Iron 
Company has the whole contract for 
supplying armor for Russia's two new 
battle ships, the Sebastopol and Petro- 
palovak. The contract calls for some- 
thing over 12,000 tons of armor plate 
to fit up the two ships. It amounts to 
about $4,000,000. The American com- 

pany secured the contract over four- 
teen competitors, comprising the 
armor plate manufacturers in the 
United States, England, Prance, Italy 
and Germany. The contract is re- 
garded the largest ever awarded in 

$100 Reward, $100. 

The reader of this paper wiU be pleased to learn 
that there Is at least one dreaded disease that 
science has been able to cure in all its stages, and 
that is catarrh. Hall's Catarrh Cure is the only 
positive cure known to the medical fraternity. 
Catarrh being a constitutional disease, requires a 
constilutional treatment. Hall's Catarrh Cure is 
taken internally, acting directly on the blood and 
mucous surface's of the system, thereby destroy- 
ing the foundation of the disease, and giving the 
patient strength by building up the constitution 
and assisting nature in doing its work. The pro- 
prietors have so much faith in its curative powers 
that they ofler One Hundred Dollars for any case 
that it fails to cure. Send for list of testimonials. 

Address, F. J. CHENEY & CO., Toledo, O. 
«®=-Sold by Druggists, 7.5c. 

"Say. waiter! are you positive this 
is wild duck I am eating ? " " Oh, yes, 
sir ! so wild that we had to chase it 
round the back yard for fifteen minutes 
before we could catch it." — American 



75=Cent Teas, 


With each Cacister 
Your choice of any of the following BEAUTIFUL 

A very jjrelt.v DfCOfated Breakfast Set ot" 18 pes. 

A beautilul EiiM"i'iiV'ea Water Set of H pes. 

A pair of Handsome Vases. 12 ins. hig-h. 

A pair of Eleg'unl Bisque Fit^nres. 

A dainty Five O elock Tete-a-Tete Tea Set of 9 pes. 

A set of China Cake Plates. Cupids. 

A set of Dainty Thin China Dec. Cups and Saurers. 

An exquisite Dec. China Salad Set. 

A pretty Dec. Chhia Ice Cream Set. 

Great American Importing Tea Company, 

52 to 58 Market St., San Francisco. 


RIFLES Sl.7.^| 



AH kiQda olieapor thuQ else- 
it here, llefore you buj seriil 
4tnm|i for 0() page catftlo^ue. 



con PAN Y. 



Largest Handlers 
of Dried Fruits. 

Rheumatism, Neuralgia, Sciatica, Bacicaciie. 


If you have a parcel to ofter, submit samples o 
We are the principal handlers. 




ifi General Commission Merchants, ifi 


Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange. 

Personal attention given to sales and liberal 
advances made on consignments at low rates of 
Interf st. 


Patent Agency. 

Compound Engines and Centrifugal Pumps 

For Kvery lJul.v aijd Any Capacity. 


625 Sixth Street, San Francisco. 

WKITF FOR ( No. H. devoled to Agricultural Machinery. 
CATA IjO( iU KS ( No. lii. devoted to Steam F,uf<ineK and Pumping Machinery. 

Store Your Grain VUhere^ Vour Best -"^sssni.--^ 
^ «nrrrrmi^ I nt&r&sts \A/ill Al\A/ays be Consulted. 



Grangers' Business Association, 


Capacity of Warehouse, 50,000 tons; wharf accommodations for the largest vessels afloat. 
Grain received on storage for shipment, and for sale on consignment. 







Sausage Meat, 
Mince Meat, 
Hamburg Steak 
for Dyspeptics, 
Tripe, &c.. &c. 

For Sale by the 
Hardware Trade. 

The Enterprise MTg 

Third A Daupliin Sts., Philad 

Farm and FireNide says : 

' It is the only Meat Chopper 
we eversawthalwewould 
ve house room. It has 
proven such a very use- 
ful machine that we 
want our readers to 
enjoy its benefits 
with us." 

to CHOP, 
the Meat. 

Agriculturist H.iyN : 

" We have given tliis 
tChopper a thorougli 
trial with most .satisfac- 
tory results. They excel 
ything of the kind made 
in either hemisphere." 

Our U. S. and Foueion Patent Agency 
presents many and important advantages as a 
Home Agency over all others, by reason of 
long establishment, great experience, thor- 
ough system, intimate acquaintance with the 
subjects of inventions in our own community, 
and our most extensive law and referenoe 
library, containing ofhcial American reports, 
with ftill copies of U. S. patents since 1878. 
All worthy inventions patented through Dew- 
ey & Go's Patent Agency will have the bene- 
fit of a description in the Mining and Scientific 
Press. We transact every branch of patent 
business, and obtain patents in all countries 
which grant protection to inventors. The 
large majority of U. S. and foreign patents 
issued to inventors on the Pacific Coast have 
been obtained through our agency. We can 
give the best and mnnt reliafilr advice as to the 
patentability of new inventions. Our prices 
are as low as any first-class agencies in the 
Eastern States, while our advantages for 
Pacific Coast inventors are far superior. 

Advice and Circulars free. 

DEWEY & CO., Patent A§:ents, 

220 Market St., San Francisco. 

GEO. H, STRONG. Manag-er. 

*VsMiri:iJ>4 Patei-jt 1 

Wo manufacture the celebrated Aspinwall Potato Planter, Aspinvfall Potato Cutter, 
Asplnwall Paris Green Spriiil<ler, etc. Every machine warranted. Tliese machines 
greatly reduce the cost of raising potatoes. Sena lor Free Illustrated Catalogne. 

ASPINWALL MANUFACTURING CO., 48 Sabin St., Jackson, Mioh. 

HOOKER & CO., AgfentB, 16 and IK Uruium Street, San Francisco, Cal. 


School of Practical, Civil, Mechanical, 
Electrical and Mining Engineering, 

Surveying, Architecture, Drawing and Assaying 
7.23 /y\^\ IV K. fciT STREET, 
San Fkanoisco, Cal. 
Open All Year. : A. VAN DER NAILLEW, Pres't. 

Assaying of Ores, Bullion and Chlorlnatlon 
Assay," *S5; Blowpipe Assay, $10. Pull course of 
assaying, 130. Established l£64. Send for Circular. 


January 12, 1896. 

Wages of Steamship Building. 

The following report shows the rate 
of wages paid by Clyde builders of 
ocean steamshijjs and by steamship 
owners, and are printed in Consular 
Reports. The rates given ai-(> by the 

hour: ! 

Wages. , 

Pescription. Pence. 

Eiigineer.s, general <'>'^ ^ 

Patternmakers •>''4 .'■•i's 

Machinists, in engineer shop. . . . tl • I~ ■ 

Boilermakers S -l" 

Plumbers S .Hi 

Pipe fitters "i''* IS/'a 

Shipwrights T% -l" 

Ship joiners 7'4 -iiA 

Drillers 8/. -1" 

Fitter.s-up 9'^, .18% 

Riveters 10 .20 

Calkerss « ■!« 

Painters iVa •IS 

Furnace men .13 

Sheet-iron workers, general ay, .13 

Coppersmiths 7^4 •l[>i's 

Iron molders 7% .15 

Brass molders 8 .IK 

Blacksmiths 7% .18 

Laborers •*> 10 

Frame setters 8% .IT 

The hours of labor are fifty-four per 
week for about forty-eight weeks in the 
year. The ships are nearly all I'on- 
strut ted of steel. Ii-on vessels are now 
as rarely built there as wooden ships. 
Several of the trades mentioned are 
employed by the piece. These include 
the riveters, platers, frame setters, 
litters iind ealkers. The riveters work 
in squads, consisting of two riveters, a 
holder-on and a rivet boy, and they are 
paid at the i-ate of so mucii per iiun- 
dred rivets put in. The larger the 
vessel the higher the rate, and special 
prices are paid lor riveting keels and 
stringer plates. A steamer of over 
5000 tons commands extra wages. On 
ordinary vessels good s(iuads (two 
riveters, a holder-up and a rivet boy) 
will make at present about *G.()8 per 
day, but the average for Government 
work is above this. The piece men are 
.sometimes irregular in their em,)loy- 
ment, and, if overtime is excluded, do 
not work more than five days per week. 

The shipwrights have a stantlai-d 
wage of fifteen cents per liour, but the 
joiners, blacksmiths and engineers have 
what is known as a sliding scale. 

In the case of engineers the pay 
varies from twelve to thirteen and a 
half cents per houi-, blacksmiths fmm 
twelve to sixteen cents per hour. 

War Craft of Samoa. 

The skill and ingenuity displayed in 
making and finishing large Samoan 
canoes are something remarkable, for 
the reason that the planks are of such 
uneven lengths and widths and every 
part is fastened by fiber. Canoes for 
fishing outside the reefs ai'e partially 
decked over at each end and orna- 
mented with carving and shells. They 
are good sea boats and run i loso to the 

The war canoe, called an alia, is a 
double affair on the catamaran order. 
This is made by decking over two large 
canoes. On this jjlatfoi-m is built a 
fort, formed of green cocoanut legs. 
This floating fort is pushed up close to 
the shore near some village or earth- 
works and a bombardment carried on 
from it against the enemy- 
Many of the canoes are rigged with 
sails, which ave fre juently of ordinary 
sailcloth. The Samoan sail proper, 
however, is made of native mats sewed 
together, forming a triangle. The 
apex is fastened al the bottom of the 
canoe and one side made fast to the 

The natives construct a very in- 
genious tenipoi ary sail of cocoanut leaf 
by splitting the heavy rib down the 
centei- of the leaf and weaving the 
small leaflets together in the center. 
The two pieces of rib stiffen the outer 
edges of the sail, one side of which is 
tacked fast to the mast and the other 
lashed at the bottom to a projecting 
stick. — Outing. 




S12to 516 Sacramento St., San Pranclsco, Cal. 


BLAKE, McFALL & CO PorllaDd, Or 

Served in Two Wars, i Breeders' Directory. 


Our Sympathies Always Knllsted in the In- 
flrmitles of the Veteran. 

iFroiii Shenniiiloiili IleruUl, WooMoek. Va.) 
The many friends of Mr. Levi McInturfT, an 
old citizen of Woodstock, will be glad to hear 
of his improved condition, and of his remark- 
able recovery, after years of prostration and 

Mr. Mclnturff always led a very active life, 
and served as a soldier in the Mexican war 
and also in the late war on the Confederate 
side. About four years ago he was attacked 
twice with the grip. The second attack left 
him in a condition of prostration and great 
nervousness. He was not able to grasp the 
handle uf an axe, and could do no labor of any 
kind. He was unable to use knife and fork in 
eating. He could not close either hand. In 
endeavoring to walk, the least stumble would 
cause him to fall, and he was unable to walk 
to this place, a distance of one mile. 

He was a great sufferer from pains in his 
hands, arms and feet. His condition was 
really pitiable and he was almost entirely con- 
fined to his home. 

He consulted three efficient physicians, but 
they were not able to afford him relief. The 
old and reliable remedies to be found at our 
drug stores were tried, but there seemed to 
be no relief from his sufferings. 

For four long years lin suffered, and had he 
not been a man of remarkable will power and 
determination, the probabilitj- is that he 
would have yielded to the disease and have 
given up in desjKiir. 

Several months ago, he noticed in a paper 
which accidensally fell into his hands, an 
account of a remarkable cure which had been 
effected hy the use of [)r. Williams' Pink 
Pills. He immediately oi'dcred a box and 
commenced taking them. He .says he was 
greatly relieved within three days time. The 
blood found its way to his lingers, and his 
hands, which had been palsied, assumed a 
natural color, and he was soon enabled to use 
his knife and fork at the table. He has re- 
covered his strength to such an extent that 
he is enabled to chop wood, shock corn and do 
his regular work about his home. He now 
now says he can not only walk to Woodstock, 
but can walk across tbe mountains. He is 
able to lift up a til'ty-two-pound weight with 
one hand and says ho does not know what Dr. 
Williams' Pink Pills have done for others, 
but knows they have done a great work for 

He was in town last Monday, court day, 
and was loud in his praises of the medicine 
that had given him .so great relief. He pur- 
chased another box and took it home with 
him. Mr. Mclnturff is willing to make affi- 
davit to these facts. 

The foregoing is but one of many wonderful 
cures that have been credited to Dr. Williams' 
Pink Pills for Pale People. Diseases whii-h 
heretofore have been supposed to be incura- 
ble, such as locomotor ataxia and paralysis, 
succumb to this wonderful medicine as readily 
as the most trifling ailments. 

Dr. Williams' Pink Pills are ni)w manufac- 
tured by the Dr. Williams' Medicine Co., of 
Schenectad.v, N. Y.. a firm of unquestionable 
reliability. Pink Pills are not looked upon as 
a patent medicine but rather as a prescrip- 
tion. They have been used as such in general 
practice for many years, and their success in 
curing various afflictions without an}^ other 
medii'ines was so great that they were pre- 
pared in quantities and placed within the 
reach of every one. An analysis of their 
properties shows that they contain, in con- 
densed form, all the elements necessary to 
give new life and richness to the blood and 
restore shattered nerves. They are an un- 
failing specific for such diseases as locomotor 
ataxia, partial paralysis, St. Vitus' dance, 
sciatica, neuralgia, rliumatism, nervous head- 
ache, the after effects of la grippe, palpitation 
of the heart, pale and sallow complexions and 
the tired feeling resulting from nervous pros- 
tration, all diseases resulting from vitiated 
humors in the blood, such as scrofula, chronic 
erysipelas, etc. They are also a specific for 
troubles peculiar to females, such as sup- 
pressions, irregularities and all forms of 
weakness. They build up the blood, and re- 
store the glow of health to pale and sallow- 
cheeks. Ill men ttiey effect a radical cure in 
all cases arising from mental worry, overwork 
or excesses of whatever nature. 

Pink Pills are sold in boxes (never in loose 
form by the dozen or hundred, and the public 
are cautioned against numerous imitations j 
sold ill this shape) at .'iO cents a box or six 
boxes for s2. 50, and may be had of all drug- 
gists, or direct by mai, from Dr. Williams' 
Medicine Company. 

Six lines or less in this directory at SOc per line per 


Horses and Cattle. 

F. H. ItCKKK, I12« Market St., S. F. Al Prize Hol- 
slelns; Grade Milch Cows. Fine Plfrs. 

JKRSKYS— The best A. J. CO. rerlstered prize herd 
is owned by Henry Pierce. S. F. Animals for sale. 

P. H. Ml'KPHY, Perkins, Sac. Co.. Cal. Breederof 
Shorthorn Cattle, Poland-China & Berkshire Hoks. 

M. U. HOPKINS, Petaluma. Registered Shorthorn 
Cattle. Both sexes for sale. 

PKTKK SAXK St SON, Lick House, 9. F., Cal. Im- 
porters and Breeders, for past *21 years, of every 
variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hors. 

JEKSKYS AND HOLSTKINS, from the best But- 
ter and MlUt Stock; also Thoroughbred Hogs and 
Poultry. WlUlaui Nlles ti Co., Los Angeles, Cal. 
Breeders and Exporters. Established In 187K. 

How Thoughtful! 

Captain Irons — You people had bet- 
ter take to the boats at once. I pro- 
pose to stick to the ship. 

Mrs. Giddy — Oh, captain, if you'll 
only get them to open the place where 
they put ray husband's luggage, you 
can get a pair of rubbers to keep your 
feet from getting wet ! — Fort Worth 


CollegTof ySmARY Surgeons 

Cor. Post and Filmore Sts. 

Regular session rommfnres the Urst week 
in Janaary, 1805. 

For;prospectus giving all information as to cur- 
riculum, fees, etc., address the Secretary, 

R A. NIEF, B. Sc., D. V. S., 

Cor. Post and Filmore Streets, San Francisco. 


J. W. FOKGEl'S, Santa Cruz. Cal.. has the best , 
stocked and equipped poultr.v ranch on the 
Pacllio coast, and makes a specialty of Barred P. i 
Rocks. Brown Leghorns. Black Mlnorcas. Pekln 
Ducks. Seventy acres to Leghorns, six acres to | 
Mlnorcas. and ni.v home ranch to Barred P. Kocks 
and Peklu Ducks. I guarantee satisfaction In 
every order. Exhibition birds and breeding stock. ! 
Eggs for sale. Reference. People s Bank. 

BUFF I.EtUIOKNS Thoroughbred young Stock 

tor sale. Eggs. Jl. Vi and (3 per 13. C. W. Hansen, 
San Mateo. Cal. 

WILLIAM NILKS*CO.. Los Angeles. Cal. Nearly 
all varieties of Poultry, Dairy Cattle and Hogs. 

Send for Illustrated and descriptive catalogue, free, 

K. O. HEAD, Napa, Cal.. breeds all kinds pure 
bred fowls; 400 choice birds to select from. 


for poultry. Every grocer and inerohant keeps It, 

Business Col le-ge, 

34 Post Street, ... San Francisco. 

This College Instructs In Shorthand. Type- Writing, 
Bookkeeping, Telegraphy. Penmanship. Drawing, 
all the English br,^ncheB. and everything pertaining 
to business, for full six months. We have sixteen 
teachers and give Individual Instruction to all our 

A Department of Electrical Engfineering; 

Has been established under a thoroughly qualified 
Instructor. The course Is thoroughly practical. 
Send for Circular. 0. S, HALEY. Sec. 


Sheep and Goats. 

R. II. CRANE, Petaluma, Cal. Breeder i Importer, 
Southdown Sheep, also Fox Hounds from Missouri, 


Rates <>f Tuition Very Moderate. 

Bookkeeping. Penmanship, Shorthand. Typewrit- 
ing, English Branches, etc. Graduates aided In get- 
ting positions. Send for circulars. T. A. ROBINSON. 


F. II. Bl. RKE.tia; Market St.. S. F.— BERKSHIRES, 

M. .M 11, I.Kit, EUalo. Cal, Registered B.-rkMhln-M, 

FORTY IIEAU Ueikshirea and Poland ClilnaM, 
Chas, .\. Stowe, Stockton. Cal. Box as:i. 

J. P. ASHLEY, Linden. San Joaquin Co.. Cal. 
Breeds Poland-China, Essex and Yorkshire Swine, 


Best Stock; also Dairy Stialiis of Jerseys and Hol- 
stelns, Wni. Nlles & Co., Loa Angeles. Est, 18711. 

TYLER BEACH. San Jose. Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs. 

In These Dull Times 

You Can Larijfely Increase 

Your income by buying an Incu- 
bator and engaging In the chicken 
buslnes.s. Send ataiiip foi' our 
catalogue of Incubators, Wire 
Netting, Blooded Fowls and Poul- 
trv Appliances generally. Itemem- 
he'r tilt Hot is lh( Cheaptnt. PACIFIC 
INCUBATOR CO.. 1317 Castro St.. 
Oakland. Cal. 




1312 Myrtle Street, Oalclaud, C»l. 
Send Stamp for Circular. 


^tJDll-cc» proveinents on the Jubilee Hatcher 
make it head the list. It Is a perfect self-regulatlug 
Iiot water machine, with copper boilers and an 
entlrelv new system of operation. The sizes made 
now are 100. m .100 and MO-egg capacity. For sale 
by H, F, WHITMAN, Agent. 2(M5 Alameda Ave,. Ala- 
meda. Cal. Send for circular. 


SANTA ROSA. CAL. (Care Santa Rosa National 
Bank.) Importer, Breeder. Exporter, 
S. C \A/hlte L^eghorns, 
S. C Brown Leghorna, 
ESarred F»lymoiJtl-i Rocks, 
Black /Vllnorcas. "^m^^^^ 
Eggs, tS per IS.'e* «-Send for Circular. 


The Horse and His Diseases. 

BY B, .;, KI.XD-^LL. M. I>. 

Thirty-flve fine engravings 
showing positions and ac- 
tions of sick horses. Gives 
the cause, symptoms and 
the best treatment of dis- 
eases. Has a table giving 
the doses, effects and anti- 
dotes of all the principal 
medicines used for the horse 
and a few pages on the ac- 
tion and uses of medicines. 
Rules for telling the ago of a 
horse, with a tine engraving 
showing the appearance of the teeth al each year. 
It Is printed on fine paper and has nearly lUO pages. 
7!,4.xo Inches. Price, only 25 cents, or five for fl, on 
receipt of which we will send by mail to any ad- 
dress. Parlhc Rural Press, !J20 Market street, 
San Francisco. 

SAMPLE American Bee Journal. 


All about Boes and Honey 


oU Fifth Ave. 

(Established 1861). 
Weekly. 32 pages. $1 a year. 
100 -page 


NiLES' new manual and reference book on subjects 
connected with successful Poultry and Stock Rais- 
ing on the Pacific Coast. A New Edition, over 100 
pages, profusely iUustr.ited with handsome, lifelike 
illustrations of the dllTerent varieties of Poultry 
and Live Stock. Price, postpaid, 60 cents. Address 
PACIFIC RURAL PRESS OfBce. San Pr.anclBco. Cal. 


We received many compliments for our herd from vis- 
itors at the Slate Fair. We competed for 13 ribbons 
and won II, as follows: U special; 2 sweepstakes; 8 
firsts; 4 seconds. 

We have a few Choice Pigs for sale. 


P, O Box 68«, Los Angeles, Cal 

Feed our Poultry Food and you will bave bealtby oblokens and lots of aggs. 

Genuine only with RED 
BALL brand. 
Recommended byGold- 
smitta, Marvin, Gamble, 
Wells, Fargo & Co., etc., 
etc. It keeps Horses and 
Cattleheallhy. Formllcb 
cows; it Increases and 
enriches their milk. 
Manhattan Food Co., 

San Msteo. Cal. 
Ask your dealer (or It. 

January 12, 1895. 

The Pacific Rural Press 



Market Review. 

San Francisco, Jan. 9, 1895. 

FLOUR — We quote : Net cash prices for Family 
Extras, $3 40@3 55 bbl; Bakers' Extras, $3 30@ 
t3 40; Superfine, $2 20@2 55 bbl. 

WHEAT — Moderate demand prevails on export 
account, the quotable figure for standard shipping 
being 87Hc 1f( ctl., with SSJfcfor something of fancy 
quality. There is customary trade in milling 
grades at a range of 92V2(t<97Hc 1* ctl., the latter 
an extreme quotation. Arrivals of Walla Walla 
grain continue free at rather eas.v figures, say 
75@76Jic for fair average quality; 8()@85c for blue 
stem and 70@72!4c for damp. 

BARLEY— The tone of the market remains of 
easy character, while business is slow and light. 
Until there be a clearing up of the weather, no 
change, either in trade or prices, is likely to occur. 
We quote: Feed, fair to good, 785i(S)80c; choice, 
SlHQi'mAc; Brewing, 90@.9.5c « ctl. 

OATS — The market is liberally stocked. Trade 
Is very quiet, however, and buyers have the ad- 
vantage. We quote: Milling, $1(3(1 12'/4; Sur- 
prise, Jl 05(ai 15; fancy feed. 07'/4c®$l ttZY,: good 
to choice, 87i/2@95c; poor to fair, 80(a85o; Black, 
$1 ISfiia 30; Red, $1 12yj@$l 17^; Gray, 92'/jC@$l 
* ctl. 

CORN— Offerings are of fair proportions and 
moderate trade is reported. Damp stock sells be- 
low quoted figures. Quotable 'at $1 10(Bil 15 V ctl. 
for large Yellow, $1 20((f l 22!4 for small Yellow, 
and $1 1714 to $1 25 for White. 

CRACKED CORN— Quotable at $27@27 .50 ¥ ton. 

CORNMEAL— Millers quote feed at $26 to $26 50 
^ ton ; fine kinds for the table in large and small 
packages, 3@,3Hc f. ft. 

OILCAKE MEAL— Quotable at $.30 ?. ton from 
the mill. 

COTTONSEED OILCAKE— Quotable at $26%27 

SEEDS — We quote as follows: Mustard, 
Brown, $1 75@2; Yellow, $2 40(312 45; Trieste, $2 30 
@2 .%5; Canary, 3(o;4c; Hemp, 3%&4iic f*tb; Rape, 
i%&2Hc: Timothy, .5'4@6'/2C ^ ft; Alfalfa, 7M®8c 
f ft; Flax, $2@2 25 ^ ctl. 

MIDDLINGS— Quotable at $17 50®19 * ton. 

MILLSTUFFS— We quote: Rye Flour, SHc; 
Rye Meal, 3c; Graham Flour, 3c; Oatmeal, 4Ji(3;5o; 
Oat Groats. 5c; Cracked Wheat, 3V,c: Buckwheat 
Flour, 5c; Pearl Barley, 4M(3'49^c f, lb. 

BRAN— Quotable at $11 50(ai2 50 ton. 

FEED— Manhattan Horse Food (Red Ball Brand) 
In 100-ft cabinets, $8; Manhattan Egg Food, 100-ft 
bags, SU 50. 

HAY— Prices are marked up all round, on 
account of the storm. The advance will probably 
be only temporary. Wire-bound Hay sells at $1 
^ ton less than rope-bound Hay. Following 
are the wholesale city prices for rope-bound Hay : 
Wheat, $10(a).$13; Wheat and Oat, $10(3>12; Oat, 
$9@12; Barlev, $9 .=>n(911; Clover, $9 50@1I; com- 
pressed, $10 .50(a>.12 50. 

STRAW— Is higher, receipts being light. Quot- 
able at 70@80c * bale. 

HOPS— It is calculated that about four-flfths of 
the crop of this coast has been bought or shipped, 
and the probabilities are that the market will be 
fairly well cleaned up in time for the new season. 
The Prices Current says: "Stagnation still ex- 
ists in the Hop market, with no encouraging pros- 
pects of activity soon being experienced. Stocks 
now in store are largely of ordinary quality, choice 
to select being In scanty supply, and the latter 
would command the extreme quotation more 
readily than the most ordinary would sell at the 
inside figures." Quotable at 5(S8c ^ ft. 

RYE— Quotable at 87H(®95c ^ ctl. 

BUCKWHEAT— Quotable at 85(3>95c ^ ctl. 

GROUND BARLEY— Quotable at $19@19 50 

V ton. 

POTATOES — The rain limits supplies and there 
is firmer holding. We quote: Volunteer New Pota- 
toes, 2c i»ft; Early Rose, 35(a4.5c ; River Reds, 30 
@35c; Burbanks, 3.5(®50o; Oregon Burbanks, .50@ 
85c; Salinas Burbanks, 7.5c(3>$l; Sweets, 50(®75 ¥ 

ONIONS— Quotable at 50@70o ^ ctl. 

DRIED PEAS— We quote: Green, $1 35®1 50; 
Nlles, $1 20@1 25^ ctl. 

BEANS— Good stock is steadily held, though 
business is (ar from being of active character. 
Liberal concessions are obtainable on wet and 
damaged stock. We quote as follows : Bayos, 
91 75(ai 90; Butter, $1 7.5(3:1 m for small and $1 90(32 
for large; Pink. $1 10(311 .35; Red. $1 60(3)1 75; 
Lima. $4 10(a»4 25; Pea, $2 2.5®2 50; Small White, 
»2 2.5(ffi2 55; Large White, $2 10(3!*2 .30; Blackeye, 
»2 7.5(^3; Red Kidney, $2 75@3; Horse, $1 60@1 70 

V ctl. 

VEGETABLES — Asparagus is cheaper, the 
inquiry being very small. Business generally, 
at the moment, is of dragging character. We 
quote as follows: Sacramento Asparagus, 8(ffl 
12i4c ^ lb.; San Leandro Rhubarb, 50(3 60c 
^ box; Mushrooms, 6(3)10c i* lb. for com- 
mon and 12!/,(na0c for choice; Los Angeles To- 
matoes, 75c(3 1 25 ^ box; String Beans, .3(35c for 
poor and 8@10c lb. for good stock; Green 
Peas. 6(39c lb; Marrowfat Squash, $,5@,6 ^ 
ton; Hubbard Squash, $10 ^Ji, ton; Green Peppers, 
3@5c V lb; Turnips, 75c ctl; Beets, 75c 
sack: Parsnips, $1 25 * ctl; Carrots, feed, ,3.5® 
40c; Cabbage, .50@6,5c; Garlic. 3®4c f> ft; Cauli- 
flower, 60@70c * dozen; Dry Peppers, 15@17(4c ^ 
lb; Dry Okra, 12H(315c W> ft. 

FRESH FRUIT— Very light demands. We 
quote as follows: Persimmons, 2,5(S).50c 1^ box; Ap- 
ples, 30c@$l ^ box; Pears, 50<a>7Ac tf* box. 

CITRUS FRUIT— Supplies of Oranges are in 
excess of the demand, the weather being against 
trade. We quote as follows : California Navels, 
$1 75@2 50; Seedlings. $1@1 35 'f, box; Sonora 
Oranges, $1 50@1 75 ^ box; Mexican Limes, $3 .50 
^$4 box; California Limes, in small boxes, ,tOc 
@75c box; Lemons, Sicily, $4 50@5; California 
Lemons, $1 50(32 for common and $2 .50^i3 for 
good to choice; Bananas, $1@2 ^ bunch; Pine- 
apples ii@6 $ dozen. 

DRIED FRUIT — Values are somewhat nominal, 
as there is no representative business in progress. 
In discussing the situation Thomas' Produce Re- 
port says : " A conservative estimate of stocks of 
Peaches and Apricots remaining in the State at 
the present time places them at between 100 and 
150 carloads of the former and about ,3.50 carloads 
of the latter. Of the Peaches, the bulk will grade 
between Chinese bleached and choice, not many 
coming up to the last mentioned grade, and a very 
liberal quantity of the stock on hand will grade 
above that. About the middle or latter part of 
tnis month there should be a resumption of trade." 

Following are the prices furnished by the Fruit 
Exchange ; 

Apricots— Fancy Moorpark, 8!4c; cbolce, do, 8c; 
tancy, 7Ho; choice, 7c; standard, 6%c; prime. 6c. 

Apples— Evaporated, 5!,4®7o; sun-dried, 4@5c. 

Peaches— Fancy, 6%e; obolce, 60; btantiard, 
(He: prime, !>}ic; period, In twxes, IS@18e. 

Pears— Fancy , halves, 5!4c ; quarters,4Ho ; choice, 
4Mc; standard, 314c; prime, 3c. 

Plums— Pitted, 4®5c;unpitted, l!4@2c. 

Prunes— Four sizes, 4%@i%c. 

Nectarines— Fancy, 7c; choice, 6V4c; standard, 
60; prime, 5Hc. 

Figs— White, choice, 5@5!4c; Black, choice, 1!4 

Raisins — 4-crown, loose, 4c lb. in 5-lb. boxes ; 
3-crown, 2'/2C ; 2-crown, 2c; seedless Sultanas, 3c; 
seedless Muscatels, 2c ^ ft; 3-crown London 
Layers, $1 25 box in 20-lb. boxes; clusters, $1 .50: 
Dehesa clusters, $2; Imperial clusters. $3; 4-crown, 
loose, $1 15; 4^crown, loose, faced, $1 25 ^ box. 

Dried Grapes— l^c ^ ft. 

NUTS— Market quiet at unchanged figures. We 
quote: Chestnuts, ll(3;.12c: Walnuts, 5@7c for hard 
shell, 8® 10c for soft shell and 8(3; 10c for paper shell ; 
California Almonds, 7(3^7'/2C for soft shell, iVi&bc 
for hard shell and 8(3 8!4c for paper shell: Pea- 
nuts, 4%@6c; Hickory Nuts, .5(a'6c; Filberts, 
8'/i(3!9c; Pecans, 6c for rough and 8c for polished; 
Brazil Nuts, 7(a 7!4c 1? ft; Cocoanuts, $4(3 4 50 ^ 100. 

HONEY— Business continues of small volume. 
We quote: Comb, 10(31 1 »4c; water white ex- 
tracted, 7<a:7\4c-. light amber extracted, 5H®<5c; 
dark amber, 5®'5Hc f( lb. 

BEESWAX— Quotable at 24@26c * lb. 

BUTTER — There is much'poor new stock on the 
market which is slow of sale at low figures. For 
fancy creamery there is quick demand at firm 
prices, an occasional sale being made above 
quoted figures. Ordinary qualities of dairy Butter 
are in liberal offering, with rates easy. Fancy 
creamery, 23(^25c; fancy dairy, 19®21c; good to 
choice, 16(ai8c; fair, 14(3 1.5c; store lots, 12®13c; 
pickled roll, nominal; firkin, 15@16c ^ ft. 

CHEESE— The demand is mostly for choice 
stock, which is none too plentiful. Prices 
steady. We quote: Choice to fancy, 9®l\c; 
fair to good, 7@8c; Eastern, ordinary to fine, 
12i4®14c^ ft. 

EGGS— Quotations arc well maintained, owing 
to stormy weather. We quote as follows: Cali- 
fornia Ranch, 34(S)36c, with a small advance occa- 
sionally for something fancy; store lots, 27V2® 
32'/2C; Eastern Eggs, 22®24c f» dozen for cold 
storage and 25@26c for fresh. 

POULTRY— Receipts are light but prices do not 
improve, as custom is slow. We quote: Live 
Turkeys— Gobblers, 9®llc; Hens, 9@llc ^ ft; 
dressed Turkeys, 12@14c^lb; Roosters, $4@4 50 
for old, and $5(3-6 for .young; Broilers, $3®4 for 
small and $4@5 tor large; Fryers, $4 50(3)5; Hens, 
$4(g!5; Ducks, $5®6 50; Geese, $1 50®2 ^ pair; 
Pigeons, $1@1 50 1( dozen. 

GAME— Market shapes in favor of buyers. We 
quote; Quail, $125; Canvasback, $4@6; Mallard, 
$2 50@3; Sprig, $1 75(3>2; Teal,$l 25®1 50; Widgeon, 
$1 25(3,1 .50; small Ducks. 90o«?$l; English Snipe, 
$2®2 50; conomon Snipe, $1 25(3 1 50; Brant, $1 2.5® 
1 5f); Gray Geese, $2 .50(83; White Geese, $1@1 25; 
Rabbits, $1 2.5@1 50; Hare,75c@$l. 

PROVISIONS— Moderate trade at fairly steady 
prices. We quote as follows : Eastern Sugar-cured 
Hams, 11c If* ft; California Hams, 10®10V4c; 
Bacon. Eastern, extra light, sugar-cured, 13; 
medium. 8'/4c;do, light, 9(g 10c; extra light, ll@12Hc 

ft; Pork, extra clear, bbls, $19; half bbls,$10; Pig 
Pork, bbls,$21; ht bbls, $11; Pigs' feet, hf bbls, 
$4 50; Beef, mess, bbls, $7 50; do, extra mess, 
bbls, $8.50; do, family, $10; extra, do, $10 50® 11 
^ bbl; do, smoked, 9@,10c; Pickled Tongues, hf 
bbls, $7; Eastern Lard, compound, tierces,6i/4(3)6^c; 
do, prime, steam, 8i4c; Eastern, pure, 10-ft pails, 
9'/jc; .5-ft palls, 9%c; 3-ft pails, 9^;ic; California, 
10-ft tins, T/i'&Sc; do, 5-ft, 8(3-8140; California pure, 
in tierces, 7?i(5 8c; do, compound, 6®6!^c for 

WOOL— Business is at a standstill in local 
circles, while dullness is reported as prevailing at 
Eastern centers. We quote Fall: 

Free Northern 7 (gi 8Hc 

Northern, defective 5 («f. 7 

Southern & San Joaquin, light and free, b ® 6 
Do, defective 3 ®4 

HIDES AND SKINS— Quotable as follows : 

Sound. Culls. 
Heavy Steers, 64 lbs up, lb — 6H®7 c 5V4®6 

Medium Steers. 48 to 56 lbs 5i4(®6 5 @— 

Light, 42 to 47 pounds 4 ®— Sl-J®- 

Cows, over 50 lbs 5 @— 3 @3y2 

Light Cows, 30 to 50 lbs 4 @— 3 @3H 

Stags 3 @— 2 @— 

Kips, 17 to 30 lbs 4'4(<ii— 3 ®3V4 

Veal Skins, 10 to 17 lbs 5!/j(a— 4 f3j4'4 

Calf skins, 5 to 10 lbs 7 @— 6 (3 — 

Dry Hides, usual selection. 8!4(3;9c; Dry Kips, 
7@7i/-2c; Calf Skins do, 12@'13c; Cull Hides, Kip and 
Calf, 6@8c; Pelts, Shearlings, 10@20c each; do, 
short, 2.5@30c each; do, medium, 30(®40c each; do, 
long wool, 40(ai70c each; Deer Skins, summer, 
25(3 30c; do, good medium, l,5(3)22'4c; do, winter, 5c 
^ lb; Goat Skins, 20® 35c apiece for prime to per- 
fect, 10@20c for damaged, and 5c each for Kids. 

TALLOW — We quote: Refined, 52^(3 6c; ren- 
dered, 4'/^@4«ic; country Tallow, 4®4Mc; Grease, 
3®3'/2C ^, ft. 


Mutton and Lamb are both firm at quotations, 
while Veal shows a little easier tone. Following 
are the rates for whole carcasses from slaughterers 
to dealers : 

BEEF— First quality, 5f35Vic; second quality, 
41/2C; third quality, 3H@4c ^ lb. 

CALVES— Quotable at 4H@5!4c for large and 
5'A(a>7c ft. for small. 

MUTTON— Quotable at 5H®Sc V lb. 

LAMH— Quotable at 6'/4®7c ^ lb. 

PORK— Live Hogs, on foot, grain fed, heavy and 
medium, 3^0; small Hogs, 4(®4Ho; dressed Hogs, 
5H@6Hc ^ lb. 

The Buckbee Nurseries. 

H. W. Buckbee, the seed fiirmer and mer- 
chant of Rockford, 111., invites his old Cali- 
fornia patrons and tlie California public in 
general to correspond willi hiin. Mr. Buck- 
bee's is one of the best Uiiovvti houses on the 
" reliable list," and we have yet to hear of 
any variance between the promise and the 
performance of his goods. A beautiful cata- 
logue of seeds, plants, flower.s and trees sent 
free upou application to H. W. Buckbee, R(x;k- 
ford, 111. 

Two New "Planets." 

The Ri HAL has received from S. L. Allen & 
Co., Philadelphia, a beautifully illustrated 
catalogue of the " Planet. I r." implements 
which have lately become so widely used on 
this coast. Two new tools have been added to 
the line, namely, Planet .Jr. orchard culti- 
vator and planet Jr. plain side-wheel hoe. 
Both of these new implements have special 
interest to California orchardists. Allen & 
Co. wiil send catalogues free to applicants. 

Commercial Products Obtained 
from Sharks. 

Sharks, says a writer in the Jicvuc 
Scientifique, furnish quite a number of 
valuable products. Thus, the liver of 
the shark contains an oil of a beautiful 
color, that never becomes turbid, and 
that possesses medicinal qualities equal 
to those of cod liver oil. The skin, 
after being dried takes the polish and of mother of pearl. It is 
marbled, and bears a resemblance to 
fossil coral. It is used by jewelers for 
the manufacture of fancy objects, by 
binders for making shagreen, and hy 
cabinet makers for polishing wood. The 
fins are highly prized by the Chinese, 
who pickle them and serve them at the 
end of a dinner as a most delicate fim-s 
(Voeuvre. A ton of fins usually brings 
(at Sydney) $140. The Europeans, who 
do not yet appreciate the fins of the 
shark as a food product, are content to 
convert them into fish glue, which com- 
petes with the sturgeon glue prepared 
in Russia. This glue is employed for 
clarifying beer, wine, and other'liquors. 
It is used also for the preparation of 
English taffetas, as a re-agent in 
chemistry, etc. The teeth of the 
shark are used by the inhabitants of 
the Ellis islands for the manufacture of 
weapons of war. As for the flesh of 
the shark, that, despite its oily taste, 
is eaten in certain countries. It is 
employed also, along with the bones, in 
the preparation -of a fertilizer. The 
Icelanders, who do a large business in 
shark's oil, send out annually a fleet of 
of a hundred vessels for the capture of 
the fish. 

The Genuine " Brown'. s Bronchial 
Troches" are sold only in boxes. They are 
wonderfully effective in Coughs, Hoarseness 
or Irritation of the Throat caused by cold. 

A Calendar Worth Having. 

Almost every one has use for a calendar; and by 
the same token, they ought to have one that is of 
some use. A calendar that you have to study or 
"set" has little excuse for existence. 

The one we like best of all is that published by 
N. W. Ayer & Son, the Newspaper Advertising 
Agents of Philadelphia. 

The handsome copy for 1895 carries on its seal 
their famous motto, "Keeping Everlastingly At 
It Brings Success," which will alone each day be 
worth to all who use it far more than the price of 
the calendar. 

The price is 25 cents, delivered everywhere post 
paid, and in perfect condition. 

List of U. S. Patents for Pacific 
Coast Inventors. 

Non-Support No Cause for Divorce. 

About a dozen agents from distant states 
were visiting the factory about Christmas. 
They insisted on seeing some old Page fence, 
and were driven out and alongside one of the 
first put up near Adrian. There it stood 
straight, taut, and as pleasant to look upon 
as though lust erected. But one of the party 
was bouncl to get his hands on it that he 
might tell his customers. A few shakes of 
the fence brought the whole party out, for 
there in succession, were four posts, twenty 
feet apart, rotted entirely oflf, and the 
fence didn't seem to know the difference. 

Is the Lartrest Illustrated and Leading Agri- 
cultural and Horticultural Weekly of the 
West. Established 18711. Trial SubHcriptloiis. liOc 
for :( irios. or $2.40 a .veai- iilll fiii-thrr riotlcc). TIip 
Pacific Kural Press, 220 Market. San Prancls-co. 

Reported by Dewey & Co., Pioneer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific Coaat. 


.531,495.— Cartridge Crimper— t. R. Barney S F 
531,616.— Can-Testing Machine— .Jos. Black' S p' 
531..588.— Brake— Dickinson & Warner Ta'coma' 

Wash. ' 
531.372.— Shoulder Brace— W. M. Gamble New 

Whatcom, Wash. 
53^.535— Hakvester—G. W. Ingersoll, Stockton 

Cal. ' 
531,.378.— Gate— .J. E. Knapp, Brownsville Ogn 
.531,386.— Glove— R. Raymond, S. P 
531,571.— Animal Trap— V. J. Scherb, Pasadena 


531,399.— Tellurian— C. G. Sullivan, Woodland. 

,531,451.— Can-Head Die- N. Trayer, Astoria, Ogn. 
.531 „580.— Cinch Plate— A. P. Weeks, Santa Cruz 

Note.— Copies of U. S?. and Foreign patents fur- 
nished by Dewey & Co. in the shortest time possible 
by mail or telegraphic order). American and For- 
eign patents obtained, and general patent business 
for Pacific Coast inventors transacted with perfect 
security, at reasonable rates, and in the shortest 
possible time. 


Pure pood pxposition. 


January 28 to February 16, 1895. 

Mrs. Mary J. Lincoln, author of the Boston 
Cook Book, will lecture dally on cooking. 

Concerts Afternoon and Evening. 

Persons attending the Exposition will be able 
to secure excursion rates by rail. 

«y For particulars apply to 


is:{ California St., Koom Z. 

F L. MAGUIKE, Manager. 


Of the Stockholders of the 


For the election of a board of nine (9) Trustees for 
the ensuing year, and the transaction of such 
other business !is may come before the meeting 
will be held on WEDNESDAY, January 16, 1895, at 
11 a. m., in the office. Room 14, .507 Montgomery St., 
San Francisco. L. W. BUCK, 

Secretary California Fruit Union. 


Destroy the Gophers ! 

You may now grow alfalfa on the uplands and 
save garden, trees and flowers. 
Price $2. Sold by the trade or by manufacturer of 


rtah and Alameda Sts., San Francisco. 



IV b Wm b T% <C9 Sample copy oi 


A Handwrely rilnstnited nrr ClipPI ICC 
Mttgaziim. and Catalog. ofDCC OUrrLI tt> 
fRKK. THEA.I. ROOTt:0.,mediiia.O. 

B.\CK FiLBS Of the Pacific Rukal Prbrs (un- 
bound) can be had (or **,50 per volume of six 
moDtbs. Per year (two jolumes), $4. Inserted In 
Dewey's pftt#Pt Wnder, M cenM mWitioBftl per | 

RR/\NdS SmiXH & CO., 



Hydraulic, Irri§:ation and Power Plants, Well Pipe, Etc., all sizes. 


Iron cut, punched and formed, for making pipe on ground where required. All kinds of Tools sup- 
plied for making Pipe. Estimates given when required. Are prepared for coating all sizes of Pipes 
with a composition of Coal Tar and Asphaltum. 

rrtce. 910 »nrt 930. 

The Roller Organs have No Equal. 

For dance music save their cost in one night. .\ny one can 
play them. Over (MX) tunes to select from. Plays sacred, 
popular songs and dance music. Also, 

Terms moderate. W o also keep Accordeons, Banjos, Mando- 
lins, Violins, Strings and Sheet Music. Circulars free. 

C. H. HAMMOND, Commission Merchant, 

Xoon 4, Fourth Floor, 26 O'Farrell Street, San Francisco, 


January 12, 1896. 

Patrons of Husbandry. 

From Two Rock Orange. 

Installation at Yuba City. 

h^ETALU.MA, Dec. ."), 1895. 

To TiiK EuiTOR; — Despite one of the 
hardest storms of the season. Two 
Rock Grange turned out in force on the 
3i-d inst., conferred two degrees on a 
class of four candidates and installed 
the new ofticerK for the coining year. 
Without the manual, Bro. J. C. Pur- 
vine installed all of the officers elect, 
save two, who were absent, they being 
Bro. Andrews, .secretary-elect, who 
was sick, and Bro. Nisson, overseer- 
elect, who was in attendance at the 
Poultry Show in San Francisco. 

The following were installed: Master, 
(t. \V. Gaston: Overseer. (". Nisson: 
Lecturer. Sister E. R. Martin; Stew- 
ard, E. Brady: Assistant .Steward. W. 
Church; Chai)lain, Sister M. Hin- 
shaw: Treasui-er, T. Keegan; Secretary, 
R. Andrews: (iate Keeiiei-. Ghas. Hunt: 
Pomona, Sister M. Keegan; Flora, Sis- 
ter E. Denman: Geres, Sister S. J. 
Sales; Lady Assistant Steward, F. An- 
drews: Organist, P. Hubhell; Trustee. 
A. Linebaugh. 

Our grange is still prosijerous: it is 
growing in numbers and is accomplish- 
ing mueh good in the community. We 
have lost but five members in the last 
year — two b}' death, two on account of 
sickness and one removing to Hollister. 
Can any other grange of 10(1 members 
show as little loss ? We wonder if co- 
operation has anything to do with it ? 

Apropos of the contemplated plans 
for reviving and promoting the growth 
of the grange in California, with all due 
respect to the opinions and judgment 
of some of the veterans in the order, it 
is my opinion that co-op(M-ative effoi-ts 
in the subordinate granges will do more 
to bring in members and to hold them, 
than any or all othei- methods that can 
lie devised. The grange must have 
some definite and fi.xed object of attain- 
ment before it: something that is tan- 
gible, something wherein each and 
every member can see direct benefits 
accruing to themselves, before the or- 
der will make any great anil permanent 

This is a selfish world, and to influ- 
ence and lead society you must appeal 
to their predominant traits. Nothing 
succeeds like success. Having once 
brought them within the grange, then 
inspection, ri'ading circles, etc., will 
be an excellent means of educating and 
interesting them. But when you are 
going to cook a hare, ''you must first 
catch him. " 

Plant the seeds of co-operation in 
your grange: you will be surprised to 
see what a growth will follow if prop- 
erly begun and carefully attended to. 
T^et two or three begin buying together, 
either at your local town or at the 
houses in San F'rancisco with wliich we 
have contracts. Appoint committees 
of earnest members who have made 
some study of the subject: let these 
committees hunt up and arrange plans 
whereby their members may benefi- 
cially co-operate. There are scores of 
ways in every neighborhood. For in- 
stance, in buying lumber, wood, or 
feed; also, in dealing with your black- 
smith, your butcher, your merchant, 
and in many other ways. I^e careful; 
pay as you go; be satisfied at first with 
small but sure gains; train yourselves 
to act together, to trust and rely on 
each other, and as you advance and 
feel sure of your strength you can 
branch out and develop into larger 
things. Once there is a small number 
of thoroughly drilled, earnest, enthusi- 
astic co-operative granges in existence, 
then the order can begin in earnest to 
ad Vance in State co-operative designs. 
Ijarge armies are drilled by companies, 
then regiments, and so on up. Just so 
with the grange. In the past we have 
been trying to begin near the top of 
the ladder in co-operative efforts. Let 
us begin at the bottom. 

Patrons, you who love the order and 
would see it regain its former prestige, 
take this matter up in your own 
grange. "Be patient, be earnest, be 
faithful, and success will crown your 
efforts." A. P, Martin, 

To THE Editor: — The storm Thurs- 
day and Friday was fraught with dis- 
mal forebodings foi- a successful grange 
meeting on Saturday or for a meeting 
at all. But, as luck would have it, the 
rains ceased and the winds became 
quiet and a general equilibrium was re- 
stored, and would you believe it, the 
biggest turnout of jolly grangers was 
the result. All hoped to see and hear 
Worthy Lecturer S. Goodenough. who 
had l)een engajj-ed to install the re- 
cently elet-ted officers. But he was 
not present at the opening ceremonies. 
There was a possibility of his coming 
on a delayed train, hence installation 

( was postponed to the afternoon. 
However, no time was lost. I^outine 
business occupied the time and. this 
concluded, the dinner so generously 
provided by the ladies was announced 
as ready: a recess was declared and all 

] formed themselves into a procession 
and marched to the banquet hall, a 

I block away, where an hour was spent 
in good cheei- and careftil attention to 
the wants of the inner man. The feast 
was abundant and of the best imagina- 
ble, and the tables were decorated 
with fresh ripe oranges grown in the 
groves of nu'mbers. As 1 admii-ed 
them and gave them a good test I 

! wondered how many grange feasts out- 
side of California were thus d. corated 
by home-grown oranges. Of course, 
oi-angcs are no rarity. anywhere in the 
civilized world, but they are indisputa- 
ble evidence of climate and soil only 
found in isolat<>d regions of the globe. 
These exercises concluded, a i-eturn to 

! the hall was ordered, where nmsic and 
other amusenK'iits ])revailed for a time. 

The meeting was again called to or- 
der, and as the worthy .State lecturer 
had nfit ai-ri\ed. the writer was se- 
lected to jM'rform the ceremony, which 
he did. with the assistance of Bro. 
B. F. Walton as conductor. This being 
concluded, music and im])romptu re- 
marks entertained the" audience until 
the lengthening shadows signaled the 
hour f(n- departure. Much is i-xpected 
of the members who have been i)ut in 
charge of Yuba City (J range for the 

1 year, and the imjiression is general 
that the confidence has been well i)e- 
stowed. Take it all in all, it was one 
of the pleasantest meetings our grange 
has had for several months. 

X"tr (I Liitli /)i)/irsx/<iii. — For some 
time matrimonial tendencies have been 
observable among the members of our 
grange. Sister Eda Walton led the 
procession, next followed by Sister 
Annie McCune, both finding their life 
partners roaming about outside the 
grange fields. Whether these will 
eventually come to oui- fold is a matter 
for speculation. Their names now are 
Eda Taylor and Annie I;ittlejohn. Now 
comes the latest conquest, all occurring 

, with members of this grange. A sig- 
nal at the gate came from Bro. D. D. 
Green and from Bro. B. F. Walton, 
each filing in with their recently cap- 
tured trophies, having joined life and 
fortvmes with sisters of the oi'der and 
our grange. Sister Hattie S. Jones 
accompanied Bro. Walton, and Sister 
Julia Littlejohn came with Bro. D. D. 
Green. Being seated, the master at 
once declared a recess for a patrons' 
greeting, which was extended with a 
hearty good will and the congratula- 
tions of all present. Sister Walton, 
having been absent from our midst for 
some time, was most affectionately wel- 
comed home by her numerous friends. 

Brother and Sister Green will reside 
in Yuba City, the bi'other having been 
elected county clerk at the last elec- 
tion. Fraternally, 

Georue Ohlever. 
Yuba City, Jan. 6, 1895. 

gloves which had been taken off with 
great care, would be at once detected 
by the odor. 

Horseshoes of Cast Steel. 

Every now and then one hears of an 
attempt to make a horseshoe by casting 
instead of forging il. A Chicago firm 
produced a lot of such shoes a year or 
two ago. and the experiment has been 
tried by others. A few weeks ago. in 
Glasgow, there was a public exhibition 
of a new attempt in this direction. .\ 
mould of steel was used, and this was 
provided with such mechanism that 
immediately after the shoe is east the 
matrix may be (ii)eiied, whereu|)on one 
lever causes two cutters to remove the 
surplus metal, and another o|)erates 
punches which make the holes. The 
steel used was a Bessemer, made i)y 
the Walrand-Legenisel process, where- 
by great heat and fluidity is secured l)y 
putting a little ferro-silicon into the 
converter just as the blow is finished. 
It does not appear from the story at 
hand wht>thei' or not toe and heel calks 
are formed on the castings. l)ut one is 
left to infer that the blanks are in sub- 
stantially t he same unfinished condition 
as the forged shoes now so extensively 
used in this coimtry. The latter re- 
quire not only the addition of the 
"clip" and calks, but also more or less 
shaping at the hands of the shoer, to 
fit the horse; and it is ditlicult to see 
how such work can be done on a casting, 
owing to its brittleness. 

It is now something like forty or fifty 
years since machine-made shoes were 
introduced in the United States. These 
met with opposition from blacksmiths 
at first, but they have grown in popu- 
lai'ity until now the great majority of 
working-horses out in Fastern rural 
districts are thus shotl. In cities, too, 
they are in constantly increasing use. 
Strect-cai" companies which still rely 
on horse power, use machine-made 
shoes. In many cases a better quality 
of iron is emj)loyed in manufacturing 
these shoes than is sold to the black- 
smith for the hand made article. Many 
owners of private carriages imagine 
that the latter style of shoe is prefer- 
able: but within five years a light ma- 
chine-made shoe of Bessemer steel has 
coin(> into the market, which seems to 
be well adapted for this class of custom. 
There is luithing like it in Euroi)e. The 
machine-made shoes in general have 
not been apjjreciated so fully and 
promi)tly there as on this side. Of 
course, the great majority — say ninety- 
five iier cent — of them an- made of 
iron, and not of steel; but veterans in 
the trade; scoff at the idea of casting 
the metal, whether it be one or the 
other, for the reason already given. 

Seeds, Plants, Etc. 

Orange Trees. 

Uiulilfil tr«>«*H «*r 1 li«> lfa<liiiu; \uri«-ti«-M. i»ii«> mihI 
Iwo-yoar I>imIh. aUti H«*f(lliiiK I r»*«'s frimi 
oil*' to four yt*HrH o|<| ~. hU k""**- tlirifly 
Htoi-k. fr*"*' froiii Ht'alr. 

Also, u irrncral viiricty (»f 

Nursery Stock and Trees. 

I'nci's lo suil Ihf times. 

FOR S /\ L E ! 


French and Robe de Sargent 


A T a t TS. II.OK i«.->o I'l U I'IKM S.\MI. 




Apple, Peach. Cherry. Apricnt and Almond 

Firsl-t ' Trees at mtv I<»\v prices. 

E. GILL, Nurseryman, Oakland, Cal. 




For Sale at $10 per Thousand. 

Also, aline lot of Winter Nells ami Harllett IVar 
Trees, six to eight feet htsjli, at prices to still the 



Distressing Cough, 


' Despaired 


Ayer's Cherry Pectoral 

Yuba Cltv, Sutter Co. 


Chemistry is offering a means to 
oblige would-be dynamiters to betray 
themselves should they try to carry 
about hand grenades and cartridges. 
It is to mix dynamite with certain salts 
that give out a stench, and plunge 
cartridges into a solution of these 
chemicals. This foetid smell thus 
caused is not to be got rid of, and is 
communicable, A person carrying 
this infernal machine, or who had oar- 
ried or handled one, unless with leather 

"Some time siiiee. I had a severe 
•attack of asthma, aecoiiipaiiied with a 
distressing courIi and a general soreness 
of the joints and muscles. I consulted 
liliysieiaiis and tried various remedies, 
Imt without getting any relief, until I 
despaired of ever hehig well again. 
Finally, I took .\yer's C'Ihtit I'ectoral, 
and in a very .short time, was entirely 
cured. I can, therefore, cordially and 
confidently commend this medicine to 
all."— J. KosKLl.s, Victoria, Texas. 

" My wife had a very troublesome 
Tough. .She usi il .\yer's Cherry Pecto- 
ral and procured immediate relief." — 
G. H. PoDKicK, Humphreys, (la. 

Ayer's Cherry Pectoral 

Received Highest Awards o 



^Si S 9 o 9 P ^ ^ P ooooooooooo 

400,000 Fruit Trees 


Sacramento River Nursery Co., 

For sale at Cut Prices. No belter trees In Cali- 
fornia. Terms and discounts satisfactorv 
Address «>SC A K KNOTT. Walniii <iro\i'. 
Or, A. K. II/VK\ II';. iHletiiM. 

1 ■ 1—^ tZ- * — r best varieties, free from 
AND pests of any kind. Prunun 

PI rm i^T^tr; Siiiioiil. Itlng. Kiistraver 
L/-%rN 1 » HUd Murdoch ClierrlM; 
KlHck <;HlitorlllH FIkh: Klce .Koft Shell Hnd 
other .AliiioiidH; American Sweet CheHtiiuls: 
I'rwparturteiis WHlnuts. Hardy niountalu grown 
Orange Trees. Our or.inpes have stood 22 decrees 
tills winter without injury. Dollar .Strawberry, 
the best berry fi)r liouie use or market. Address 
C. M. SILVA & SON, Lincoln, I'laeer County. 

/Vlonterey Cypre-ss ! 


Write for Prices. 

Delivered on wharf in San Francisco. 

Address W. T. A. STRATTON, 
Seedsman & Florist, - - Petaluma, Cal. 

01i\/e^ Tree^s 


For prices and a pamphlet on Olive Culture, ad 


I'omoDa, L.OH Angeles Co., Cal. 


Weud for CutttlugUt' 
C P. LOOP ft SON Pomona. Cal. 

January 12, 1895, 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


What's the use of planting 

fruit trees if you do not gro to headquarters for your stock? We look to the 
quality first price secondly. Our new handsomely illustrated fruit tree catalogue 
is an authority and it will pay you to consult it before ordering. Free for the 


Sunset Seed and Plant Company, 

427-9 Sansome Street, San Francisco. 


" Plums — tell your people to grow the best 
lums: they will always find a good market." 
So said several of the largest handlers of fruits 
lu Chicago when the question was asked them re- 
cently, " What is the most profitable fruit to plant 
uow ? " 

Clyman. Burbank. Mikado. Normand. 

Satsuma. Tragedy. Kelsey. Diamond. 
Grand Duke. Simon. Ickworth. Pond. 

These are the best. Write for prices, which will 
be made very low. 

Also, almosi everything else in the Fruit and 
Nut Tree line. Seeds, Bulbs, Plants, etc. 


California Nursery Company, 

E. J, Bo\A/^n, 



Napa Vaiiey Nurseries, 


James A. Anderson, 

Lodi, San Joaquin County, Cal. 

Has a Choice Slock of VEARLINQ NURSERY 

TREES for this season's planting. Guaranteed 
free from disease and insect pests, and at prices 
to suit the times. 

Blenheim, Royal and French Apricots. 

Hungarian, Tragedy and French Prunes. 

Burbank, Salsuma and Kelsey Plums. 

Ne Plus Ultra. La Prima, Texas Prolitic, I. X. L , 
Nonpariel and T.anguedoc Almonds. 

Salway, Crawford, Muir and twenty other vari- 
eties of Peaches. 

Also Nectarines, Apples, Pears, Cherries, Figs, 
Oranges, Lemons, etc. 

Your prices are mine. Don't forget to write for 
particulars. Correspondence solicited and cheer- 
fully answered. Address all communications, 
J. A. ANDERSON, Lodi, Cal. 





Fruit Trees, Nut Trees, Small Fruits, Ornamental Trees 
and Shrubs, Palms, Flowering Plants, Etc. 

SPECIALTY:— All the Italian, French 'and Spanish Varieties of Olives of 
Note — "True" Spanish Queen, Rubra, Regalis, Etc. 

Write us for new Catalogues and Estimates. Prices to suit the times. 



No Irrigation. 

Orouuers of all the Leading; 
t/arletles of Fruit Trees. 

Correspondence solicited. 

JAS. O'NEILL & SON, Haywards, 

Alameda County, Cal. 



Offers a Full and Complete Assortment of 




Send for Descriptive Catalogue and Price List. 

^.^"aosffis^^ DDR ESS .^^BS'"'""^ 

GEO. C. ROEDINQ, = = = - 



Alfalfa, Grass, Clover, Vegetable 

and Flower Seeds. — Onion Sets. 

Largest Stock and Most Complete Assortment. 

Send for large illustrated descriptive and priced 
Catalogue, mailed free. 

New crop Salt Lake Alfalfa. Inquire for samples 
and prices. 

Address — 

815, 817 and 819 Sansome St., San Francisco, Cal. 
65 Front St., Portland, Or. 
Or 214 Commercial St., Seattle, 'Wash. 


Large Stock of Unirrigated Trees 

on whole SeedliuK Roots, warranted free 
from scale and root knot. Prices low. 
Cherries, Grapes, Nut and Shade Trees 
very low. All leading varieties. 
Normand, Abundance, Willard and Simoui 
Plums; Bungoume Japan Apricots^ Earlj 
Bearing Apples, and Earliest Yellow 

New Price List Free. 

R. W. BELL, 



Citrus and Deciduous Trees, 


In the State, at the Home Nurseries, Pasadeua, Cal, 

One and I w (j-year-old Oraugr and Lt'iuou Trees, 
the tiufsl and thriftiest stock ever grown any- 
«ln-rt'. utjd all the best varieties, also Pomohi 
((irap<' Fi'uit I. and the .Japanese Red Daucy Tan 
geriue Orange; also the best deciduous trees. 
Raspberries. Ulackberries and the Wonderful 
Kverbeariug and other tine varieties of Strawber 
ries. Nothing but the best of all varieties of 
Fruits and Nuts. Uon't fail to write for prices lo 
HKWITT & COKSON. Pro'ps, Pasadena, Cal. 


Spark's Mammoth 

C-^Q^ J^-^QI^ Get our Catalogue and Prices be- aBD EOYAL APRICOTS aod PRUNES. 


fore purchasing: your Trees or 
Anything: in the Nursery Line. 

Clean, Thrifty, HeaUhy Stock at 
Prices to Suit the Times. 

Prices to Meet the Times. 

Befoie purchashing elsewhere write 

H. B. SMITH Ventura, Ventura Co., Cal. 

OUvc Trees. 


our Book on Olive Culture. 

Send for 





Best Market Berry kiimvii; laiffe. tinu and lus- 
cUpus, stands travel rtncly, l)earb Immensely, and 
has two crops a year; 50 cents per dozen ; tli per lUU. 
Also Strawberries. Blackberries. Gooseberries, Cur- 
rants, etc.. of the finest imported varieties. Prices 
on application. L. U. jVIcCANN, Sauta Cruz, Cal. 


01i\/e Trees, 

Mission and Nevadillo, 

Three. Year-Old stock, ,, , , ""^^^f; 'CLOVER VEQETABLE. FLOWER AND TREE SEEDS ET^^ 

I ( atalogui- mailed Iree on application. Please mention t his p.ipci . 

4 to 6 Feet and 6 to 8 Feet High. THOS. MEHERIN, 5I6 Battery street (P. 0. Box 2059), San Francisco, CaL 

HoxA/land Bros., 


^■f-f-f ESTABLISHED 1863. 





Large and Cdniplflc Slock iif Fruit ;tud Ornamental 'frees and IManls, at prices to suit the tmie 



Pomona, California. 

TDCCC nffini n plum. SPLENDOR prune, Van 
I nLLO Ul UULU DEMAN ([uince-^ihoice of 
Burbanl;'s20 Million ••new creations." STARK 
Trees PREPAID everywhere. SAFE ARRIVAL ouar. 
anteed. The 'great mirseries" save you over HALF. 
Millions of the best trees 70 years' experience can 
grow; they '•live longer and bear better."— Sec. 
MorUm, STARK, B44, Louisiana, Mo. ,Rockport, III. 


I r I "1HE most successful farmers and gardeners r 
' I buy their seed directly from the growers ; for | 
' this reason we largely the most risky | 

kinds, especially Cabbage and Onion Seed. This | 
latter is extra fine this season. No catalogue con- S 
tains more varieties of vegetable .seed, and none more 5 
of the new that are really good— see outside coyer | 
for an illustrated selection from our new special- = 
ties, wliicli we will sell at half rates. Catalogue /re«. S 
J. J. H. UREUORY & SON, Seed Qruvrers, | 

— — 


\ i>luiiiiul ot Methods which have VleUltd 
<ireate«t Sur< eKs; with Lists ut Varietle.4 
liest A(lapte<l to the Dinereiit 
IlislrlctH of the State. 

Pi:ictical, Kxpllelt. Comprehensive. Kmbodylnt,' 
h e e.x'perieiH-e and methods of hundreds of Muccess- 
fiil ^TiiweiH. and eonstltiitlng a trustworthy guide 
bv whieli the inexperienced may snecesBfiillv prw- 
iliice the fruits for wldcli California is famons. 
.Sei' ind edition, revised and enlarged. Bv Kdwai.o 
.J. WieKMiN. A. M.. Assoc. Prof. Hortlenllnre ai d 
KntunioleMv. University of California; 
Editor I'luilic Hnral Prtsn. San Francisco; Sec'y Call 
fornia Slate Horticultural Society; Pres. California 
State Floral Society, etc. 

Large Uctavo. 591/ paijes, fully illuitraleii, irrUc, liiS.OU. 


Publishers Pacific Rural Press, 

220 Market Street, San Franclaco, Cal. 


The Pacific Rural Press 

January 12, 1895. 

Butterine Knocked Out. 

The recent famous decisiou by the United States Supi-cmt' Court that butterine is a fraud and must 
not be sold for butter is going to do the dairy and creamery business a world of good. 


Will be in greater demand. than ever, because there will be more money in the butter business. Buy in 
time, if you contemplate going into the creamery business, for there will be a great rush next spring. 


These machines skim absolutely clean and they skim to llicir tull advertised capacity. They are 
the only machines sold in America to-day that will do this. 
Send for circulars and please mention this paper. 

THE KCSSIAN KABCOC'K TKST is the best and most substantial lesl on the market. 

Baker & Hamilton, 

Sole Pacific Coast Agents, 



RIO BONITO NURSERIES, Biggs, Butte Co., Cal. 


The most Complete Assortment of General Nursery Stock grown on the Pacific Coast. 

1,000,000 Trees for the Season of 1894-95 in Stock. 

;W Acknowledged everywhere to be equal to the best. Quaranteed to be healthy and free from 
oale or other pests. 

Send for Calalogue and Prlcea. Correspondence solicited. Address: 

Alexander & Hammon, 







(Successor to Van Gelder & Wylie. 
Write for prices on larK^ and small orders. 

ACrt/Vtf=»0, Crtl_. 

ORANGE TREES at Rock Bottom Prices. 

To close out a special lot of five-year buds of Mud. Sweets (five-year roots), finely 
branched, 4x6 feet, we offer them at Sas the hnnilred. 

Write us if .vou want Med. Sweets or Wash. Navels: we can give you lower prices 
for pood trees than any one. 

Cal. Fan and Cham. Excelsa Palms, Laurustinus, Dracaena Indivisa, Roses, 

Tuberoses, Etc., Etc. 

Agents wanted in every town in Xorthern and Ct nlral California where we are 
nut represented. 


Mr.s. E. M. Fraser, Prupr 
FrkP C. Mll,K.S, l^nagey 



THIS FLOW is especially made for 
Orchards and Vineyards on the 
Pacific coast and is so designed 
that one can plow close to the rows 
without Injuring tree or vine. 

thorouKbly tooted In nil eondl- 
tlons and In arknowledj^ed tu 
have more doHirablf* features 
than any otb,>r Orchard Cultl- 
\ ator. 





We have one of the largest, best and most complete lines of Plows, Harrows and Seeders In the 
market. Send for Special Illustrated Catalogue. 

We sell the celebrated KCSHFORD FARM WAGONS, the best in the market. 


ComlDlnocf H »i n d , Foot and F»o\A/«»r Lift. 

TllK ilKAR FRAME, to which the- IcBS or shanks are attached, Is made from two pieces extra thick 
square guB III pe. This produces the very stroiiKest form of frame. They are clamped together with 
thick wrought steel clamps and heavy bolts. Two wrought steel straps also clamp these gas pipes and 
project forward and encircle the axle, and are attached to the :i.\le so as to raise and lower, which gives a 
low or high hitch to the gangs, and also gives more or less pitch to the shovels. 

THE SHANKS OR LEGS, to which the shovels are attached, are made from steel with their front 
edge made sharp. These Shanks or Legs have a series of holes 80 they can be raised or lowered to maet 

any requirements. 

RAISING LKVER.— We have a combined hand and foot I^ever, and have also put on a strong spring to 
assist the operator In raising the gangs. This Improved construction makes this the easiest Cultivator 
to operate now on the market. 

SIZES — No. 5, five feet. 11 shovels: No. «. six feet, 13 shovels: No. 7. seven fest. lb shOTSls. Writ* for 





Vol. XLIX. No. 3. 



Office, 220 Market Street. 

New Flowers by Luther Burbank. 

We give on this page another page from the new 
creations in fruits and flowers by Luther Burbank of 
Santa Kosa. In earlier issues we have referred in 
general terms to the extent of Mr. Burbank's under- 
takings in cross-fertilization and hybridization of 
plants, and have cited some of his results, es- 
pecially in the line of new fruits. This time we 
choose two of his new flowers — a rose and a 
calla. In our last volume we gave a picture of 
a single rose of the kind now shown here in a 
cluster. It is one Mr. Burbank names "Peach- 
blow," and which he evidently regards very 
highly. The flowers last year ruled one-third 
lin ger than before, and approach the size of La 
France. The flowers in the engraving are 
about one-half natural size. The Peachblow 
grows a round, stocky bush about two and one- 
half feet high and across and blooms all sum- 
mer, but not as freely as La France perhaps. 
The buds are especially elegant; on stiff, up- 
right stems. The foliage is large and leathery, 
glossy green, with new growth crimson. The 
picture shows the character of the leaf well, 
also the form of the flower, but it fails of course 
of its coloring, which is notably fine. The inside 
of the petals is a pale, silvery, peach pink, 
lik(> La France; the reverse is dark, bronzy 
Carmine pink. The effect of the open bud 
{« entr ancin g. 

Of late the de- 
sirable thing in 
callas is small- 
ness. There is no 
trouble, especial- 
ly in California, 
to grow immense 
callas, but to get 
small ones, which 
"are of great value 
in florists' work 
and to amateurs 
as well, has not 
been possible un- 
til lately. A few 
years ago the cal- 
la "Little Gem " 
came out and was 
speedily distrib- 
uted, for the de- 
sirability of such 
a bloom was uni- 
V e r s a 1 1 y recog- 
nized. Mr. Bur- 
bank has now 
made the Little 
Gem rather a 

large bloom. He grew about 18,000 seedlings of 
Little Gem and secured several valuable new kinds, 
one of which is the one he names Snowflake, shown 
in the engraving. It never grows half as large as 
Little Gem and produces in profusion tiny, snow- 
white, gracefully molded flowers. In the engraving 
on this page the Snowflake is shown in one case in 
its exact natural size, as can be seen by the section 
of the rule which is also photographed. In the glass 
the Snowflake is shown with Little Gem on one neg- 
ative, 80 the comparative size can be strikingly ap- 
preciated. Mr. Burbank assures us that the Little 
Gem and the Snowflake were both grown under ex- 
actly the same conditions. The flowers, leaves and 
plants of the Snowflake are not nearly half as large 
as the Little Gem. The leaves of Snowflake, as can 
be seen in the life-size engraving, differ in shape from 

callas ordinarily, the lobes being more rounded. 

It is a matter for satisfaction that California can 
claim to grow both the largest and the smallest 
callas known to the floral world. 

The State Floral Society. 

A LARGE European demand for American horses is 
reported. An agent from Scotland is here with or- 

The California State Floral Society held its annual 
meeting in this city last Friday. The reports of the 
officers showed the society to be in thriving condi- 
tion with a live membership of nearly 200 and finances 
in good shape. In his annual address, the president 
recalled the fact that the society had given 
three successful flower shows during 1894, all of 
which had brought credit to the society and to 
the floral resources of California. He congratu- 
lated the society also upon its share of credit 
for the increased interest which is now discern- 
ible in floral matters and home improvement 
throughout the State. The election of officers 
for the current year was had with the following 
result: President, Prof. E. J. Wickson; vice- 
president, Mrs. L. O. Hodgkins; secretary, 
Emory E. Smith; corresponding secretary, Mrs. 
W. H. Smythe; treasurer, John Henderson Jr.; 
accountant. Miss E. E. Baily. W. H. Davis and 
John Hinkle were chosen to act in conjunction 
with the officers as the board of directors 

The society, by vote, decided to hold a rose 
show in San Francisco next spring, so our i-ead- 
ers are all warned in season to prepare their 
best cut blooms and roses in pots. The exact 
date of the show will be declared later. 


Sheep and cattle ranchei 



ders to buy 2500 head, and one from Belgium intends 
to secure 25,000 head, which he is looking for in both 
Eastern and Western markets. They are taking all 
classes, but want good individuals of good breeding. 

Birch waited long for a full recognition as a cabinet 
wood. Within the past year it has made great strides 
in the favor of manufacturers of furniture and finish. 
It looks now as if it were to take the place of cherry 
In a large way. No Northern and comparatively cheap 
wood can be utilized for light-colored finish so well as 

Thk real secret of birds flying seems to lie in their 
ability to exert greater energy in proportion to their 
weight than other animals. They develop about three 
times as much horse power per pound of wwgbt as 

State to take a hand in the 
troublesome devastators. 

in south west Texas 
are asking the 
State to help 
them to exter- 
minate or keep 
down the wild 
animals that are 
playing havoc 
with stock in that 
region. So far 
from the advent 
of settlers thin- 
ning out the pan- 
thers, wolves and 
co\o1es, the ani- 
mals are incrcas- 
inir greatly in 
mi m tiers through 
the plenty of food 
afforded by the 
vast herds of cat- 
tle and sheep. The 
ranchers have 
spent thousands 
of dollars in try- 
ing to abate the 
pest, but without 
avail, and now 
they want the 
extermination of these 

The unemployed of San Francisco have started a 
labor exchange, which will also be a sort of barter 
bureau. Each producer can bring his product and 
exchange it for what he wants through an exchange 
certificate. This brings business down to original 
principles, and may be worked up into something of 
permanent value. The exchange of products is the 
essence of making a living. 

The total supply of all kinds of wool in the United 
States is 130,520,600 pounds, the supply of domestic 
showing a shrinkage of 19,795,900 pounds, the supply 
of foreign showing an increase of 9,088,000 pounds, 
the total supply on hand carried over showing a de- 
crease of 11,407,900 pounds. 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

January 19, 1896. 


Offlct, Xii. jm Market St.; Elevator, A'o. Vi Front *V., San tyanciaco. Cat. 

All subscribers paying 13 In advance will receive 15 months' (one 
year and 13 weeks) credit. For $2 In advance, lU months. For (1 In 
advance, live months. 

AdeerlUina rates made, hiwwnjjn appHcatiun. 

Anv subscriber sending- an Inquiry on any subject to the Bcral 
Press, wlih a postage stamp, will receive a reply, either through the 
columns of the p.iper or by personal letter. The answer will be given 
as promptly as practicable. 

Our latest forms go to press JVednesday evenino. 
Chicago Office...,. TTT.CHAS. D. SPALDING, 320, 18!i La Salle St. 
Registered at S. F. Postofflce as second-class mail matter. 

HOLMAN Kditor. 

E. J. WICK.SON..;....;...T Special Contributor. 

San Francisco, January 19, 1895. j 


ILLVSTHATIONS— Calla Snowflake: New Rose, Peaehblow, 38. 
EUITORI.^LS.— New Flowers by Luther Burbank; The State 

Floral Society; Miscellaneous, 33. The Week, 31. From an Inde- ' 

pendent Standpoint, 35. i 
PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— Grange Revival Again; Red Letter i 

Day tor Sacramento Grange; Election In South Sutter: From 

Poiter Vallev: Tulare Grange, 46. 
HORTICULTURE.— Olive Growing in Southern California; More 

About the California Walnut, 36. Objections to the St. Ambroise 

Apricot; San Joaquin Oranges, 37. 
ENTOMOLOGICAL.— Mr. Craw's Latest Report on the Rhizobilds, 


THE FIELD.— Alfalfa'in Colusa County, 37-38. I 
THE STOJK ■i'ARD.— Notes on Live Stock Values, 38. 
THE HOME CIKCLE.— Send Them to Bed with a Kiss; A Dream; ; 

A Pair or Bloomers. -kl. Grandpa and the Dog ; Gems; Feminine, 41. 
DOMESTIC ECONOMY —Hints to Housekeepers, 41. 
FLORIST AND GARDENER — The Carnation, 42. 

MISCELLANEOUS.— Temperature and Rainfall; Gleanings,, 86. 
Deep Snow; Machinery of a Cruiser, 44 


Agricultural Implements— Deere Impk'ment Co 48 

Agricultural Implements— Hooker & Co 4H 

Plows— Oliver Chilled Plow Works 45 

Fruit Ranch to Lease— C. H. Steinmetz, VacavlUe, Cal . 45 

Squirrel and Gopher Exterminator— Wakelee & Co 47 

Poland-China Hogs— Sulphur Spring Farm, Niles, Cal 47 

Eggs for Hatching— Mrs. J. G. Fredericks, Madison, Cal . ..47 

Sheep Dip— Catton, Boll i: Co 47 

Nursery Stock— James Waters, WatsonvUle, Cnl 39 

Nursery Stock— F. Barteldes & Co., Lawrence, Kansas . 46 

Nursery Stock— Hacitlc Nursery 43 

Nursery Stock— Robert P. Eachus, Lakeport, Cal 46 
Olive Trees— Geo. H. Kunz, Sacramento 40 
Roses, Etc.— Good & Reese Co., Springfield. Ohio 44 


Vegetable and Flower Seeds— The Storrs & Harrison Co., Paines- 

ville, 46 

Seeds— J. J. H. Gregory, Marblehead, Mass — 39 

The Week. 


We have received a short note from 
R. C. Kells, the well-known or- 
chardist of Sutter county, asking 
if there is a Poland-China Breeders' Association in 
this State and suggesting that more prominence 
should be given to the swine interest of California. 
Mr. Kells is right. The swine interest of California 
is very important, and its present value* would not 
be a tithe of its value if swine men would earnestly 
bestir themselves. There is no association of 
breeders of Poland-Chinas in this State, nor of the 
Berkshires, nor of any other breed of swine. Not 
only is there this lack, but our breeders do not take 
interest enough in this matter to properly connect 
themselves with the National Associations in these 
interests. A few years ago there were several mem- 
berships by Californiaus in these general associa- 
tions, but recently even this enterprise has lessened, 
and though we have a few members resident in this 
State, they can probably be counted on one's fingers. 
This is not right. If California swine breeders would 
bestir tliemselves, organize locally and do something 
systematically for the advancement of the local 
swine interest, the local product could be many times 
incre ased, and still bjtter values obtained. We need 
to develop packing, interests and shut off the train- 
loads of Mississippi valle^' pork products which are 
profitably marketed here. We cannot do this by 
floating land schemes under packing signs. The pork 
producers must proceed intelligently and resolutely 
in their own interest, and we have. no. .doubt capital 
will be available. It is a shame that California, with 
the best conditions in tlie world for producing sweet, 
healthy pork, should be paying hundreds of thousands 
of dollars annually for Eastern pork products. More 
than that, we should be exporting these articles. 
But little can be done until the pork producers or- 
ganize and advance in their own interest. Mr. Kells 
knows what work has done for the fruit interest, for 
he has done lots of it himself. Perhaps if he takes 
off his coat again and rustles in this new field he can 
draw others to him, and the California pork interest 
will do something for itself. The Rural Press has 
repeatedly urged this, and stands ready to work for 
it with Mr. Kells and all others who will rally to the 
effort. Let us hear from all who will take hold. 

Frozen Suffering Floridians are doing 

their best to realize something out 
of their frozen oranges, but the 
receipts will probably be small, on the whole. On 
general principles, the marketing of frozen fruit will 
hurt the seller more than the small money he is likely 
to get will help him. Some other people than 
Floridians found out the truth of that last year. It 


seems from telegraphic dispatches that the health 
autliorities are interfering with the trade and have 
stopped their sale in New York and Boston. The 
Health Commissioner of Chicago is reported to have 
said: " There is ample provision in the city ordi- 
nances to stop the sale of unhealthful food. I have 
sent men to watch the cars and stop oranges which 
are actually bad. and I will do the best I can. These 
oranges are not spoiled yet, and they have a value if 
used correctly. They will be sold as frozen oranges."' 
When told that frozen or thawed oranges were not 
changed in appearance, he replied; "I don't see 
how I can condemn frozen oranges that are sold as 
such. But people will be better able to protect 
themselves when the papers publish the facts. That 
will help to solve the question."' So it appears that 
the Florida shippers cannot realize much from their 
shipments of frozen fruit. In any event, the mass 
will so soon spoil that it will not long be in the way 
of sound fruit. It seems that immediately after the 
news of the spoiling of the Florida crop was received 
in the Eastern cities, there was a jump in the price 
of oranges, and choice fruit has brought $5 for a box 
of 200. When the frozen oranges were received and 
put out at a low price, carloads were closed out in a 

A San Diego county reader wants 
to know where he can get a few 
catfish to fill a private pond with. We don't know 
whether any one makes a business of supplying cat- 
fish, but we do know that probably a thousand car- 
loads could be easily secured from parties along the 
Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers and their 
sloughs. The catfish is one of the most profound 
admirers of the California climate. He multiplies 
like the toads and grasshoppers of Pharaoh, and if 
he were only amphibious he would take possession of 
the whole State. By his present limitations he con- 
fines himself to watering places, and there he is as 
unpopular as a certain race of men are at the Eastern 
summer hotels. He is a greedy monopolist and those 
who like other fishes often wish he had never been 
brought to this State. Between the catfish and the 
carp, both of which were zealously boomed fifteen 
years ago, it is a question as to which is the greater 
offense to the nostrils of those who dwell beside the 
slack waters of the interior valleys. The catfish is, 
however, much the better fish in the kitchen, and 
has much more excuse for existence than the carp, 
which is a water hog which yields no bacon. If any 
reader can arrange for a small shipment of catfish in 
shape to go to San Diego in a Pullman freight car 
we shall be glad to communicate his name to our 
southern correspondent. 

Hay makers are proverbially frisky 
and poets have probably thrown 
more sentiment over the newly 
mown meadow than upon any similar area of the 
earth's surface, but isn't it rather new to be emo- 
tional about hay selling? The haycock, the haymow, 
the great load of new hay, all these are legitimate 
themes for transport, but to grow light hearted and 
merry over baled hay — who'd a thought it ? And yet 
San Francisco has accomplished just this feat. A 
few days ago the San Francisco Hay Association, 
organized in April, 1893, gave their first annual ban- 
quet. There were seventy-five at table, and included 
in the number were leading hay growers and dealers 
from all parts of the State. President George P. 
Morrow presided, and also acted as toast master. 
After an excellent menu had been discussed, Simon 
Anspacher, the retiring president of the association, 
delivered his annual report and congratulated the 
members on the vigorous growth of the association. 
Continuing, he said: 

Our association was organized mainly for the purpose of fa- 
cilitatiuj? the sale of hay daily received by dealers in this 
city, both by cars and boats, and instituting u practical sys- 
teiHi commensurate with the business, that would operate in 
a fair and impartial manner toward all interested parties. 
We have attained this object through the auction system, 
which I consider the corner-stone of our institution, and I 
urge strongly upon each and every member to give it his 
warmest support. 

All this was to be expected and was baled hay all 
through, but afterward there came loose hay in the 
form of sentiments and songs, and a toast to the 
ladies as a matter of course. It was, on the whole, 
a very pleasant affair, as any one can appreciate 
after he recovers from being startled at the unex- 
pectedness of it all. The association proposes to 
proceed to the establishment of a regular hay ex- 
change and other important undertakings. The 
officers of the association are: President, George P. 
Morrow; vice-president, H. C. Somers; secretary, 
Joseph Majer. 

The receipt of a letter from a Los 
Angeles reader asking for the 
address of some person who will 
sell Mongolian pheasants at a price which will permit 
of their being turned loose to increase the supply of 
game birds, reminds us that it is time we had some 
new points as to the character of these birds as it 
relates to fruit-growers' interests. Readers may re- 
member the solemn warning given by some of our 
Oregon readers soon after the birds were set free in 


that State. They were said to be vastly worse than 
quail in vineyards and other small fruit enclosures. 
Several sport lovers have brought the pheasants to 
this State, and, if we are not mistaken, have set 
th em free. How have they multiplied and how have 
the}- behaved ? We presume our correspondent 
would not care to aid in their dissemination if they 
prove a pest. We should Hke, therefore, to hear 
from any reader not only as to whether he can price 
the birds in quantity, but what they are likely to 
cost in invasion of fruit and garden enclosures. 
What about this mongol ? Should it be set free or 
Japanned ? 

The sugar beets at the Govern- 
ment station on Union island, in 
the tules of San Joaquin county, 
were not planted until June 1st, owing to lateness in 
beginning the station, and little was expected of 
them. Samples taken from the ground December 
15th and analyzed by Mr. Jaffa at the University 
laboratory in Berkeley showed over fifteen per cent 
of sugar. This is a very good beet at any time, 
and the fact that such beets can be sown on re- 
claimed tule lands as late as June 1st and harvested 
m good condition as late as December 15th shows 
how long a manufacturing season can be had in that 
part of California. This year, by direction of Dr. 
Wiley, who has charge of this branch of the work of 
the Department of Agriculture, sowing of beets will 
begin in February and continue until May, so as to 
demonstrate yield and quality from different dates 
of planting. The sugar cane on Union island has 
gone into winter quarters under a light cover of 
litter and earth, and is expected to make a good 
large growth next season. 


Hay Dealer*' 

i r„.„..„,... The Veterinary College of the 
University of California is duly 
open at the corner of Fillmore and 
Post streets in this city. At the opening exercises 
last W^ednesday Dr. W. F. McNutt, president of the 
board of trustees, made the inaugural address and 
spoke of the necessity of an institution of this kind 
I on this side of the Rocky mountains, where the live 
stock interests in the State alone were estimated at 
I §100,000.000. W' ith this college it would be possible 
to show the difference between the veterinary sur- 
geon and the unlearned empiric known as the "horse 
doctor." He then discoursed on the good to human- 
ity that could be accomplished by the thorough vet- 
erinary, pointing out how the knowledge of the latter 
could forestall the ravages of glanders, anthrax and 
other diseases of the horse. He declared the college 
opened as an adjunct of the University of California. 
Encouraging addresses wei-e made by other speakers. 
The first term is now in progress and will continue 
until June 29th. Dr. Thomas Bowhill is dean of the 
facultv, with the following associates: A. E. Buzard, 
W. F". Egan, F. A. Nief. S. J. Fraser, A. Auchie 
Cunningham, Frank W. Skaife and K. O. Steers. 
The special lecturers are Professors W. F. McNutt, 
William Watt Kerr, Joseph Le Conte and W. E. 
Ritter. We join the projectors in the hope that the 
new institution will accomplish much for the more 
intelligent and rational treatment of animal diseases 
on this coast. 

Better Road improvement will proceed in 
convention, and we hope ere long 
between the fences. Last Friday 
the Sacramento Board of Supervisors unanimously 
voted to attend the State Road Convention, to be 
held in Sacramento February 7th. Secretary of 
Agriculture Morton has resolved to send from Wash- 
ington General Roy Stone, United States Engineer 
of the Department of Road Inquiry, to attend the 
convention as requested by invitations from Califor- 
nia. All supervisors are delegates, and all county 
surveyors and road engineers: also all colleges, 
scientific and commercial bodies, municipal councils 
and granges are entitled to send delegates, and 
there are twentv at large appointed by Governor 
Markham, and (governor Budd will be asked to ap- 
point t went J' more. All preparations for the ap- 
proachirg convention have been made, and there 
should be a large attendance. 


Fruit E.xcliauge 


The Convention of Fruit Ex- 
changes is in session at this writ- 
ing, and, as the proceedings are 
private, we are not able to give full report. Those 
present at the convention say that the feeling is ex- 
cellent, and that the meeting seems certain to result 
in the local Exchanges assuming the support and 
management of the State Exchange, substantially 
as originally planned. 

The National Pomologlcal Society 
is in session at Sacramento as the 
Rural goes to pi^pss on Wednes- 
day evening, and there is a large attendance both of 
Eastern and California fruit growers. As the exer- 
cises have only fairly begun at this writing, we must 
postpone a report of the exercises to another week. 

The Pomo- 
loglcal Society. 

January 19, 1895. 

The Pacific Rural Press 


From an Independent Standpoint. 

Mr. Budd signalized his entrance into the G-ov- 
ernorship last week by an impressive renewal of his 
campaign promise of economic reform in State 
affairs. Addressing the multitude who had just 
witnessed his formal acceptance of office, he said : 
" Here in this imposing presence, I pledge my manhood, 
m-ij honor and the best ability I am able to exercise to its 
faithful execution." Following this high declaration, 
the new Governor reviewed the situation in a way 
which showed that he had made a careful and intel- 
ligent study of State expenditures. Our reckless- 
ness in public expenditure, he said, had hindered 
the development of the State not only by consuming 
and wasting its substance but by preventing settle- 
ment here. People of moderate and prudent char- 
acter, he said, accustomed to economical systems, 
naturally hesitate to cast their lot in a State whose 
current annual tax rate is equivalent to an assess- 
ment of between seven and eight dollars for every 
man, woman and child of its population. In every 
avenue of business activity, he pointed out, the 
wage rate has persistently declined, but the affairs 
of the State move forward in the old grooves of 
extravagance and profligacy — indeed, in recent 
years things seemed going from bad to worse. The 
correction of these evils, he pointed out, rests with 
the Legislature and the G-overnor — and again he 
promised to do his part. 

From this basis Gov. Budd proceeded to a review 
of State expenditures, with significant comparison 
of our own system with the systems of other States. 
In point of population California ranks twenty- 
second in the list of States; in the matter of gross 
cost of State government she ranks fourth. New 
York, Pennsylvania and Illinois, with their immensely 
multiplied populations, alone exceeding her in this 
respect. In the per capita cost of State govern- 
ment California stands first on the list, the average 
cost in other States being about two dollars as 
against her six to eight. In the comparative cost of 
prisons, California, while twenty-second in popula- 
tion, stands second on the list; in the comparative 
cost of militia maintenance, California stands fourth 
in the list of States; in the comparative cost of agri- 
ctiltural fairs, California stands first; in comparative 
cost of judiciary, California stands fifth; in compara- 
tive cost of lunatic asylums, California stands second. 
This showing — and the Governor supports it with in- 
disputable figures — is a tremendous indictment, and 
it justifies fully the censure which the Governor 
heaps upon the past administration of State affairs. 
Proceeding to details, he declared that our asylums 
were overcrowded with persons who had no business 
to be there, and the burden of whose support had 
been shunted off on the State by unnatural relatives 
or thrifty local communities. He recommended 
abolishment of the existing asylum boards and the 
consolidation of the whole asylum system under a 
single non-partisan commission. In the matter of 
State prisons and reformatories, he made practically 
the same recommendation, declaring that a sys- 
tematic consolidation in this department would yield 
a saving of three hundred thousand dollars per year. 
In the matter of the several State commissions for 
scientific and economic purposes, the Governor's 
recommendations were in line with his views as re- 
cently pubUshed. It is his idea that decrease of ex- 
penditure and increase of efficiency might be effected 
by consolidation and association with the labors of 
the leading universities of the State. Concerning 
the large expenditure for agricultural fairs (upwards 
of one hundred thousand dollars per year), the 
Governor says: 

The agricultural societies as now managed are of little or 
no benefit to the people. There is but slight competition be- 
tween classes or sections and but small rivalry in anything 
except horse-racing. Three annual fairs— one south of Te- 
hachapl, one between that point and Saci-amento and one north 
of Sacramento — would serve better to stimulate a wholesome 
spirit of emulation and rivalry than the present plan of a fair 
in nearly every county, encouraged by State aid. The place 
of meeting could be changed yearly, and an annual appropria- 
tion of $5000 for each would be amply sufficient in addition to 
the means provided by the local directors. Three district 
societies and one State society would be far better than the 
existing system. 

The Governor next directed attention to the larger 
leak? from the State treasury. The State, he 
declared, administered its charities in a way to pro- 
mote mendicancy. The annual rharge for the sup- 

port of orphans had grown in ten years from fifty 
thousand dollars to four hundred thousand. The 
whole system, he thought, should be abolished since 
there is "no more reason why the State should con- 
tribute to the support of the poor of local communi- 
ties than for an appropriation to help along the fire 
or police departments of the different towns." In 
the matter of officials, the Governor thinks the State 
service oversupplied, and he recommends a general 
unloading of deputies, attorneys and the like whose 
pay makes a large item in the State rolls, and whose 
service, if not an absolute fiction, is at least useless. 
Proceeding to constitutional reforms and matters of 
large policy, Gov. Budd recommends a complete re- 
vision of the laws governing city and county govern- 
ments to supersede our existing scheme, which is 
designated as " the most unjust and unequal special 
legislation imaginable." There should, he says, be 
two constitutional amendments submitted to the 
people — one abolishing the clause making the find- 
ings of one Railroad Commission conclusive and 
another requiring special qualifications for eligibility 
to the office. Many other States accept none but 
men of special training for this most responsible posi- 
tion. In some a lawyer, a man experienced in rail- 
road matters and a business man, are required to 
constitute the commission. In California any one 
who can get the nomination may run. The address 
closed with some further suggestions of reform Ln 
the probate system, the tax-collecting system, etc. ; 
and with the assurance that those several recom- 
mendations, if carried into effect, will save the tax- 
payers of California upward of one million dollars 
per year — or about twenty-five per cent of the 
present tax for State purposes. 

This is hardly the time to discuss details; but this 
much the Rueal must declare, namely, its full and 
hearty approval of the spirit in which the new Gov- 
ernor goes at his work. He sees, apparently, the 
plight we are in, and he is disposed, apparently, to 
help us out of it. But we long ago learned the un- 
wisdom of too hasty judgment. Budd, indeed, prom- 
ises well, but the proof of promise lies in performance 
— and for that we shall wait very hopefully. In the 
meantime, every citizen owes it to the head of the 
State to give his efforts for economic reform a patri- 
otic and hearty support. That sort of criticism and 
obstruction which proceeds from motives of partisan 
advantage is contemptible to the last degree. As 
those who have read the Rueal know, it has never 
professed any enthusiasm about Mr. Budd, but it 
will do its best to support any efforts he may make 
to reform our extravagant and absurd system of 
State expenditure. He has a great opportunity for 
public usefulness and, incidentally, for honorable 
personal distinction — and we hope to see him make 
the most of it. 

It is a very extraordinary contest that is now be- 
ing waged at Sacramento for the Senatorship. The 
candidates aggressively in the field are G-eorge C. 
Perkins (present incumbent) and M. H. De Young, 
while Irving M. Scott of San Francisco, J. H. Neff 
of Placer and a dozen others are waiting round in 
the hope that lightning may strike them. Of the 
eighty-eight Republican members, forty-five — a bare 
majority — have pledged themselves in a so-called 
"caucus" to vote for Perkins, but as the other 
forty-three did not go into the meeting and decline to 
consider themselves bound by its selection, Mr. Per- 
kins can hardly be said to be regularly the 
caucus nominee. Mr. De Young's managers 
claim that the non-caucusing forty-three are solid 
for him, but there is nothing to demon- 
strate it and it is not generally believed. It is, how- 
ever, practically true that the Republican forces are 
about evenly divided between the two candidates, 
with the advantage both of numbers and enthusiasm 
decidedly on Mr. Perkins' side. The logical out- 
come of such a situation is a compromise upon a 
third man, and the opinion is very general that this 
will be the finality. Of all the dark horses the one 
in whose chances there seems to be the most general 
confidence is Mr. Scott. A close observer at Sacra- 
mento informs the Rural to-day that in his judg- 
ment the fight lies between Perkins and Scott, with 
chances about even. It is not believed that it 
take long to settle the matter after the balloting 
begins, and next Tuesday or Wednesday is likely 

to see the end of the struggle. A prompt settlement 
is certainly to be hoped for, since it is of course out 
of the question for the Legislature to get down to 
business while the Senatorial battle agitates every- 
body in and about the Capitol. 

Generally speaking, a United States Senatorship 
is regarded as a thing of larger consequence than a 
police commissionership of San Francisco, but dur- 
ing the past ten days the latter has been a much 
more engrossing political interest. Just before Mr. 
Markham retired from the Governorship he ap- 
pointed Mr. M. A. Gunst a police commissioner for 
San Francisco, vice "Col." Dan Burns, resigned; 
and it is putting it very mildly to say that the city 
and state got a shock. Gunst is one of the best- 
known men in California. He is in the cigar and 
tobacco business, but he is known not so much as a 
merchant as a "sport" — one of the "square" 
sort. He is the friend and backer of John L. 
Sullivan; he leases rooms to a gambling house 
and is said to be interested in it as a partner; he is 
a member of a firm of racing book-makers and holds 
a proprietary relation to several well-known saloons. 
In short, Mr. Gunst is in the business of pandering 
to vice in one form or another and is in very close 
association with those things which it is chiefly the 
business of the police to watch and suppress. Of 
course his appointment to the police commissionship 
was unspeakably indecent; and it was probably in- 
tended as an affront to San Francisco — if not by 
Gov. Markham at least by Dan Burns, whose 
tool Markham was. In San Francisco indignation 
grew the more the matter was thought over. On 
last Saturday evening a public meeting of citizens, 
called by the Mayor, passed resolutions censuring 
Markham and calling upon Gunst to resign. This 
only added fuel to the fire of agitation— and, in the 
midst of it all Gov. Budd on Tuesday of this week 
issued an executive order dismissing Gunst from 
office and immediately after commissioned Mr. 
Stewart Menzies, a highly respectable citizen, as his 
successor. There is a question as to the Governor's 
right to do this, but he is backed up by an opinion 
from the Attorney-General. It is said that Gunst 
will contest the matter in the courts, but the chances 
are that he will not make his claim stick. The storm 
has stirred up s<Hne moral elements -which have too 
long been silent in San Francisco, and in this view 
has accomplished some good. 

In a recent issue of the Rural Press, after dis- 
cussing the Nicarauga Canal projeet somewhat in de- 
tail, the editor said: 

It is profoundly to be hoped that the House will, as inti- 
mated in the news from Washington, "cut the Morgan bill to 
pieces" and in its stead adopt a straight measure of Govern- 
ment ownership, involving administration of the canal upon 
considei'ations of national advantage and wholly free from 
private and sinister Influences. No other polic.y is in keeping 
with the dignity of the Government or compatible with the 
interests of the undertaking. And none other will be satis- 
factory to the people of the country. 

To this position Mr. M. T. Noyes of Stockton, a 
well-known supporter of the canal project and a 
gentleman for whose opinions we have a profound 
respect, takes serious exception. In a letter to the 
editor he expresses surprise that the Rural should 
depart from what he deems a common-sense view of 
the matter. He recites the familiar facts that the 
United States has no rights in Nicarauga or Costa 
Rica to build a canal or to do anything else; that 
these countries have granted a concession to the 
Maritime Canal Company and that this company is 
asking to guarantee its bonds, etc, etc. In conclu- 
sion, he says: 

Does any one question the company's right to make the same 
offer to England, France or Germany? And does any one be- 
lieve that if the offer were made, that either would not accept? 
One would think from the talk of those who advocate Govern- 
ment ownership, that Nicaragua and Costa Rica were part of 
United States territory. I had always supposed that they 
were independent nations, and that for any other nation to 
acquire rights there, a treaty would have to be negotiated. 
Unless I misunderstand it, the whole matter amounts to just 
this : Nicaragua and Costa Rica have granted a concession, 
absolutely, to the Maritime Canal Company to construct the 
canal, and if the company fulfill their part of the contract, 
how can they grant a concession to the United States Govern- 
ment or to any one else? We want the canal and we want it 
as soon as possible, and I believe we all ought to support the 
Morgan bill as the best that can be done under existing cir- 

With all respect to Mr. Noyes, we fail to 
see that his questions have anything to do with 
the case. The facts are that the United States 
has no rights or relations to the canal project. 
But there is^a universal feeling that the canal should 


January 19, 1896. 

be built, and that when built it should be owned by 
the United States. The Maritime Canal Company 
has offered to take the United States Government in 
as a partner if it will provide the money to carry 
the scheme through. Now, it is this partnership to 
which we object. If the Government is to put up 
the money to make the canal it should own and oper- 
ate it. The Rural is amonjif those who would like 
to see the Government acquire by regular and legiti- 
mate purchase all the interests and rights of the 
Maritime Canal Co.. and then build and operate the 
canal. We believe this would be the best course for 
a variety of reasons heretofore stated. We object 
to the Morgan bill because it seems to be in the in- 
terest of the Maritime Canal Company rather than 
the Government, and because, further, it would 
establish the canal under private ownership, which 
we think would limit its commercial advantages. If 
between these views and Mr. Noyes' letter there ap- 
pears to be no special connection, possibly it is be- 
cause we are looking at the principles of the matter 
and he at its details. 


More About the California Walnut. 

Rainfall and Temperature. 

The following data for the week ending 5 a. m., 
January 16, 1895, are from official sources, and are 
furnished by the U. S. Weather Bureau expressly 
for the Pacific Rural Press: 


Total Rainfall for the 

Total Seasonal Rain- 
fall to Date 

Total Seasonal Rain- 
fall Last Year to 

Average Seasonal Rain- 
fall to Date 

Maximum Temperature 
for the Week 

Minimum Temperature 

for the Week 




Red Bluff 













San Francisco 














Los Angeles 






















A Palermo orange grower informs the Rijkai, that an un- 
scrupulous buyer has shipped out large quantities of Palermo 
oranges, falsely branded "Redlands," one month before the 
Redlands product was ripe. Complaint is made because this 
practice is in itself a fraud and because, further. It prevents 
Palermo from gaining the reputation for earliness which 
rightfully belongs to her. 

Ix the southern part of the State there is an unusual de- 
mand for picliUng olives this sea.son. Good price.s are paid, 
and it is thought there will be few left for oil. The crop is 
estimated at 3.50,000 gallons. This will bring a goodly sum in- 
to the coffers of our southern friends, which is most gratify- 
ing when many approach any sort of production so gingerly. 
Aside from their crop of townsites, the people below Tehach- 
api aim to grow what there is a call for and they strike it 
pretty well. 

Local co-operation among fruit growers continues to be a 
very live interest in the southern counties. The Pomona 
Progress says: The deciduous fruit grovrers held another 
meeting on Monday to further consider the question of form- 
ing an organization similar to that of the orange gi-owers. 
There were thirty or more present from all parts of the dis- 
trict between Azusa and Cucamonga. The sentiment was 
unanimous in favor of forming a general organization to in- 
clude the same territory as the San Antonio Fruit Exchange. 
Another meeting will be held here on January 21st. 

Hog stealing appears to be a profitable and growing indus- 
try in the upper San Joaquin country. The Tulare RriiisUr 
says: " Among the ranchers who have been despoiled are 
John Stokes, who lost .50 head; Mr. Allen, who lives near the 
Coggeshall place, is out .3.5 (all he had I : John Mitchell lost 14 
or 15; Morehead and Carmichael, 14 altogether; George 
Bertch, 4.5: and a number have missed 1, 2 or .3. These lots 
have been taken mostly within the past three or four mouths. 
Added to hogs, there have been stolen harness, saddles, vari- 
ous kinds of tools, etc. The Southern Pacific Co. has lost some 
property from thieving and has had a detective at work 
whose investigations led from ties into the hog-stealing busi- 

A DISPATCH from Pomona, date of 8th inst., says: "The 
olive crop of southern California is being harvested now, and 
is proving to be one of the best in several years. In Pomona 
valley, where olives have been made a specialty, the crop is 
the best yet known. The total olive crop of southern Cali- 
fornia is estimated at 2.50,000 gallons. Of this, Santa Barbara 
county produces 70,000 gallons and Pomona valley 40,000. A 
feature of the industry this season is the fact that more 
orders from wholesale fruit dealers and hotel and restaurant 
keepers in the East havp been received already than have 
ever been known in any one season. It Is thought that there 
will be Buch a demand for pickled olives that few will remain 
for use in roakint' olive oil. Prices so far are high for pickled 

paying crops in 

To THE Editor: — My communication on the Cali- 
fornia walnut seems to have been misunderstood by 
Dr. Gunther. The point that I wished to bring out 
was the quality of the California nuts shipped from 
the southern part of the State, the only district that 
has made a regular business of nut growing and that 
has a crop in carload lots. The question is. How do 
the importers and wholesalers rate the California 
soft .shell walnut in comparison with the Grenoble ? 
This rating determines the price to a large extent in 
the Eastern market, and it was the lower valuation 
put upon the California soft shell that I brought at- 
tention to, not as to whether the various kinds of 
walnut trees would grow and bear 
all parts of the State. 

In 1891 I submitted samples of these soft shells 
to the brokers here and I was informed that they 
were not equal to the Grenoble (Mayette), and the 
brokers rated them with the ordinary French and 
Chili nuts, and they would bring about the same 
price. The samples of large second-generation Pr«- 
parturiens and Chaberte were the first California 
nuts the brokers said they had seen at that time 
that compared favorably with the best imported 
nuts; and from that information I have since planted 
alternately with trees and vines 1000 Mayette, 
second-generation Pr«parturiens and Chaberte 
trees. As these trees are all young, I am far from 
being disappointed in my venture, as I have yet to 
learn whether they will bear equal to the same kind 
of trees I saw bearing in Nevada county last fall. 

Mr. West of Stockton wrote me in 1892 that he 
had had good results from the Mayette. In central 
California nearly all counties report a few acres of 
bearing walnut trees, but as to the varieties or 
whether any one has planted for a regular business, 
the same as has been done in the southern part of 
the State, I am unable to say. The old Los Angeles 
nut has been planted more or less and it was a fail- 
ure. Man}' Prsparturien aud French trees of in- 
ferior variety have been set out, and the results from 
these trees would be misleading. 

The Doctor says that Mr. Cooper dug up his wal- 
nut trees. Can he tell us what variety they were ? 
This is very important, before determining whether 
the location or soil had anything to do with their 
failure. I am under the impression, from what I 
have read of Mr. Cooper's place, that he had planted 
largely to the old Los Angeles nut. I would also 
like to know if the Mayette trees that have been 
grown at Rivera, bear nuts up to the standard; if 
so, they can be sold here in competition with the 
Grenoble. Or was the soft shell given the prefer- 
ence because the trees grow faster and bear earlier 
and heavier crops ? 

Information which I have been able to get in New 
York this week about the present crop of California 
nuts sold here, only confirms what I said before — the 
soft shell is not equal to the Mayette. A good many 
brokers bought California nuts this year under the 
agreement that they would equal the Grenobles. 
They were disappointed in the quality of the nuts 
aud do not hesitate to say so. I take a certain pride 
in California's products and consider it my State, 
and when I am told that California cannot grow wal- 
nuts equal to the Grenoble, I rather differ, as I 
claim it is because the true Mayette has not been 
given a show. 

Sulphuring the nuts as done by some of the French 
and California growers is bad, as it seems to injure 
their keeping quality. The Grenoble, they claim, is 
naturally a bright-shelled nut. The Mayette nut is 
grown in the southeast of France, in the foothills of 
the province of Isere, of which Grenoble is the prin- 
cipal town and shipping point, 150 miles inland from 
the Mediterranean, with a climate very likely not in- 
fluenced by fogs which are thought necessary to 
make the California trees bear; now is it not this 
damper air of western France and the California 
coast that makes sulphuring of the shells necessary 
in order to have them look bright like the Grenobles ? 
I find the Grenobles here mixed with inferior nuts, 
which is done either before shipping or after arrival. 

This year the French crop was short and the ordi- 
nary French nuts are quoted at 9i cents here, an ad- 
vance of two or three cents over the average price; 
and it was owing to the short crop that more Cali- 
fornia nuts were bought in the East than ever be- 
fore. A good many brokers speculated in them, 
paying 8 cents in California and costing 10 cents 
here. The brokers thought that the California nuts 
were equal to the Grenoble which was selling here at 
a price that would allow a profit, but upon delivery 
they found that the California nuts were of the same 
grade as the ordinary French nuts, quoted at about 
9J cents; and instead of making a profit upon their 
purchase, they were lucky to come out even, some 
losing on their venture. It may be said that the 
California soft shell is all right, but it will be found 

that the same will never sell for the price the May- 
ette does in the East. Any one who has compared 
the two nuts can easily see why. C. L. Healt 
New York, Jan. 4, 1894. 

Olive Growing in Southern California. 

By JoHX S. Calkixs of Pomona, Cal., at the recent Farmers' 
Institute, Azusa. 

In complying with your request to contribute a 
paper upon the outlook of olive culture in California, 
I will aim to treat the subject from a practical 
standpoint, divesting myself as far as possible of en- 
thusiasm, as that is not generally regarded as a 
safe factor to enter into a business proposition. 
Still, a wise man has said that "Enthusiasm is the 
genius of sincerity, and truth accomplishes no vic- 
tories without it." We are told that the difference 
between riding a hobbj' and riding a hobby horse is 
that you get off the horse, but never get off the 
hobby. You will understand how this is emphasized 
in my case when I state that, following a natural in- 
clination, I engaged in the work of propagating trees 
early in life, which has been zealously continued up 
to the present time. Since 1878 my work has been 
in this county, and for the past six years confined to 
the olive. I trust my love for the pursuit will serve 
as an excuse for the enthusiasm which has been im- 
puted to me, and which I think is pardonable in view 
of the fact that I always manage to suppress the 
major part of it while discussing the subject. 

The question arises: Are the conditions here fa- 
vorable to the production of the fruit ? The many 
object lessons throughout the State in the shape of 
bountiful crops of olives answer that satisfactorily. 
It is in evidence that trees are in bearing this sea- 
son which were planted by the Mission Fathers a 
hundred years ago, and I know of trees in this 
neighborhood that bore a crop this year which were 
planted as yearlings in 1891. I have in mind at this 
time a young olive orchard in this valley of some 
fifteen acres, the yield of which this year is estimated 
at 8000 to 10,000 gallons. Still, persons continue to 
assert that the olive does not bear. Such false as- 
sertions tend to retard the industry and do harm. 
I will mention a case in point. About fourteen years 
ago a friend of mine procured olive cuttings with a 
view of raising an orchard, but was dissuaded by his 
friends from doing so, however. He planted a 
number, thinking that the trees they might produce 
would make hitching posts at least. Several of them 
grew into trees and have been in bearing for years. 
One season one of them bore fifty gallons. His of- 
ficious friends succeeded in steering him clear of a 
competency, which but for them he might now be 
enjoying. It is well known to those who are con- 
versant with the matter that the conditions in this 
State are specially favorable to the production of 
large crops of olives, and that the trees come into 
bearing several years younger than they do in Eu- 
rope. If the trees become unfruitful, or come to 
bear every other j'ear only, it may be attributed to 
the black scale or to neglect of rational annual prun- 
ing more than to any inherent defect or character- 
istic of the tree. By spraying my trees annually 
with the rosin wash at an expense of less than ten 
cents per tree, I have kept them clean and they 
have not suffered in the least degree from scale. It 
is believed that the ladybirds which have so com- 
pletely ridded olive and orange orchards of black 
scale in Santa Barbara county will be in time equally 
eflBcient throughout the State Olive trees bear 
their fruit on wood made the previous season, and 
the bearing branches in two or three years become 
partly or wholly unfruitful; so the rational method 
of treatment is to remove annually the unfruitful 
branches, having had in view in the previous pruning 
the retaining and promotion of new fruit-bearing 
wood to take their places. 

The next question is: Can the product be sold at 
a profit ? Up to this time the yearly output has 
melted away so that in a few weeks after being 
placed upon the market it is practically consumed. 
The stores here in Pomona pay the growers this year 
seventy-five cents per gallon for No. 1 pickles, and 
persons who buy olives from the growers to convert 
into pickles pay five cents per pound, which is about 
twenty-five cents per gallon; but most of the growers 
put up their own fruit. As a paying crop, the olive 
stands at least on an equal footing with any other 
fruit crop. Even the great returns which have been 
sometimes realized from the orange can be paralleled 
by the olive. It is fair to assume that the demand 
will keep pace with the supply. Olive-growing 
countries are olive-consuming countries. In the vi- 
cinity of Pomona, where pickled olives may be con- 
venientlj' procured for a short time each year, they 
are coming more and more into general use, the de- 
mand for them growing with their use. The do- 
mestic output as yet is so limited that comparatively 
few of the people ot this State ever have seen a Cali- 
fornia pickled olive. When the masses throughout 
the State can procure them, the quantity required 
to meet the home demand will be enormous. 

In the matter of olive oil the supply has never been 
sufficient to meet the demand, which is yearly in- 
creasing. The fear that pure olive oil will be dis- 
placed by cottonseed oil is groundless. It is no more 
likely to occur than that oleomargarine will super- 

Januaiy 19, 1895. 

The Pacific Rural Press 


sede butter. There is an industry springing up on 
this coast which will i-equire olive oil in large quan- 
tity. I allude to the canning of the genuine sardines 
with which the waters of our shores abound. Cali- 
fornia is expected to come to the front on this com- 

It is stated that the annual olive product of Italy 
is equal in value to the annual wheat crop of this 
country. In compliment to our climate, California is 
called the Italy of America. With our favorable 
conditions, may we not reasonably expect that some 
day we will be her peer in olive production ? 

T learn from the Treasury Department at Wash- 
ington that in 1893 this country imported more than 
half a million dollars' worth of pickled olives, nearly 
a million dollars' worth of alleged olive oil and nearly 
a million and a half dollars' worth of sardines. These 
goods find their way into the stores even here in Po- 
mona — an olive-growing center— but they cannot be 
sold while the home goods are to be had. The 
European pickled olives are put upon our markets in 
a green state and are unfit for food, and it is no- 
torious that the foreign oil is shamefully adulterated. 
Owing to these facts, the imported goods have not 
come into such general use as they otherwise would 
have done. Competing with Europe in the markets 
of this country, we will offer, as the supply increases, 
our mature, nutritious pickled olives and our pure 
olive oil raised within our borders on cheap acres of 
virgin fertility against her inferior product grown on 
her high-priced worn-out lands, and the issue will be 
in our favor. 

In conclusion, I beg to say that I do not assume to 
be master of my subject, being aware of my inability 
to present adequately the advantages of olive cul- 
ture, nor do I claim to be able to shed much light 
upon it; but as we are only fairly entering upon a 
great industry, I am willing at least to carry a lan- 
tern that those new in the work may gather a little 

Objections to the St. Ambroise Apricot. 

To THE Editor:—! have fifty or sixty St. Ambroise 
apricot trees in my orchard and do not like them 
very much and would like your advice. I dry most 
of my fruit and want them for that use especially. 
The apricot is whitish around the pit and shows this 
when dried even after a good sulphuring. This ap- 
pearance injures the sale. Is it a characteristic of 
the fruit or is it because the trees are young (six 
years old) ? 

The fruit is also liable to drop pretty heavily be- 
. fore maturing. Will this pass away with age, or 
- would you advise me to graft my St. Ambroise 
trees ? Robt. W. Burgess. 

Danville, Contra Costa Co., Cal. 

We fear the trouble complained of attaches to the 
variety and not to the age of the trees. A six-year- 
old apricot tree which has been well raised is old 
enough to behave itself. There are several varieties 
of apricots which do not have good character around 
the pit — some are lacking* in color in that part of the 
pulp; others assume an undesirable darkness. We 
would like to know what other growers conclude 
about the St. Ambroise. It is only about six years 
since it began to be largely planted, consequently its 
local points are not well known. Will not many 
growers who have handled it tell us if they have 
found the objectionable points Mr. Burgess men- 
tions, and what are their conclusions of the variety 
generally ? Such information will doubtless be ac- 
ceptable to many growers. 

San Joaquin Oranges. 

To THE Editor: — I send you down a limb which the 
wind broke off one of our orange trees. There are 
thirty-two fair sized oranges on it. They are not 
ripe yet, but I did not think that many people knew 
we were raising oranges in San Joaquin county, so I 
send this down to make known the fact. We have 
five acres of five-year-old trees with a crop of fruit 
on every tree almost as heavy as this sample branch. 
We have five acres of two-year-old trees also. The 
frost has never hurt the trees or fruit yet. This or- 
chard of 320 acres was owned and planted by the old 
W. R. Strong Co. of Sacramento, but is owned now 
by the Acampo Orchard Co. I am superintendent, 
and have been since the land was purchased from 
Senator Langford seven years ago. R. AdAiMS. 

Acampo, Cal. 

The heavily laden branch arrived in good condition 
and was as Mr. Adams has described it. We dis- 
played it prominently in our business cilfice for sev- 
eral days, where it bore testimony to the citrus 
adaptabilities of San Joaquin county. 

A KivERsiDE .MAN says he has kept oranges in good condition 
for eating since last April by packing them in dry sand. Sev- 
eral varieties of oranges were picked near Pomona on Thanks- 
giving Day that had hung on the trees all summer and were 
still In. good condition.,- they will not always retain their 
freshness so well.' 


Mr. Craw's Latest Report on the Rhizobiids. 

Alexander Craw, quarantine officer and entomolo- 
gist of the State Board of Horticulture, has just 
submitted a report on the colonization in this State 
of parasites and beneficial insects, particularly the 
Australian ladybug, Rldzohim ventralis. In view of 
the great interest in this subject among orchardists, 
who hope to escape scale insect injuries by the aid of 
these friendly insects, we give Mr. Craw's report in 
full, as follows: 

Considering the season of the year and the condi- 
tion of the weather just previous to the examination, 
I believe we can look for good results during the com- 
ing summer when the weather will be more propi- 
tious. In the experience of Mr. Ellwood Cooper with 
the original colony of this ladybird, it was over a 
year before they increased in numbers, and about 
seventeen months before he sent out colonies. A 
number of very strong colonies were liberated around 
Pomona, in the latter part of last September and 
early in October. On December 11th, in company 
with John Scott, county horticultural commissioner, 
and Inspector James Loney, I inspected several or- 
chards in Pomona, which showed indifferent but not 
discouraging results, for in most instances the trees 
are very large and the plantations are extensive, so 
that even if 1,000,000 winged beetles had been 
liberated it would be difficult to find them a few days 
later. In all places visited we found evidence of the 
beetles or larvae and a cleaner condition of the trees. 

In Mr. Packard's olive orchard the beetles and 
larvae had spread from the tree where the colony 
was placed. Here we found larvae of various sizes, 
from very small to fully developed specimens about 
ready to change into chrysalis. At Mr. Alfred 
Wright's olive orchard we found beetles and lar- 
vae of Rhizohms ventralis, aiso a few larvae of Rhi'- 
zobius debilis. The black scale had done considerable 
injury to the small inside twigs, but is not so plenti- 
ful now. Mr. Loney reported to me that the Rhizo- 
bius ventralis larvae were numerous in his orchard 
about one month previously. It was from this or- 
chard that Mr. Scott sent the parasitized ladybird 
larvfe that I reported to you on November 9th. Af- 
ter an examination of the orchard I feel convinced 
that they are young Exocliomus, and not centralis, be- 
cause the larvae are only found attached to the 
trunks and under side of the branches, a position 
that the latter species, even when very numerous in 
your orchards, never selected. At this and a subse- 
quent visit to Mr. Wright's orchard I collected the 
larvae of the Rhizohius ventralis in order to determine 
if they, too, are subject to the attack of internal 
parasites, but as yet there is no indication that such 
is the case. I will raise them until they pass through 
the larva form. The mature beetle is not subject to 
the attack of this internal parasite, so I will secure 
larvae of the Rhizohius centralis at different seasons 
in order to fully determine if they are parasitized. 

On December 12th, with Messrs. Collins and Mus- 
cott, horticultural commissioners of San Bernardino 
county, I visited the olive orchard of Supervisor I. E. 
Lord, at Cucamonga, where I placed a colony of 
nearly 5000 beetles on September 20th last. This or- 
chard was in a very serious condition when the lady- 
birds were liberated, nearlj' every leaf was covered 
with young black scale, and it appeared to be a very 
desirable location for a strong colony. During our 
examination a strong wind prevailed and our search 
was not very successful, but an inspection of the 
trees revealed the fact that hardly a scale remained 
alive. At the time that this colony was placed, an- 
other of about 5000 beetles was put in the Dwinelle 
olive orchard at the head of Euclid avenue, North 
Ontario. This orchard was in a more serious con- 
dition than Mr. Lord's, but at the present is as free 
from live scales. 

At Mr. W. C. Farlow's orange grove at North On- 
tario, where cononies of the Rhizubms ventralis were 
placed last fall, we could find very little scale. This 
orchard had also been very badly infested. Mr. Col- 
lins believes that the freedom of these orchards from 
scale must be attributed to heat after the young 
scales hatched, but it is a fact that we have had no 
hot days since the ladybirds were liberated. A tem- 
perature of 105° to 110° is necessary to kill the larvae 
of the black scale. As the scale is alive in several 
orchards at Ontario, Pomona and Riverside, where 
the climatic conditions were unquestionably similar, 
to some other cause than heat is attributable the 
disappearance of the scale in those orchards. It is 
claimed that several other orchards are equally free 
that were formerly infested with scale, and where no 
ladybirds were placed, but the fact that none were 
put in these orchards does, not prove that they did 
not reach thei-e themselves. In a former report I 
called attention to the fact that I found the larvae of 
Rhizobins ventralis at least one mile in a direct lino 
from where a colony was turned out, a low range of 
hills intervening in this instance. Inspectors Luney 
and Pease each called my attention to orange trees 
containing beetles and larvae, one orchard in Pomona 
and the other across the line in San Bernardino 

A' colony dl Rhizohius ventralis was placed in the 

Centenela orchard at Inglewood on September 23d, 
and upon examination of the trees December 14th I 
found larvae from very small to nearly full grown. 

I visited San Diego on the 17th and 18th of De- 
cember, and with W. R. Gunnis, county horticultural 
commissioner, inspected several places where colo- 
nies were put. The ladybirds have got a start here, 
and several orchards show their good work. The 
home orchard of Hon. Frank A. Kimball that was so 
seriously infested one year ago is now clean, and Mr. 
Kimball has distributed a great many colonies of 
ladybirds to his neighbors. We visited an olive or- 
chard about three miles from Mr. Kimball's, where 
Mr. Gunnis placed a strong colony about six days 
previously. The twigs of these trees as well as the 
leaves were completely covered with young black 
scales. This will be a good orchard in which to col- 
lect ladybirds the coining summer, as there is an 
abundance of food for them. 

On December 23d I visited an orange orchard in 
Ventura county with J. P. Mclntyre, county horti- 
cultural commissioner. A colony of Rhizohius ven- 
tralis was placed in this orchard in October, 1893, 
and no trace of them could be found for over a year, 
when they showed up, and on my visit the larvae as 
well as beetles were plentiful, besides a few Rhizohius 
(lihilis. Mr. Mclntyre reports the beetles and larvae 
as numerous in more interior districts upon lemon, 
apricot and olive trees. 

On December 26th, with Judson House, county 
horticultural commissioner, I inspected an orchard 
at Riverside, where I liberated a colony of Rhizohius 
ventralis on September 21st and found the larvae in 
various stages and on a number of trees away from 
where the colony was placed. 

The orchards of M. C. Heminway and Chas. R. 
Hails, near Goleta, Santa Barbara county, were 
colonized in September, 1893; and during September 
and October, 1894, Prof. T. N. Snow of Santa Bar- 
bara collected from these and adjoining orchards 
thousands of these beneficial insects and distributed 
them throughout his county and also sent several 
large colonies to other districts. At present these 
orchards are free from scale. 

Your own orchards are the most convincing proof 
of the great value of these ladybirds. The constant 
warfare against the scale, representing an annual 
expenditure of from $3000 to $5000 in your orchards 
alone, is now saved and your trees already show in- 
creased vigor. During the time I collected the 
Rhizohius ventralis in your orchard, the beetles were 
as plentiful as I ever saw the Vedalia card inalis •when 
the cottony cushion scale was being suppressed by 
that beetle. Over 1,000,000 Rhizohii have been col- 
lected in your orchai'ds and distributed throughout 
the State, which will in a short time save thousands 
of dollars to the orchardists, besides increasing the 
vigor and productiveness of their trees. 

I also examined the "steel-blue ladybird" {Orcus 
chalybeus) colony at Los Angeles. While this lady- 
bird does not increase so rapidly, nevertheless it has 
done very good work. The lemon and orange trees 
where they were placed now present a very marked 
improvement in growth and freedom from red scale. 
The beetles appear to be as plentiful in an adjoining 
orchard. The months of June and July are when this 
beetle shows up in greatest numbers. I would ad- 
vise that they be not disturbed for at least another 


Alfalfa in Colusa County. 

J. B. De Jarnette, Colusa.— 1 have had eleven years' 
experience with alfalfa, and have about 100 acres 
bordering on the Sacramento river. The soil ranges 
in depth from ten to twenty feet, and rests on a clay 
subsoil, while water is reached at a depth of from 
twelve to twenty feet. In sinking two wells on my 
place, the soil was found as follows: First twelve 
feet, decomposed vegetable matter; four feet of 
quicksand; four feet of clay loam; four feet ol hardpan; 
sixteen feet of yellow clay; six feet of hardpan; two 
feet of black sand, and, at forty-eight feet, coarse 
gravel. The ground should be thoroughly pulverized — 
the finer the better — after plowing at least twelve 
inches deep, and then seeded with not less than 
twenty-five pounds of seed to the acre. I have had 
the best results from sowing in the early fall, im- 
mediately after the first rains, using the "Gem" 
seeder, harrowing in with very light harrow, and 
rolling the ground well. The first crop is usually 
quite weedy, and of little value, but the second is 
better, producing one and a half tons of hay to the 
acre, if the stand is good. Stock of all kinds should 
be kept off the first year. There is no danger here 
of winterkilling, and by the second year the full yield 
is realized. The length of time the plant continues 
vigorous depends on the treatment. If pastured ex- 
tensively, it will require to he reseeded in from five 
to eight years; but otherwise it may go considerably 
longer. I invariably obtain three crops a year, 
averaging per acre for the first two and one half, and 
the others one and one half to two tons. I irrigate 
only in the winter, when the river is bank full, and I 
can turn in water from it. Alfalfa produces the 
best results with irrigation after each cutting, and 


January 19, 1895. 

in that case there are tive to seven cuttings obtain- 
able, where with winter flooding I secure the three 
jnly. I mow for hay as soon as the bloom begins to 
develop, raking in the afternoon following the morn- 
ing cutting, commence hauling about the third day 
after, and then put in the bai-n with plenty of salt. 
The third crop is given the preference for seed, and 
is harvested when the plant is well matured. I let 
it cure in the windrows and haul to the thrasher, 
handling as little as possible. The common yield of 
seed is from 100 pounds up, and according to the 
stand. The cost of my hay, on laud worth .*100 to $150 
per acre, does not exceed $2 per ton. and it sells for 
from $5 to $S, while seeds brings from eight to sLx- 
teen cents per pound. The hay after thrashing is of 
little value. The pasturage is unquestionably the 
most profitable 1 have ever had any experience with, 
supporting more stock of any kind to the acre than 
any other forage plant. In early spring, cattle are 
likely to bloat on the rank alfalfa, but after the first 
of June I have had no trouble. There is no special 
difiBculty in ridding land of the plant, and it is un- 
doubtedly as good for fertilizing as red clover or any 
other plant. 

C. P. Wilfton, Gntuil Isliiml. — I have had twelve 
years' experience growing alfalfa, with sixty acres, | mare, 
on upland with loam surface, the subsoil being also a 
. sandy loam. Water is found at twenty feet. In 
summer, the soil is dry to a depth of four feet. In 
preparing ground, it should be well pulverized; use 
fifteen pounds of seed per acre, broadcast, in early 
fall. Mow often, to keep the weeds down. If irri- 
gated in summer, two or three tons of hay can be cut 
the first year: if not irrigated, only one ton. Alfalfa 
is not liable to winterkill. I irrigate once or twice 
during the season, in June and August, after mowing 
or pasturing it closely, with about twelve inches of 
water. Irrigation water is obtained from a stream 
with a '"Herald " steam pump, run by a sixteen 
horse-power engine; the pump throws 350,000 gallons 
per hour (a foot deep on an acre). Alfalfa that is not 
pastured needs no more water the first year than the 
years following, but if pastured, much more is needed 
than in succeeding years. After the first year; I 
obtained six cuttings of one and one-half each, or.nine 
tons for the season. Cut for hay when the first 
blossoms appear, and for seed, when it is ripe. In 
this country, the first crop is cut for seed. The best 
treatment of the seed crop is to cut and stack while 
the dew is on in the morning. In good, dry weather, 
rake after the mower, put up in small cocks, and let 
it stand from three to five days. It is not liable to [ 
heat or mold. The total cost in the stack is about $2 
per ton. Land is worth $60 per acre. The cost of baling I 
is $2 per ton, the most convenient bale being 125 j 
pounds. The usual yield of seed is 400 pounds per acre; | 
expense of thrashing and cleaning, 40 cents per bushel. ' 
The ordinary thrashing machine is not satisfactory I 
without some changes, and an experienced man in 
charge. Hay averages $6 per ton and seed $4.50 per 
bushel. Alfalfa is a profitable pasture for any kind.l 
of stock. Cattle and sheep unused to it as pastur- 
age will bloat on it when wet from rain or dew, but i 
never when dry. As a remedy, I stand them with head j 
up hill and pour down a half pint of coal oil; as a j 
preventive, tie a stick in their mouths one and one { 
half inches in diameter. 1 consider the irrigated 
alfalfa superior in every way and for all purposes. 
If pastured, it will continue vigorously for ten years, ! 
and if not pastured it will never require reseeding. I 
It is not difficult to rid land of alfalfa. 

H. B. Ttirman, Cohiga. — I have had eight years" I 
experience in growing seventy-five to 150 acres of al- 
falfa on sandy, river-bottom land, the subsoil being 
sandy, made from Sacramento river overflowing. An 
abundance of water is found twenty feet from the 
surface. Land for alfalfa should be in good tilth; we 
sow thirty pounds of seed per acre, the first of April, 
with a "Gem "seed sower; cover one inch, with 
harrow made of brush. Cut it twice the first year 
to keep the weeds down. My land is between the 
levee and river, and irrigates itself when the river 
comes up with winter rains. Running water will not 
kill alfalfa; have had mine overflowed for thirty days. 
Some parties here irrigate by pumping from the 
river. More water is needed the first year than in 
later years. After the first year, I cut from three 
to five times; have obtained ten tons per acre when 
cutting four or five times. Cut for hay just as it 
begins to bloom; many make a mistake by letting it 
get too old. Have had but little experience with 
seed. Alfalfa hay should cure six to eight hours be- 
fore raking; stack with a derrick, and salt well. In 
stack, it costs about $1 per ton, from land valued at 
$80 to $100 per acre. Baling costs $3 per ton; size 
of bale has nothing to do with its keeping. The price 
of hay has averaged $6 per ton; seed, § cents per 
pound. I know alfalfa to be fine for milch cows, beef 
cattle, swine, or any other stock. It is profitable 
for horses and sheep. Alfalfa must either have irri- 
gation or very damp soil. The thrashed straw is 
worth about one-half as much as hay. It is good and 
profitable after the first year; after the second year; 
look it over and sow ten to thirteen pounds to the 
acre, to keep up a good stand and yield. It has proved 
very profitable. Like other crops, it must not be 
abused by pasturing when the ground is wet. The 
first crop should be cut, never pastured. Every 
farmer who raises it here makes monev. 


Notes on Live Stock Values. 

To THE Editor: — After attending the recent sale 
of show horses at the Mechanics' Pavilion in San 
Francisco, I find it interesting to compare prices ob- 
tained for the best specimens of horse flesh offered 
on that day with those obtained at some of the En- 
glish sales of Hackney and draft horses in 1894, 
which, though good there, must be anything but en- 
couraging, by comparison, to breeders and importers 
of the same in this part of the world. 

At a sale of Hackneys belonging to the Prince of 
Wales, fifty head sold for an average of $640 each, 

the highest price being $2360, which was paid for a | of $247 each. The sale was made up of seventy-four 

late Hugh Aylmer, of West Dereham, whose herd 
was favorably known wherever good Shorthorn 
cattle were known. Ninetv-one head were sold at 
an average price of $208. which included young 
calves, as before stated. Mr. Aylmer's cattle were 
chiefly, if not altogether, of •'Booth" blood. Of 
different breeding was the herd of the late Earl 
Bectrve, whose herd of fiftv-seven head made an 
average of $229.50. This herd consisted principally 
of Bates " blood, the late Earl being one of the 
buyers at the New York Mills sale in 1873. when he 
bought the Tenth Duchess of Geneva 
currency), a purchase, I believe, that 
occasion to regret, however large the 
pear to be at this time. 

One of the most i-emarkable sales of the year was 
the Scotch sale referred to — Mr. Duthie's, of Col- 
l.vnie — where thirty bull calves sold for an average 

for $35,000 (in 
he never had 
price may ap- 

brood mare, the next highest being within $100 of 
that figure. 

At another sale of forty-five head of Hackneys be- 
longing to Mr. F. Kelly, near Sheffield, in the county 
of Yorkshire, an average of $549 was obtained; the 
highest priced animal at this sale also was a brood 
which sold for $3175. I have at hand the 
prices of only two other Hackney sales, and they 
rank among the lower priced ones. Such prices 
would, however, be considered very good here. One 
hundred and eight head were sold at these two sales 
for an average of about $233, with prices ranging as 
high as $1800 for a single animal. Then, how do 
prices here compare with those for which draft 
horses sell in England ? Very unfavorably, I fear. 

About an average .sale as to prices is one where 
twenty-eight head of Shire horses were sold for an 
average of $320, the highest priced animal in this 
sale being no more than $445, which shows that 
there was nothing sensational in the prices obtained. 
A sale somewhat above the average was held at Nyn 
Park in the last week of November, when thirty-one 
animals sold for an average of $654 each. The sale 
included six yearling colts and four yearling fillies, 
also two foals of each sex, so that more than one- 
third of the animals were under two years old. The 
highest priced animal, again a brood mare, sold for 
580 guineas, equal to $3085. A two-year-old filly 
sold for $1500 and a three-year-old for $1575. while a 
colt of the latter age brought the same figure. These 
are not by any means the highest prices that draft 
horses have been sold for of late years in England 
and Scotland, yet they are high prices when com- 
pared with such prices as could be obtained in Cali- 
fornia even if we had the same class of animals of- 
fered: but they are not here, neither are they likel}' 
to be till some degree of confidence is restored in the 
draft-horse business, which will not be till paying i 
prices can be obtained by breeders. 


Among- other sale reports is one of the only flock 
of Merino sheep in England, which was descended 
from a consignment obtained from Spain by King 
George Third, sometimt-s called the " Farmer King. " 
with the object in view of helping the agriculturists 
to obtain a class of sheep that would yield the best 
quality of wool, but the breed never found favor as 
the other breeds were more suitable to the needs of 
English farmers. The bulk of the animals sold in the 
sale referred to were bought for exportation to the 
Cape of Good Hope and Australia, a few going to 
Prance. There wei-e 214 head (including 66 lambs) ! 
in the flock, which sold for an average of $16. which 
is probably more than they would have sold for in 
California at the present time. The highest price 
paid for a single animal was $68 for a yearling ram.. At 
the same time we find that a ram lamb of the Shrop- 
shire breed sold for as much as $260 at auction in 
England. The highest price paid for a sheep this 
year, .so far as I know, was for the Vermont-bred 
Merino ram Golden Drop, at the Sydney annual | 
stud-sheep fair, where this animal sold at auction for 
500 guineas— a sum equal to $2625, reckoning $5 to j 
the pound sterling. Golden Drop is said to have I 
been the best Merino ram ever imported into Aus- | 
tralia. At the same fair a Tasmanian-bred, long- j 
wool ram sold for $1385. This class of sheep, and 
also Southdowns, are said to have brought better 
prices than in 1893, which may be accounted for by 
the increased demand for a class of sheep suitable 
for the trade in frozen mutton, of which so much is 
now exported to England. This trade calls for a 
good plump carcass of meat, with round, thick 
thighs or " legs of mutton. ' good loins and a shoulder 
thick enough to yield to the carver a good slice 
when it comes to the table. 


Turning now to cattle, we find the same conditions 
prevailing in regard to comparative prices as in 
horses and sheep. Ask a man $200 for a bull here 
and, however good the animal, he would be apt to 
mark you down as one bereft of his proper senses; 
yet there were five sales of Shorthorn cattle in 
England, and one in Scotland, that made an average 
of over $200 a head, including calves; a total of 312 
animals being sold in the six sales, an average of 
fifty-two for each, so that they were not by any 
means small lots of cattle that brought these prices. 
The largest number was sold by the estate of the 

animals, that iu-ought an average (the above named 
bull calves included) of $202.50. 

There is one sale below the $200 average that I 
wish to notice, viz: that of Mr. W. J. Edmonds, of 
Southrop, who had been breeding Shorthorns for 
forty years. One of the only two Shorthorns that 
sold for over $10(10 in 1894. at public auction, was a 
yearling roan bull that brought $1075 in this sale, 
when eighteen bulls and bull calves sold for an aver- 
age of $206, the total of seventy-one animals in the 
sale averaging $186, which prices go to show that 
the breeder of milking Shorthorns and his work is 
appreciated, as well as the cattle themselves, in 
their own country as much as if not more now than 
they ever were, especially when the animals are of 
the strong, healthy and milking looking kind that 
these are said to have been. 


A number of animals, including the highest-priced 
bull, were bought for South America; not only in Mr. 
Edward s sale, but in several other sales w ere a num- 
ber bought at good prices for that land of low-priced 
beef, but, so far as I know, though I may be at fault. 
I only one was bought at auction for the United States. 
I and that a nhi'tf heifer, a descendant of an exported 
cow bred by the late Abram Renick of Kentucky, 
and now this heifer comes to what is practically the 
same herd of 'Rose of Sharon " cows from which 
her matf-rnal ancestor went, and is, in all probability, 
bought with a view to breeding a bull, for future use. 
I that has an infusion of the blood of English bulls in 
his veins. The use of a bull so bred, being of the 
} same family as the cows he is to be used upon, intro- 
duces fresh l)loofl into a herd without the danger of 
impairing the family likeness, such as is said to have 
existed in the late Mr. Renick s herd. The animals 
of which it was composed were described to me once 
' by a good judge of Shorthorns as being "'a wonder- 
ful herd, the cows are as like each other as so many 

Now. some may wonder why tliey buy high-priced 
bulls for exportation from England to Chile, Buenos 
Ay res and some other parts of South America, seeing 
that the price of beef is so low in these countries. 
We may rest assured that it is not for the gratifica- 
tion of a mere fancy, to be taken \ip for awhile be- 
cause it is the fashion, and then to be let go when 
people get tired of it. Such things have happened 
more than once in California on the introduction of 
any breed new to the State, when a few rich people - 
would buy high-priced cattle, as a pet fancy, to be 
! let go as soon as they got tired of it. and had found 
' by experience that there was not as much money in 
it as they expected. Such men don't make cattle 
breeders. To be a successful breeder of live stoek- 
for any length of time, a man iiiust consider, and 
ha\ c a greater liking for the animals than for the 
money they are likely to make bim.. .Not that he 
ought not to try all he can to make a financial suc- 
cess of the business; he would be in the wrong if he 
did not. 


The South Americans have undoubtedly found out 
that much — and more. For that reason they want 
a class of cattle that will make the best returns for 
the food consumed. The cattle they are buying and 
importing have been bred for generations with that 
object in view. The rapid assimilation of food in- 
sures a (juick growth. earl\- maturity and quick re- 
turns in both beef and dairy cattle. Hence comes a 
profitable improvement in the use of good, well-bred 
bulls. By well bred and good pedigrees I mean ani- 
mals that have an unbroken succession of good aut- 
iitiifs in their lineage for several generations back, 
such as have been bred and u.sed by breeders who 
have made a name for themselves and their cattle, 
who would never use an inferior beast for breeding 
purposes, or even an animal that was good in itself, 
if its sire and dam were not good, sound, healthy 
cattle. " I think naething of your bull, noo; he's got 
nae mother," said a Scotclunan after seeing the dam 
of a good looking bull that had been shown to him, 
and he was right. The introduction of a cross, 
whether of an inferior animal or of one that is of a , 
lower standard in both blood and breeding, is like 
putting a weak link into a chain intended to carry a 
certain weight. It will not stand the test required 


Baden, San Mateo Co. 

January '19, 1896. 

The Pacific ^ural Press. 


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The Pacific Rural Press. 

January 19, 1895. 


Send Them to Bed with a Kiss. 

O, mothers, so weary, discouraged. 

Worn out with caros of the day. 
You often grow cross and impatient, 

Complain of the noise and the play ; 
For the dav brings so many vexations. 

So many "things going amiss; 
But mothers, whatever may vex you, 

Send the children to bed with a kiss. 

The dear little feet wander often 

Perhaps from the pathway of right; 
The dear little hands find new mischief 

To trv from morning till night; 
But think of the desolate mothers 

Who'd give all the world for your bliss. 
And, as thanks for vour infinite blessings. 

Send the children to bed with a kiss. 
For some day their noise will not vex you. 

The silence will hurt you far more : 
You will long for their sweet, childish voices. 

For a sweet childish face at the door. 
And to press a child's face to your bosom 

You'd give all the world for this; 
For the comfort 'twill bring in your sorrow. 

Send the children to bed with a kiss. 

—National Stockman and Farmer. 

A Dream. 

There are times when a dream delicious 

Steals into a musing hour. 
Like a face with love capricious 

That peeps from a woodland bower. 
And one dear scene comes changeless, 
: A wooded hill and a river, 
A deep cool bend where the lilies end 

And the elm tree shadows quiver. 

And I lie on the brink there dreaming 

That the life I live is a dream. 
That the real is but the seeming. 

And the true is the sun-flecked stream. 
Beneath me the perch and the beaver sail by 

In the dim cool depths of the river. 
Th« struggling fly breaks the mirrored sky 

And the elm tree shadows quiver. 

There are voices of children away on the hill. 
There are bees through the flag flowers 

The lighterman calls to the clock, and the mill 
On the farther side is drumming. 

And I sink to sleep in my dream of a dream 
In the grass by the brink of the river. 

Whore the voices blend and the lilies end. 
And the elm tree shadows quiver. 

Like a gift from the past is the kindly dream, 

For the sorrow and passion and pain 
Are adrift like the leaves on the breast of the 

And the child life comes again. 
Oh, the sweet, sweet pain of Joy that died '. 

Of a pain that is joy forever ! 
Oh the life that died in the stormy tide 

That was once my sun flecked river .' 

—John Boyle O'Reilly. 

A Pair of Bloomers. 

Before bicycling became a craze with 
women there had never been even so 
much as a shadow of a quarrel between 
Mr. and Mrs. Cranston. But after 
Mrs. Cranston bought a bicycle and 
learned to ride well, there was a dis- 
agreement which came very nearly 
breaking up a happy home. They had 
been married three years, and they 
had often said that titieir married life 
had been one long honeymoon. 

Tom had yielded so readily to all of 
his wife's whims that she had uncon- 
sciously gained an opinion that her 
word was to him like the laws of the 
Medes and the Persians. 

But this idea was all knocked to 
pieces when one morning as they sat 
at breakfast Mrs. Cranston said: 

"Tom, I'm going to order my dress- 
maker to make a suit of bloomers for 
me to-day. I do so much bicycling now 
that the skirts are too heavy for me." 

" What !" shouted Tom, dropping his 
spoon in the oatmeal and splattering 
milk all over his necktie, looking at 
her as though she had announced that 
she was going to commit suicide. 

Mrs. Cranston also dropped her 
spoon and looked in surprise at her 

" I said." she repeated, " that I was 
going to get a bloomer suit. What 
strikes you as particularly strange 
about that ?" 

' ' What strikes me as particularly 
strange ?" ho repeated, with a wild 
look in his eyes. ''Do you think for 
one momen t that I will allow my wife 
to race around town looking like a 
lithograph of a variety entertainment? 
Xot much. ' 

" Rut, Tom," said Louise in a tone 
that had never failed to persuade her 
husband that she was right and that he 
was wrong, "'Idon tsee why I can't 
have bloomers. Mrs. Kynastun and 
Mrs. Bentloy and Mrs. Jounings all 

wear them and their husbands don't 
object, so why should you ?" 

It makes no difference why I 
should," said Tom doggedly. " I don't 
intend to have my friends on the ex- 
change coming to me and saying: 
'Tom, I see your wife's wearing 
bloomers.' Not if I know it." 
"But, Tom," she began, "I—" 
" Oh, don't talk any more nonsense, 
Louise," he broke in. "I am sick of 
it. You shan't wear bloomers, so that 
settles it," and Mr. Cranston, whose 
appetite had been taken entirely away 
by his wife's announcement, got up 
from the table and started for the door. 

" Good-by," he called from the hall, 
and then the door slammed and Louise 
sat at the breakfast table wondering 
how it was that she had never before 
known that her husband had a will of 
his own. 

She had told all of her friends only 
the day before that she would be wear- 
ing bloomers within a week, and when 
they had suggested that her husband 
might object, she said: 

"What! Tom object! Why, he 
never objects to anything." 

And now Tom had absolutely refused 
to allow her to wear them, with a facial 
expression which showed that he would 
not stop short of the divorce courts to 
prevent it. 

Finally she arose from the table and 
went to her room. 

She had an idea which she thought, 
if properly carried out, would gain 
Tom's consent to the wearing of 
bloomers. She wrote a hurried note to 
her dressmaker ordering a bloomer 
suit of a pattern which she had already 
selected, and then donned her old bi- 
cycle suit to pay a call on Mrs. Kynas- 
ton, who had a husband who did not 
object to bloomers. 

She told her troubles to the vivacious 
Mrs. Kynaston. who was not sparing 
in her sympathy for the poor friend 
who had a narrow-minded husband who 
objected to a convenient bicycle dress. 

Why, how foolish of him," she said. 
" I don't believe the poor man has ever 
seen a proper bicycling costume. I'll 
tell you what we'll do. We'll all go 
bicycling this afternoon, and come back 
by your house at just the time your 
husband gets home, and he will see 
what a bloomer suit looks like." 

And so the bicycle party was ar- 
ranged, and when Thomas Cranston 
arrived at his house that evening he 
saw five women riding in front of the 
house, and four of them were in full 
bloomer costume. The fifth, who wore 
skirts, was his wife. 

He was not so badly shocked as he 
thought he would be, and he wished 
that he had not been so decided in his 
refusal of his wife's request, but he 
made up his mind that it would be 
unmanly to yield after his remarks of 
the morning, and so with a bow to his 
wife and her companions he went 
indoors and began to dress for dinner. 

That night Louise again broached 
the subject of bloomers, but her hus- 
band silenced her by saying : 

" Now, see here, Louise, don't speak 
to me about bloomers again. You may 
go in for women's rights if you like, 
and you may wear standing collars and 
men's waist-coats, but you shall not 
wear trousers even if bicycling does 
justify it in your eyes." 

•'Trousers!" cried Louise, indig- 
nantly, " who said anything about 
trousers ? I was talking about bloom- 

" I know you were," said Mr. Crans- 
ton, ■' and please don't talk about them 
any more. I'm tired of it, and won't 
hear it mentioned again." 

The next morning when Mr. Crans- 
ton put on his coat to start for his 
office his wife called him back and said: 

"Tom, I'll promise you never to men- 
tion bloomers again, but if you ever 
change your mind about them please 
tell me, for I'm really very anxious to 
wear them." 

The smile which for twenty-four 
hours had been absent from Tom Crans- 
ton's face came again, and he kissed 
his wife. 

"That's a dear, good girl, Louise, ' 
he said. "I hated to refuse your re- 
quest, but really I don't like the idea 
of your wearing those things. And 

now, if there is anything else you want 
me to do for you just name it and I'll 
do it." 

He went away, but returned in a 
moment and called out: 

" Oh, Louise, I'm going to a dinner 
at the club to-night, and I want you to 
have my dress suit handy when I come 
home. Good-by." 

"Now, then," said Louise as she 
went upstairs, I'll see if I can't make 
Mr. Tom change his opinion about 
bloomers. That promise of his was 
the very thing I wanted." 

The hour longed for by both came at 
last. Tom entered the house and 
rushed to his room to put on his dress 

"Oh, Tom ! " Louise called, while he 
was dressing, " come down here; I 
want you to redeem your promise of 
this morning, and do me a favor." 

"All right!" he called; "I'll bo 
down in a minute, and I'll keep my 

He found his wife sitting on the floor 
with a dress pattern in front of her, 
and dress goods scattered all around. 

"Well, what's all this ?" he asked. 
" Are you making a rag carpet ? What 
is it you want me to do for you? If 
it's to clean up all this mess here I shall 
refuse, for I have some work to do next 
week. " 

"No," she said, laughing. "I don't 
want you to clean up the mess, and 
I'm not making a rag carpet. I'm 
making a bicycle dress, which I must 
have early to-morrow morning, and I 
want you to let me drape the skirt on 
you so that it will hang all right." 

"But, Louise," he objected, "I've 
got to go out to that dinner at eight 
o'clock, and it's now nearly seven. I 
won't have time. Let the dress go for 

"I can't let it go, for I must have it 

to-morrow morning," she insisted. 
"You've promised to do what I asked, 
and now when I want you to do a little 
thing like this you refuse, and I think 
it's real mean." 

Mrs. Cranston stood up holding a 
pattern in one hand and an unfinished 
dress in the other, and looked as though 
she were about to burst into tears. 

"Oh, come now, Louise," he said im- 
patiently. ' ' Can't you see that your 
request is trivial and unreasonable, 
and I must go to that dinner ? " 

The tears that had seemingly been 
held back with such an effort now be- 
came visible and rolled down her 

"I think it's mean," she sobbed. 
"You promised to do anything I 
wanted you to, and now you won't 
keep your word. I've cut up my other 
dress, and the bicycle party is of just 
as much importance as your old din- 

Mr. Cranston looked grave. He did 
not want to lose that dinner, and he 
did not want to break his promise. 

" How long will this fitting business 
last?" he questioned, after several 
moments' silence, broken only by the 
sobbing of his wife. 

"About half an hour," she replied, 
brightening up a little. 

"Well, then, hurry up, " said Crans- 
ton, throwing off his coat and stand- 
ing erect. " Bring the thing here." 

And so the gown was put on Mr. 
Cranston, and Louise dropped on one 
knee and began pinning the draperies 
in a hurried manner. 

■'You see, Tom," she said, as she 
tucked up the first fold and surveyed 
it with a critical eye, " this is of the 
greatest importance to me, and I know 
you will help me out." 

" Um," was the only answer her hus 
band made. He was looking straight 


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January 19, 1895. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 

at the clock, and wondering how it 
was that the minute hand was moving 
so fast. 

He thought the clock must be out of 
order. He pulled out his watch and 
saw that the minute hand moved with 
the same railroad speed, and it was 
7:30 o'clock. 

"Are you anywhere near through ? " 
he asked impatiently. 

She shook her head and turned her 
attention to the dress. Tom fumed as 
he noticed that it was now 7:45. 

"Have you any idea how soon you 
will be through ? " he asked with a 
forced calmness. 

"Not the slightest," she replied in a 
voice that was either muffled by pins 
or laughter. Tom couldn't tell which, 
for she was stooping and studying the 
hem of the dress. 

At that moment the door opened 
and Mr. Kynaston, the husband of Mrs. 
Cranston's bloomer - wearing friend, 
threw open the door and stood gazing 
in open-mouthed astonishment. 

"Why, Tom," he said, "I thought 
you were going to call for me if you 
left downtown first ? You know you 
told me so, and said if I got ready first 
I was to come here and walk right in. 
Are you going to the dinner ? " 

" This will be all over the exchange 
to-morrow," groaned Tom inwardly. 
"Yes, I'm going to the dinner if 
Louise ever gets through with this 
miserable skirt," he added, aloud. 
. "Oh, nonsense, why don't she wear 
bloomers ? Come on. We are late 
already," said his friend. 

" Louise," whispered Cranston, "if 
you'll call my promise off you may 
have bloomers or anything else you 

"Oh, you dear, good boy," cried 
Louise, with well - feigned surprise. 
"Go to your dinner. Now, hurry up, 
or you'll be late." 

Then Tom, after kissing her good-by, 
rushed off to the club. 

Louise put on her bonnet and went to 
Mrs. Kynaston's house. 

"Katie," she cried, as her friend 
welcomed her at the door, "I'm to 
have bloomers. " 

And then she told the story of the 
manner in which her husband had been 
induced to change his mind. 

And she said in conclusion: " I 
bought the bloomers yesterday, and I'll 
wear them to-morrow." 

"You really cried, did you ? " asked 
Mrs. Kynaston. "Well, Louise, if you 
went in for woman suffrage we would 
have it in twenty-four hours. Talk 
about men's executive ability ! Why, 
I believe you could make your husband 
wear bloomers himself." 

"Once in New England I was driv- 
ing with an old farmer, and some of the 
men of the neighborhood came under 
criticism. Speaking of a prominent 
man in the village, I asked, ' He is a 
man of means ?' 

' ' ' Well, sir, ' the old farmer replied, 
'he ain't got much money, but he's 
mighty rich.' 

' He has a gfreat deal of land then? ' 
I asked. 

" 'No, sir, he ain't got much land, 
neither, but still he is mighty rich. ' 

"The old farmer, with a pleased 
smile, observed my puzzled look for a 
moment, and then explained. 

"'You see, sir, he ain't got much 
money, and he ain't got much land, but 
still he is rich, because he never went 
to bed owing any man a cent in all his 
life. He lives as well as he wants to 
live, and he pays as he goes; be don't 
owe nothing and he ain't afraid of 
nobody, he tells every man the truth, 
and does his duty by himself, his 
family and his neighbors; his word is 
as good as a bond, and every man, 
woman and child in the town looks up 
to and respects him. No, sir, he ain't 
got much money, and he aint got much 
land, but still he is a mighty rich man, 
because he's got all he needs and all he 
wants.'"— The Outlook. 

The two chief things that give a man 
reputation in counsel are the opinion of 
his honesty and the opinion of his wis- 
dom; the authority of those two will 
persuade when the same counsels ut- 
tered by other persons less qualified 
are of no efficacy or working. — Jonson, 

Grandpa and the Dos:. 

" A young girl of my acquaintance," 
says Dr. Galen Wilson, " keeps house 
for her grandfather, who is a farmer. 
She has a Scotch collie dog which she 
can send to call her grandpa to his 
meals, or bring him to the house at 
anytime, no matter in what part of the 
farm he may be. All she needs to do is 
to point in the right direction, and say 
to the dog, 'Go and bring grandpa.' 
With a bark to let her know that he 
understands the order, he bounds off as 
fast as his legs can carry him, finds 
the object of his search, jumps up 
against him, and continues to do so 
until the man starts for home. He 
does not leave him and hurry home, 
but comes along with him. Reaching 
home, he barks at his mistress in ap- 
parent triumph, as much as to say, ' I 
have brought him. ' If he meets grandpa 
in the fields upon any other occasion, 
he does not jump against him as when 
sent especially for him. The dog was 
trained to do this as follows: Grandpa 
was in the barn one day, with the door 
open, and so the girl could see him. 
She told the dog, ' Go and tell grandpa 
to come to dinner.' The latter heard 
it; and, when the dog came, he said, 
fondling him, ' Did you come for me, 
Colonel ? ' The dog jumped against 
him, barked, and seemed much pleased, 
and proceeded with him to the house, 
when he was immediately rewarded with 
something to eat. Then grandpa and 
the girl came to an understanding to 
improve upon this, until now the dog 
will find him, not only anywhere on the 
farm, but at other places, -a mile away, 
where grandpa is in the habit of going. 
For this purpose he is better than any 
boy. He goes quicker, and never stops 
to play by the way." — The Evangelist. 



Hints to Housekeepers. 

To love our neighbor as ourself is 
such a fundamental truth for regulat- 
ing human society, that by that alone 
one might determine all the cases in 
social morality. — Locke. 

It is better by noble boldness to run 
the risk of being subject to half of the 
evils we anticipate than to remain in 
cowardly listlessness for fear of what 
may happen. — Herodotus. 

The whole art of making a good 
speech is to have something pertinent 
and moving to say, to say something 
all the time, to say it vivaciously, and 
if it is religious speech, to say it with 
religious feeling, and to stop when 
every one wishes you to go on. — J. M. 

It is said that cucumber peels will 
kill cockroaches. 

Wood ashes are excellent to clean 
discolored table ware. 

To remove egg stains on silver, rub 
with salt on a damp cloth. 

Steel knives may be cleansed by rub- 
bing with a raw potato dipped in fine 

For nausea scorch some rice, pour 
boiling water over it, and drink as hot 
as possible. 

Some people claim that a very de- 
lightful zest is added to a cup of tea, 
especially if it is sugared, by a little 
juice of a lemon . 

Rub your stoves and stovepipes 
which are to be put away for the sum- 
mer, and also the nickel plate on the 
stoves and other pieces, with kerosene. 

Instead of keeping ice in a dish, 
where it will quickly melt, tie flannel 
loosely on the dish so that it drops into 
the bowl, and keep the ice in a flannel 

This is the proper way to peel toma- 
toes: Cover them with boiling water 
half a minute, then lay them in cold 
water until perfectly cold, and the 
skin can be peeled off without difficulty, 
leaving the tomatoes unbroken and as 
firm as they were before being scalded. 

Cleanse light summer woolens which 
are easily soiled, with finely powdered 
French chalk. The soiled parts should 
be thickly covered with the chalk, 
which should be allowed to remain for 
one or two days, and then removed 
with a camel's-hair velvet brush. In 
most cases this treatment will cause 
the spots to disappear. 

When the hands lack softness, gly- 
cerine and oatmeal are sometimes very 
useful. Rub the hands first with pure 
glycerine, but if this is irritating dilute 
it with one-half its bulk of rose water. 
Dip the hands freely in the oatmeal 
and put on gloves. This will finally 
soften the most obdurately hard hands. 
Our grandmothers used to use bran in 
very much the same manner. 

A novelty has recently appeared at 
Chemnitz in the shape of hosiery, the 
new idea being to make it possible to 
repair hosiery so that it will appear as 
if new. To this end, fast seams in the 
mesh are made across the toe, ankle 
and heel. If, therefore, a hole appears 
in the toe, it is cut off and a new one 
attached, which is easily and quickly 

done by^ hand, the seams appearing 
practically the same as when new. In 
like manner the heel is repaired, or in 
case of " general debility " the whole 
foot can be removed by cutting it off at 
the ankle. In order to make it possi- 
ble for all to repair their own stock- 
ings, it is the design of the manufac- 
turer to furnish with every dozen pairs 
of hosiery one dozen extra pairs of feet, 
three dozen pairs of toes and three 
dozen pairs of heels. 

White Sauce. — Infuse in a pint of 
boiling cream the peel of one lemon, 
half an ounce of white pepper corns, 
some thyme and a bay leaf, leaving 
them in for half an hour. Melt three 
ounces of butter and stir in two ounces 
of flour, fried without coloring, add the 
prepared infusion, straining through a 
fine sieve, and the juice of a lemon. 
Set the saucepan on the fire and stir 
well till it boils, then leave it for a few 
minutes and incorporate into it three 
ounces of fine butter. 

White Fruit Cake. — Three-quarters 
of a pound of butter, one pound of 
sugar, a scant poimd of flour, ten eggs, 
one nutmeg, the grated rind and juice 
of one lemon, one pound of almonds; 
shell and blanch the almonds and cut 
very thin. 


She (coyly)— Am I the only girl you 
ever loved ? 

He (confidentially) — Well, no, my 
dear. I can hardly say as much as 
that; but you are the only girl I love 
at present. — Somerville Journal. 

"My wife," said young Mr. Fitts to 
a group of others of his ilk, " takes it 
as an insult to her sex if I make un- 
kind remarks about any other woman, 
and as an insult to herself it I make 
kind ones. What the deuce is a fellow 
to do ? " 

The oldest married man in the party 
advised him to do nothing. — Indianap- 
olis Journal. 

"I've been pondering over a very 
singular thing." 
"What is it?" 

' ' How putting a ring on a woman's 
third finger should place you under 
that woman's thumb." — Life. 

The Bachelor — Do you let your wife 
have the last word ? 

The Married Man— Do I let her? 
Young fellow, when you've been mar- 
ried a year or two you won't ask such 
a question as that. — New York Press. 


Absolutely pure. 



official re- 
port shows 
Royal Baking 
Powder chemical- 
ly pure, yielding i6o 
cubic inches of leaven- 
ing gas per ounce of pow- 
der, which was greatly in 
excess of all others and more 
than 40 per cent, above the average. 

Hence Royal Baking Powder 
makes iFie lightest, sweetest 
and most wholesome food. 


Jamiarj^l9, 1895 


The Carnation. 

Head by F. A. Miller, of San Fraucisco. at the 
last meeting of the State Floral Society. 

The charming flowers of carnations 
were at one time universal favorites, 
and attracted more attention than any 
other Hower up to about ISod; ])rior to 
that time more varieties were known 
than at present. The reason for ne<,'- 
lect is certainly unaccoim table; how- 
ever, since in 1885 the carnation once 
more began to assume its old i))ace. 
and now bids fair to become more pop- 
ular than ever. At the present time 
over 200 varieties are cultivated in this 
country, and new varieties are con- 
.stantly being produced by fertilization, 
and no doubt the near future will show 
such improvements that it will be a 
fair rival to the rose and attain more 
popularity than the chrysanthemum. 

The actual work of cross-fertilization 
of the carnation was begun so much 
later than that of the rose and chrj'- 
santhemuin that we may profit a good 
deal from the e.xperiencc with tlic lat- 
ter in the improvement of the former. 

Laycra <t>i<f Cuttlni/.s. — Pi'opagation 
of existing varieties may he effected 
by layers or cuttings, while new varie- 
ties are ])roduced from seed. The 
propagation by layers is readily accom- 
plished. The best time for this 
method is July and August, although 
it may be done successfully at almost 
any time in this climate. The layers 
will generally root in four or five 
weeks. The operation is simple: Se- 
lect a stem with partly old and partly 
young wood; make a slit with a sharp 
knife at the base of the \oung wood 
upwards, extending through a joint or 
two. so as to form a tongue; peg down 
the layer rather firmly and add suffi- 
cient light, sandy soil to cover the in- 
cision to the depth of an inch or two, 
and keep the ground moist. 

The propagation by cuttings is pi-ac- 
ticed generally. The cuttings are 
made of young wood, and long enough 
to have a firm base; insert them firmly 
in clean sanfj and cover with a sash 
in a shaded position, or with thin 
cloth. The cuttings may be made with 
a heel or cut just below a joint; they 
should be well watered after planting, 
but too much dampness must be 

Sfrdliiii/ ('rinititii'iis. — The raising of 
carnations from seed is a most sati,sfac- 
tory way and very interesting. Much, 
of course, depends on the quality of 
seeds and the manner in which the 
seed was obtained. Most of the seed 
sold is not hybridized artificially, and in 
this case no great results can be ob- 
tained from that source. Carefully 
hybridized seed is too expensive to be 
retailed, and can only be bought by 
the 100 or 1000 seeds. Any one who 
has a collection of good carnations can 
readily produce seed, by ])roper hybrid-, 
ization. which will give excellent results 
in the production of new varieties, 
and, furthermore, it is one of the most 
fascinating pastimes any one can en- 
gage in. In the East many amateurs 
and practical florists are now engaged 
in the raising of seedling carnations, 
and many of them would no doubt en- 
gage in this pleasant exi)eriment if 
thej' knew how. Looking at your 
flowers, you will find .some showing the 
pistils very prominently; are the 
pistillate or female parents. Then we 
find other flowers which show the sta- 
mens very conspicuously; these furnish 
the pollen with which the pistillate 
flowers are fertilized. The ])ollen will 
readily adhere to a fine, soft brush and 
is then applied to the pistillate parent 
of any other flower. Tf this operation 
is performed between flowers of a most 
contrasting color quite a variety may 
be obtained, and if the operation is 
performed between flowers of the same 
color, superior varieties of that color 
may be obtained. I may mention here 
that Mr. Carl Kruger has hybridized 
lately most of his best carnations, and 
he has now a fine lot of young seed- 
lings which will come into bloom the 
coming summer. I fully expect some 
good things from his effort in this di- 

In case vou have no collection of car- 

nations to experiment with, and you 
! are ahxlolisToTiave "a collection of gosa 
varieties, then you must rely on ob- 
taining the best" quality of hybridized 
seeds from dealers. 1 have now a fine 
lot of seedlings of that description. The 
seed was planted last spring and most 
of the plants show signs of flowering 
now. If I succeed in keeping them 
through the next three months, 1 will 
certainly be able to show .some very 
good carnations. The best seed obtain- 
able in this line will always produce 
ninety per cent double Howers, and 
many of them in such colors as are not 
oft'ered for sale in nurseries. 

I shall be pleased very much if ever}' 
member of the State Floral Society will 
make an efTert in this direction, and 1 
am sure that the result will be very 
gratifj'ing. For fifty cents about 100 
seeds of the vei-y best strain can be 
obtained from responsible European 
growers, and sure to give satisfaction. 

Curniiliiiiii! in San Frantisin. — The 
growing of carnations out of doors in 
San Francisco is not very satisfactory. 
Soil, fogs and injudicious watering 
have a great deal to do with our poor 
success; a few roots seem to do well for 
years, while others — yes, many others 
— have only a short existence. We 
have never looked seriously into the 
probable cause of these failures, but 
I think time will demonstrate what i 
varieties can be grown satisfactorily j 
i and how to remedy the evil. 

Seedlings I have found to do better 
here than most kinds raised from green- 
, house cuttings. A carnation may be 
j very satisfactory to the grower under i 
glass, and yet may be vei'y unsatisfac- 
I tory if grown in the open air. Again, 
some carnations thrive well in sandy ( 
loam- -yes, even in our common sand 
— while others seem to do best in heavy \ 
.soil. At all events, the soil should be 
' well drained. I^xcessive rains during 
winter, following continuous irrigation 
during summer and fall, are very dan 
gerous to carnations if the soil is not 
well drained. .All these circumstances 
and conditions, and many others which , 
1 have no time to mention now. should 
receive due consideration; and I repeat 
again that there Is much to learn in 
carnation culture. 

ApprdI ti, Aiii'itiiiia. — The interesting 
subject of hybridizing should receive 
j more attention from our amateurs, who 
have more time to devote to such 
I work than professional men, and I may 
justly say that a beginner in hybridiz- 
ing ma}' effect a cross between two 
varieties and, not knowing what the 
i effect would be, may achieve a greater 
result than a professional who might 

! exi)erinient on a large scale. 

The re))ort on a recent exhibition of 
; carnations in New York may be men-J 
tioned here. It say§; "The display-^ 
< of carnations was this season decid- 
edly pleasing, both to the management 
. and exhibitors, as well as to the 
: flower-loving public, and received fre- 
quent and deserved praise.'' The feat- 
j.ure of the exhibit was the large num- 
[ ber of seedlings, "which showed decided 
I improvement upon older sorts, and 
, which shows a development of the car- 
I nation similar to what has taken place 
■ in the rose and chrysanthemum. With 
new and improved varieties-, improved 
in habit, color, size of flower, strength 
of stem and fragrance, and with bet- 
ter and more intelligent culture, there 
is no reason why we should not have 
three or four — yes, five and six — inch 
carnations on stems ranging from two 
to three feet in length, as well as ten- 
inch chrysanthemums on four-foot 
stems. Variety and cultivation accom- 
plished wonders for the chrysanthe- 
mum, and variety and cultivation, 
when understood, will accomplish won- 
ders for the carnation as well. 

F. A. Mii.i.KH. 

215 Hayes St., S. F. 

gHplCE ^0SE&AT3(!en1s 

'of 20 ROSES FOR $ 1. ^B^y^iSilS 

The U<w*»B wfl f*en«l are on their own roots, from U' to l.'> 
inches high, niid wilt bloom freely ihis Summer. Giihnr in 
jKJtH or itUnle*! in jani. They are harflj c\fr hloomern 
Ple«He examine the below liM of 30 choice frntimnt monthly 
Rowes. nnd t-ef if yon con dnclicaie them nnxwhere for an 
amminr w> liw ♦ I . They nrf nenrl y «1 1 nfwVindu, We 

cn.irfiMt.^H tl.f ni u^ rf^u'li >on i ii k'oo.l cMndit ion. ind w*- alfo 

rhnmplon ofthr ^'orld, briffhlebt pink, the beet rot>e ever 
introdnc«d Henry M. f^tanli-y, apricot yellow, verj fragrant. Pe»H 
<*f the (■BT^t iiM. deep golden yellow. RrMeHmatd. rich pink, none 
better The Qiic<'fi. pure white, alwayp in bloom C'hHutlne de >oue. 
rich raFirw>n nnd deiicioiicly sweet. Princof»« of \Vnl<-«, timber yellow, 
deepening to ornnKP Rhtdncold. beontiful f.hBdeH of finffrnn nnd tan. Star 
of <'old. the queen of ali yellow rrwe^ . W abun. a creat robe. in bloom all the 
time. <-oIdrv.f<nte. <Tenmy white nnd old t-old. Frant'Ucn Kru^cr. coppery 
yellow ftnd iea<*h Th«- Bride, the loveliest of a]l white rofao Qneen'* 
ftrarlot. ricbe?* dnrk vplvpty robe I'rlnfcwi BcBtrU-c, rnnen yejlow, edged 
bright roee, Ktolle Av Ljon, rirhest de«p pulphiir yellow, Sooventr of 
Wootoit. richest rnmf=on. in clupterp Cntherlne Mermet. everybody'* 
favorite. Md. f nmlUe. beantiful salmon and rof>y flefh. Hd. C'nroltne 
TeMoiit. laree hand'^ome flower? of ^lowins pink. 
\\\- nlll nNo ftond o«r Iron Clad ( nllrrtlon of I t lliird.r Rn«e». all different color*. $1. Try ■ wet. 
'^{\ i hryHanth^ninm«. all prize- wliitifr*. 91 ■ 1 A ^ernnlumft. dnnhio and Klnsle. flowered nnd nccntcd. t1 ■ 
lo cholrc UrcoiiliiPk. dlfftr^nt klndn. HI. 40 packet* cholre Flower <i<-ed*. nil dlfTerent L.tndt> Our 
handFonte. illu'-lrHted ^'itijilok'ne de«cribinc above Cn^o';, Plitn^P ;rnH all Peedt. mailed for 10 eta. MBmpf. 
iKin't pla< e your order h^forf -^emi: nnr price' WVE CAN SAVE VOU MONEY. Me have htrffr two year 
, old ro»r» r»r Imm* diatc efi't't. Liberal premiums In nlub rai'-erti, or how to pet vonr seed^ and plBntt- froe. 
1 Weiireihe LARGEST ROSE GROWERS IN THE WORLD. Onr*ale*of Rom- Plant* alone laat iM^avnn 
I eti eedrd h mlllinn Hnd a half. When you order HrtRPs. I'laiita and pMPd«, von want 'be verv he«t Try u*i. 

^GOOD & REESE CO., Box 143 Champion Greenhouses. Springfield, Ohio. 

< fOUtH"!. 

RL^ums! Orange Trees. 

" Pluin.s — tell your people to grow the best 
Ivnns: the.v h-H1 always And a good market." 
So said several of the largest handlers of fruits 
in Chicago when the question was asked them re- 
cently, " What is the most profitable fruit to plant 
now * " 

Clyman. Kurbank. 
Satsiuna. Tragedy. 
Grand Duke. SlmoD. 

Mikado. Normand. 
Kelsey. Diamond. 
Ickwonh. Pond. 

Write for prices, which will 

These are the best, 
be made very low. 

Also, almost erervthing else in the Fruit and 
Nut Tree line. Seeds, Bulbs. Plants, etc. 



James A. Anderson, 

Lodi, San Joaquin County, Cal. 

Has a Choice Stock of YEARLINQ NURSERY 
TREES for this season's plantirig. OuaraQteed 
free from disease and Insect pestg. and at prices 
to suit the times 

BleDheim. Royal and French Apricots 

Hungarian, Tragedy and French Prunes 

Burbank, Satsuma and Kelsey Plums. 

Xe Plus Ultra, La Prima, Texas Prollflc, I. X L . 
Nonpariel and Languedoc Almonds. 

Salway, Crawford. Mulr and twenty other rari- 
eties of Peaches. 

Also Nectarines, Apples, Pears, Cherries, Flg«, 
Oranges, Lemons, etc. 

Your prices are mine. Don't forget to write for 
particulars. Correspondence solicited and cheer- 
fully answered. Address all communications, 
J. A, ANDERSON, Lodi, Cal. 

Itudded trees of the leading varieties, one and 
two-year budo, al»o needling trees from 
one to four years old — all good, thrifty 
stock, free from scale. 

Also, a general variety of 

Nursery Stock and Trees. 

Prices lo suit the times 

Oroyille C™ Associ™?, 




French and Rnbe de Sargent 




Box 55 7 . Santa Clara, Cal. 



No Irrigation. 

Growers of all the Lectdlng; 
Varieties of F'rult Trees. 

. . (Xirrespondence solicited. 

JAS. O'NEILL & SON, Haywards, 

Alameda County, Cal. 


im. 1^ 1— < im. T T 1 PRPNrw PPIINP RARTIPTTPP4 


- — KOR 


Spark's Mammoth 


Prices to Meet the Times. 

First -Class Fruit Trees. 


Grower and Dealer in 
Ge-ne-ral IVursery Stock. 
Salesyard, Cor. Third and Davis Sts. 

Please send for Price Lists. 

223 Third St., Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, Cal. 


OHx/e^ Trees, 

Mission and Nevadillo, 

Three- 'if ear-Old Slock. 

4 to 6 Feet an* 6 to 8 Feet High. 



Apple, Peach, Cherry, Apricot and Almond 

Kirst Class Trees at %-ery low prices. 

E. GILL, Nurseryman, Oakland, Cal. 



For Sale at $10 per Thonsand. 

Also, a tine lot of Winter Nells and Bartletl Pear 
Trees, six to eight feet hinh, at prices to suit the 

■Vut»a City, Sutter Co. Cal. 

r— > «— 7 1—7 A PINE ASSORTMENT. 

I ■ ^ best varlcllea. free from 

— AND pt'Sts of any kind. Pruiiua 

DI 1VinP^2 Sii»c»nl, Itlnfr, RoNtraver 

I Ik— r~\ 1^ 1 and iMurdooii Cherries: 

Klack CHlIfornla F1k»; Klee Soft Shell and 
other Almoudf*: American Sweet Cheatuuts; 
Praoparturlens Walnuts. Hardy mountain srowii 
Orange Trees. Our orauees have stood 22 decrees 
this winter without Injury. Dollar .Strawberry, 
the best berr.v for home use or market. Address 
C. M. SILVA & SON, Uneolii. Placer County. 

Befoie purchasbing elsewhere' wrlte^^ — 
H. B. SMITH Ventora, Ventnra Co., Cal. 

JOHN 1. PACKARD, olive nursery; 

■ ' ' Send for C:itiilus;ue. 

Pomona, California. 


Pnmona, Cal. 

January 19, 1895. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


FRENCH PKUNES on Myi-obolan. 
APPLES, leading varieties on imported French 
PEACHES, leading varieties, 
CHERRIES, leading varieties in one and two- 
year-old trees. 


Also, Monterey Cypress, Pines, Spruces, 

Palms and other Ornamental Trees and Shrubbery 
at low rates. 
Also, Roses. Azaleas and CaiuelUas. 

Send for Wholesale Price List for Nurserymen 
and Dealers only. 

E. J. Bo\A/en, 


Alfalfa, Grass, Clover, Vegetable 

and Flower Seeds. — Onion Sets. 

Largest Stock and Most Complete Assortment. 

Send for large illustrated descriptive and priced 
Catalogue, mailed tree. 

New crop Salt Lake Alfalfa. Inquire for samples 
and prices. 


815, 817 and 819 Sansome St., San Francisco, Cal. 
65 Front St.. Portland, Or. 
Or 214 Commercial St., Seattle, Wash. 


Larg:e Stock of Unirrigated Trees 

on whole Seedling Roots, warranted free 
from scale and root knot. Prices low. 
Cherries, Qrapes, Nut and Shade Trees 
very low. All leading varieties. 
Normand, Abundance, Willard and Simoni 
Plums; Hungoume Japan Apricots > Early 
Bearing Apples, and Earliest Yellow 

New Price List Free. 

R. W. BELL, 


FINE SMALL F RUIT S a specialty. 


Beat Market Berry known: large, rtrni and lus- ' 
clous, stands travel finely, bears Immensely, and 
has two crops a year; oil eenls per dozen; $'A per 100. 
A1.SO Strawberries. Blackberries, Gfoosfberrles, Cur- 
rants, etc.. of the finest Imported varieties. Prices 
on application. L. I'. McCANN, Santa Cruz, Cal. 


Citrus and Deciduous Trees, 


lu the State, at tbe Home Nurseries, Pasadena, Cal, 

One and two-year-old Orange and Lemon Trees, 
the Huest and thriftiest stock ever grown any- 
where, and all the best varieties, also Pomolo • 
(Grape Fruit), and the Japanese Red Daucy Tan- 
gerine Orange; also the best deciduous ' trees. 
Raspberries, Blackberries and the Wouderfnl'. 
Everbearing and other tine varieties ol .Strawber- 
ries, Nothing but the best of all varieties of 
Fruits and Nuts. Don't fail to write for prices to 
HEWITT & COKSON, Pro'ps, Pasadena, Cal. 

Olive Trees. 

our Book on Olive Culture. 

How/land Bros., 


01i\/e Tr^^s 


For prices and a pamphlet on Olive Culture, ad- 


Pomona, Los AnKeles Co., Cal. 


Louisiana, Mo,, for free sample copy teUliif about It, 
-•V practical Fruit and Farm paper, published by 
Stark Bros,, 40c a vear; circulation, 4601X10 copies. 
The " Cream of the Cream"— gives the busy Fruit 
Grower or Farmer, who hasn't the time or the money 
to buy and read a great mass of papers, what is best 
from them all, what he wants to know. 

To Orange-Growers. j. K. ARMSBY 

The largest crop and best grade of fruit can only be obtained 
by using fertilizers containing^ 


Not Less than 1 20/0 Actual Potash. 

This is equally true of pine-apples and other tropical fruits. 

Our books on Potash are sent free. They will cost you nothing to read, and will sava 
vou dollars. GERMAN KALI WORKS, 93 Nassau Street. Nevir York. 

MEYER, WILSON & CO., fJIO Battery Street, San Francisco. Sole Ag:ents for the Paeilic t oast. 


.^^atl^ S.4N .TOSK, CAL. j—a 1 

Agricultural Imple^m^nts. 


''^^^gOjlSS!^^ Write for Circulars aud Prices, Sent free. •^S^'™VWm»^^ 

Store Your Grain ITUhere Your Best ;;"^sssB»-^ 
^—BflE^ Interests \A/ill /\l\A/ays toe Consulted. 



Grangers' Business Association, 


Capacity or Warehouse, .V),(JOO tons; wharf accommodations for the largest vessels afloat. 
Grain received on slorage for shipment, and for sale on consignment. 



Protect Your Trees 

Gilman*s Patent Tule Tree Protector. 


FIKST PKliCE— Medal and Dipfoma— California iVIid- Winter Iuleruatiop»il 
F.xpositibn. ■ ' " 

Cheapest, best und eSly one to protect trees aud vines from frost, sunburn, 
rabbi ts, squirrels, borei's ami o'ther tree pests. 

For testimonials from parties who are using them, nond for descriptive cir 


Sole /Vtan uifaot ui re r of Patent Tiile Covyers. 

" ' ■ / / 420 Ninth Streetj San Francisco, Cal. 



- How mild) does yonr furni help you? 
Wouldn't it p:i,v yon to reduce this e.xpeu,«c 
—say, oue-hali ?■ Vou cuu do it with the 

PLANET JR. Labor Saying Farm Tools. 

Take for e>iurn)>le the Planet .Jr. Garden 
Drill. \ ina<;liine tliul <'osls uolhinH to 
keep; that helps one lunn ilo lliree men's 
work, and do it belter. Kis^ure out how 
much such a inachiue would suve you in 
dollars aud board'.' This and '20 other equ- 
ally wonderful machines are dc^crllied aud 
pictured in the Plain^t Jr. Hook for 1K95. 
Will you have It— li s PUEK. 
S. L. Alleu &. Co., 1107 Market St., Plilla. 

\A/efc>er Gas & GasoIine^ Engine's. 

Simplfst aud most coouoinical tugini's 011 carlli. 
Requires only a few minutes' atleutiou a day. (iuuraiili'ed 
cost of running, 1 cent per hour per H. V. 



42 & 44 Fremont Street 

5an Francisco, Cal. 

con PAN Y. 



Largest Handlers 
of Dried Fruits. 

It you have a parcel to offer, submit samples 
We are the principal handlers. 

Pure pood pxposition. 


January 28 to February >6, 1895. 

.Mrs. Mnry J. Lincoln, author of the Boston 
t:ool< Book, will lecture daily on cooking 

Concerts Afternoon and Evening. 

Hei-Kons attending the Exposition will l)e able 
to secure excursion rates by rail 

IPS" For particulars apply to 


1 'i'.i ( alifornia St., Room 'i. 

V. I.. MAGUIKE, Manager. 



530 California Street. 

For the half year ending December 31, 1894, a 
dividend has been declared at the rate of Ave (5) 
per-ceiit per annum on Term Deposits and four and 
one-sixth |4 l-B) per cent per annum on Ordinary 
Deposits, payable on and after WEDNESDAY, 
.January -..'d, mh. GEO. TOURNY, Secretary. 




iff General Commission Merchants, ifi 


Members of the .San Francisco Produce Exchange 

*jr Personal attention given to sales and liberal 
advances made on consignments at low rates of 

1/ I6 8tl8 DRUMMST S.F.^ 

XREE - VA//\SH. 

01!\/e> Dip. 

"Greenbaiik" Powdered Caustic 
Soda and Pare Potasli. 

T. \AJ. jmc::k.son <fc co. 

Sole Agents. - - No. 3:i« Market .Street 




AH kituU (if t 
A (laniHntine proi 
icHi Arte.'^tan 1' 

lune lor I he driller by UMlngr f ui 
Mil taketicuif. IVrfected Ecoooni- 

iiMiitr Hiers to wnrk h\ steam. Air, etc. 
Aurora, 111.; €hl<>nKO, Ill.t UttlluH, Tex. 


postpaid for. 'itic, lilCURA CO., :110 California St , 
San Francisco, 








11 klQila obeupcr thOD tUf 
rr. U«fure jum buy icn<\ 


I Uit TlalDSl.,CliicUiBat^O. 



W Is the Largest Illusuatt'U and Leading Agrl 
cultural and HonlcuUuial Weekly of the 
West, Established 1870. Trial Subscriptions, 60c 
for 3 mos, or $2,40 a year (till further notice). The 
Pacillc Rural Press, '220 Mar^ket. San Franclsca 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

January 19, 1896. 

Deep Snow. 

The depth of snow on the high 
Sierras at this season of the year and 
after a heavy storm is almost incred- 
ible. Travellers through the moun- 
tains have observed with wonder 
shingles nailed upon the sides of trees 
from fifteen to twenty-five feet from 
the ground, and question whether the 
snow ever fell as deep as indicated by 
these shingles. 

Mr. E. A. Halstead, who crossed the 
mountains many times for twelve suc- 
cessive years between Oroville and 
Quincy, says during the severe winter 
of four years ago snow fell to a depth of 
forty feet from Buckeye to the Toll 
Gate; that on one occasion the mail 
carrier, after a hard storm, crossed 
over the peak of the Buckeye House 
without seeing the building, although 
it reached a height of thirty-eight feet 
above the ground. The Letter Box 
hotel was so completely covered that it 
required thirty-two steps from the top 
of the snow down to the second-story 
window. For a distance of two or 
three miles in the vicinity of the Letter 
Box where the snow had drifted the 
banks were fully 100 feet deep. He 
noticed in one place where the wind 
had swept the snow from about the 
bole of a tree that it was fully ten feet 
down to one of the shingles to which 
we have alluded. He and others who 
were familiar with the snow that 
winter estimate that, had it been meas- 
ured as it fell, it would have reached a 
depth of at least 140 feet. — Oroville 
Register, Dec. 27th. 

Machinery of a Cruiser. 

The extent and power of machinery 
construction are wonderfully exhibited 
in the working equipments of the latest 
Government cruiser. There are 61 
separate engines, not counting cylin- 
ders, which would run up to 120, for 
main, auxiliary and pumping purposes. 
The low-pressure piston is 92 inches in 
diameter, and an area of 46 square 
feet and an initial load of 100 tons. 
The condenser tubes, if placed end to 
end, would form a tube 33 miles long, 
and the cooling water passed through 
these tubes equals 36,000,000 gallons 
per day, or enough to supply a large 
city with water. The main boilers, if 
placed end to end, would form a tunnel 
156 feet long and large enough for a 
train of cars to pass through. The 
heating surface is equal to li acres. 

Horse owners should understand 
that their animals are peculiarly liable 
to injury from contact with electric 
currents. This is not due to the 
physical structure of the horse, but to 
other causes, some of which are in a 
degree preventable. The safety of a 
horse depends upon the skill of the 
blacksmith to some extent. The au- 
thority named point.8 out that the 
shoes offer a large surface for contact 
and the nails conductors by which the 
current may enter the body, although 
the sole of the hoof itself is an insulator. 
The animal's weight aids the contact, 
and a wet fetlock increases the danger. 
Blacksmiths, therefore, should not 
drive the nails to the "quick " and the 
fetlocks should be trimmed. 

An Eastern syndicate is prosecuting 
a survey in Kern canyon, and a party 
of twenty men is blasting out a trail, 
beginning about fifteen miles northeast 
of Bakorsfield, the intention being to 
spend $8000 or $10,000 in a preliminary 
survey to determine the feasibility of 
developing electrical power there. It 
is expected that the survey will be 
completed by February 1st. C. N. 
Beal is in charge of the project. The 
California combination of dear fuel and 
unlimited water power makes an in- 
viting field in the mining districts for 
the utilization of mountain streams iu 
furnishing electric power. 

I here put the case even at the worst, 
by supposing, what seldom happens,' 
that a course of virture makes us mis- 
erable in this life, but if we suppose, 
as it generally happens, that virtue 
would make us more happy even in this 
life • than a contrary course of vice. 

how can we sufiBciently admire the 
stupidity or madoess of those persons 
who are capable of making so absurd a | 
choice? — Addison. 


$100 Reward, $100. 

The reader of this paper will be pleased to learn 
that there is at least one dreaded disease that 
science has been able to cure in all its stages, and 
that is catarrh. Hall's Catarrh Cure is the only 
positive cure known to the medical fraternity. 
Catarrh being a constitutional disease, requires a 
constitutional treatment. Hall's Catarrh Cure is 
taken internally, acting directly on the blood and 
mucous surfaces of the system, thereby destroy- 
ing the foundation of the disease, and giving the 
patient strength by building up the constitution 
and assisting nature in doing its work. The pro- 
prietors have so much faith in its curative powers 
that they offer One Hundred Dollars for any case 
that It fails to cure. Send for list of testimonials. 

Address, F J. CHENEY & CO., Toledo, O. 
WSold by Druggists, 75c. 


Made In UiO Styles. 
For either road or atable dm. 

A SCHEME has been proposed to re- 
duce the friction of salt water against 
the sides of a steamer, which, it is 
claimed, will increase the speed forty 
per cent. It is to force air through 
the vessel's plates and thereby form a 
narrow space between the iron and 



50c. a year in advance. Sample copy mailed Free 
on iippUcatlon. Address 




MAN & 

Co\/er Your Barns, 




F=». & B. F»/\IINT. 


F*. Sc B. SHE/\XHING F»/\F»ER. 

Highest Awards at Chicago, 1893, San Francisco, 1894. 


221 South Broadway. 116 BATTERY STREET. No. 49 First Street. 


Are Headquarters for Complete Spraying and 
Whitewashing Outfits. 

The Be5t Spray Pump, Best Spray Nozzles 
and Best Spray Hose. 

Nozzles arranged to ipray at any aagle ordered. 

THE BEAN CYCLONE NOZZLE -a n«u> {nventlon thia 
season — is self-cleaalng and throws a flne and pene- 
trating spray. 

The BEAN and NEW BEAN NOZZLES, so well known, 
are also oar invention. 

Bean Spray Pump Co. 

Los Gatos. Cal. 

We manufacture the celebrated Asplnwall Potato Planter. Asplnwall Potato Cutter. 
Asplnwall Paris Green Sprinkler, etc. Every machine warranted. These machines 
greatly reduce the co-it of raising j.otatoes. Send for Free IIIu»trated Catalogue. 

ASPiNWALL MANUFACTURING CO., 48 Sabin St., Jackson, Mich. 

HOOKER & CO., Ageatg. Itt and 18 Drumin Street, San Fraacisco, Cal. 




S12to 516 Sacramento St., Sui PraacUai, Cal. 

School of Practical, Civil, Mechanical, 
Electrical and Mining Engineering, 

Surveying, Architecture, Drawing and Assaying 
San Fbancisco, Cas.. 
Open All Year. : A. VAK DEK NAILLEI. Pm't. 

Assayinft of Ores. «25r-Bullion and Chlorlnatlon 
Assay, ti6; Blowpipe Aasay, 110.- Full course of 
assaying, KO. Established 18M. Send for Clraular. 





Capital Paid Up •1,000,000 

Reserve Fund and Undivided Probts, 130,000 
Ulvldeuds Paid to Stockholdera. . . . 83S,000 


A. D. LOGAN President. 

I. C. STEELE Vice-President. 

ALBERT MONTFELLIER.... Cashier and Manaif»r 
PRANK Mcmullen secretary. 

General Banking. Deposits Received. Gold aid 
Silver. Bills of Exchange Bought and Sold. Loans 
on Wheat and Country produce a Specialty. 

January 1, 1894. A. MONTPELLIER, Manager 

.Price's Traction 

We have one of these engines that was used 
about one month last season and was taken back 
by us by reason of illness of purchaser. Engine is 
In perfect order, and in better working order than 
when first sent from the factory. A BARGAIN. 
Indicated power, 80-horse; Cylinders, 8x»; Wheels, 
8 ft. high, 28 in. wide; weight, less than 10 tons. 
Price when new, $1600. 


16 and 18 Oroium Street, San Franclgco. 

★ C H. EVANS & CO., ★ 

(Successors to THOMSON & EVANS.) 

110 £ 11-4 BEALE STREET, 9. F. 


5teani Pump*. > 3team Engine*. 

Al) Kindt 0/ ilACHIXERY. . . 

Business College, 

S4 Post Street, ... gau FraocUoo. 


This College instructs in Shorthand, Type-Wrlilng. 
Bookkeeping. Telegraphy, Penmanship, Drawing, 
all the English branches, and everything pertaining 
to business, for full six months. We have sixteen 
teachers and give Individual instruction to all our 

A Department of Electrical Engineering 

Has been established under a thoroughly qualified 
Instructor. The course Is thoroughly practical. 
Send for Circular. 0. S. HALEY, Sec. 

Entirely of Steel No castings to break. 
Strongest and simplest Lever Arrangement oo 
the market Writ« for descriptive Circular. 


No. 14 Park St., MANSFIELD, O. 



Corragal«d strel Illngea. 

They are Stronger, Ilandiomer 
and coat no more than the old 
style. For sale by Hardware 
Dealers generally, but if not In 
yonr vicinity write the Hann- 
factnrers. Send for " Biography 
ot a Yankee Hinge, "mailed free 


January 19, 1895. 

The Pacific 

Rural Press. 



Market Review. 

San Francisco, Jan. 16, 1895. 
FLOUR — Goodly shipments were made to China 
by to-day's outgoing steamer. We quote as fol- 
lows: Net cash prices for Family Extras, $3 40® 

3 50 f( bbl; Bakers' Extras, $3 30@i*3 40; Super- 
fine, $2 50@2 70 ^ bbl. 

WHEAT— The volume of business is not large. 
Sampling on the part of shippers is not general, 
and the market lacks spirit. No. 1 shipping is 
quotable at 86M(3'87'/sC f, ctl, with 8S%c for a choice 
article. Milling Wheat changes hands at a range 
ofJ90@96Mc ?. ctl. Walla Walla Wheat continues 
in fair offering, being quotable at TTi'jrS «0c for fair 
average quality. 87Vj@90c for blue stem and 72^2 
®75c for damp.' 

BARLEY— The market is very dull and quiet, 
the situation being against the selling interest. 
Prices easy. We quote as follows: Feed, fair to 
good, 783i@80c; choice, 81^0 ; Brewing, 90@95o 
8t ctl. 

OATS — The inquiry is anything but pronounced, 
though enough trading is in progress to keep busi- 
ness in fair motion. Weqviote: Milling, fBl@l ia!4; 
Surprise, $1 05@1 15; fancy feed, 97i4ci.®$l 02i4; 
good to choice, 90@95c; poor to fair, 80@87;4c; 
Black, $1 15(ai 30; Red, $105@$117H; Gray, 
92i/s@97yaC ^ Ctl. 

CORN— Shows improving tone. Damp stock 
sells below quoted figures. Quotable at $1 15@1 20 
^ Ctl. for large Yellow, $1 -Z-ZV^m 27'/, for small 
Yellow and $1 22^4 to $1 27!4 tor White. 

CRACKED CORN— Quotable at $27@27 50 V ton. 

CORNMEAL— Millers quote feed at $26 to $26 50 
ton; fine kinds for the table in large and small 
packages, 3®3!4c ^ B). 

OILCAKE MEAL— Quotable at $30 ^ ton from 
the mill. 

COTTONSEED OILCAKE— Quotable at $26®27 
f» ton. 

SEEDS-^Tradlng Is of light order. We quote as 
follows: Mustard, Brown, $1 75®2; Yellow, $2 25 
@2 40; Trieste, $2 25@2 30; Canary, 3@4c; Hemp, 
3^&iHc f>^; Rape, lM@2Mc; Timothy, 5H@6'/4c 
ft; Alfalfa, 7M@75ic-^ ft; Flax, $2®2 25 ^ ctl. 

MIDDLINGS— Quotable at $17 50®19 1* ton. 

MILLSTUFFS— We quote: Rye Flour, 3y,c; 
Rye Meal, 3c; Graham Flour, 3c; Oatmeal, 4H@5c; 
Oat Groats, 5c; Cracked Wheat, 3Ho; Buckwheat 
Flour, 5c; Pearl Barley, 4M@4?ic ~^ lb. 

BRAN— Quotable at $11 50@I3 f> ton. 

HAY— Prices have weakened a little under 
liberal receipts. Wire-bound Hay sells at $1 
^ ton less than rope-bound Hay. Following 
are the wholesale city prices tor rope-bound Hay : 
Wheat, $9@$n .50; Wheat and Oat, $9@n; Oat, 
$9@10 60; Alfalfa, $8(3.9; Barley, $8 50@10; Clover, 
$9@10; compressed, $9@11; Stock, $6®7 50. 

STRAW— Quotable at 70®80c V bale. 

HOPS— Market inactive, with quotations Rome< 
what nominal at a range of 5@8o ft. 

RYE— Quotable at 87K@92Ko ^ otl. 

BUCKWHEAT— Quotable at 85®95o f» ctl. 

GROUND BARLEY— Quotable at $18@18 BO 
9 ton. 

PEED— Manhattan Horse Food (Red Ball Brand! 
In lOO-ft cabinets, $8; Manhattan Egg Food, 100-tb 
bags. $11 60. 

POTATOES— Good demand for the several de- 
scriptions. We quote: Volunteer New Pota- 
toes, l'/s@2c ^ ft; Early Rose, 35@<)5e; River Reds, 
30@35c; Burbanks, .30@50c: Oregon Burbanks, 50® 
86o; Salinas Burbanks, 75o®$l; Sweets, 50@81 ^ 

ONIONS— Free supplies. Quotable at 50®65c 
^ ctl. 

DRIED PEAS— We quote: Green, $125@I50; 
Nlles, $1 15®1 25^ ctl. 

BEANS— Fair demand for good small Whites. 
We quote as follows: Bayos, $1 75ra)l 90; Butter, 
81 75@1 80 for small and $1 85@1 90 for large; 
Pink, $1 10(31 35; Red, $1 60®] 65; Lima, $4 10® 

4 25; Pea, $2 2.5®2 50: Small White, $2 25@,2 55; 
Large White. $2 10@$2 30; Blackeye, $2 75®3; Red 
Kidney, $2 75@3; Horse, $1 60® 1 70 f. ctl. 

VEGETABLES — Receipts this morning In- 
cluded 18 boxes Asparagus and 11 boxes Rhu- 
barb. Other kinds were in light oBering. We 
quote as follows: Asparagus, 10@15c If* lb.; Rhu- 
barb, 75c(S$l ia box; Mushrooms, 6@10o ^ lb for 
common and 12i4(5"20c for choice; Los Angeles To- 
matoes. 75c@$l box; String Beans, 8@IOc * ft; 
Green Peas, 5(5 8c iA lb; M.arrowfat Squash. $5(3i6 ^ 
ton; Hubbard Squash, $10 ^ ton; Green Peppers, 
4@7c * lb; Turnips, 60c ctl; Beets, 60®75c ^ 
sack; Carrots, 30@50c; Cabbage, 30® 40c; Garlic. 
3®4c * ft; Cauliflower, 30® 40c IS dozen; Dry Pep- 
pers, l5@17'/4c ft; Dry Okra, 12iA@15o 1? ft. 

FRESH FRUIT— Apples continue the leading 
feature, being in large supply. We quote as fol- 
lows-. Persimmons, 2.5(a)50c box; Apples, 30c@$l 
box ; Pears, 5n@75c f> box. 

CITRUS FRUIT— Fresh arrivals this week of 
Bananas and Pineapples from the Islands. Sales 
of Oranges and Limes are slow. Mandarin 
Oranges, $1 .50®! 75 ^ box: California Navels, 
$1 75@2 50: Seedlings. $1®I 50 ^ box; Sonora 
Oranges, $1 .50®! 75 la box; Mexican Limes, $3 .50 
@$4 50 tPi box; California Limes, in small boxes, 50e 
®75c f, box; Lemons, Sicily, $4 50®5; California 
Lemons, $1 50@2 for common and $2 .50®3 for 
good to choice; Bananas, $1®2 ^ bunch; Pine- 
apples $4@6 ¥ dozen. 

DRIED FRUIT— Values are somewhat nominal, 
there being no representative business in prog- 

Following are the prices furnished by the Fruit 

Apricots— Fancy Moorpark, 8Hc; choice, do, 8o; 
fancy. 7V4c; choice, 7c; standard, 6'/4c: prime. 6c. 

Apples— Evaporated, 5!^®7c; sun-dried, 4@5c. 

Peaches— Fancy, 6'/2o; choice, 6c; standard, 
6V4c; prime. 5Mo; peeled, in boxes, I2®!.Sc. 

Pears— Fancy , halves, 5'/4c ; quarters,4'/4c ; choice, 
4Mc; standard, 314c; prime, 3c. 

Plums— Pitted, 4@5c;unpitted, lH@2c. 

Prunes— Four sizes, 4'/4®4?ic. 

Nectarines— Fancy, 7c; choice, 6Hc; standard, 
flo; prime, bYtC. 

Figs-White, choice, 5@5Mc; Black, choice, IH 

Raislns-4-crown, loose, 4c 1^ lb. in 5-lb. boxes; 
3-crown, 2'/4c; 2-crown, 2c; seedless Sultanas, 3c; 
seedless Muscatels, 2o 1* ft; 3-crown London 
Layers, $1 25 box in 20-lb. boxes; clusters. $1 50; 
Dehesa clusters, $2; Imperial clusters. $3; 4-crown, 
loose, $1 15; 4-crown, loose, faced, $1 25 ^ box. 

Dried Grapes— IMc 1* ft. 

NUTS— Consignments of Italian Chestnuts just 
received. A cargo of Cocoanuts is also at hand 
from Tahiti. Market generally quiet. We 
quote: Chestnuts, 9®llc; Walnuts, 5®7cfor hard 
shell, 8®9o for soft shell and 8@9c for paper shell; 
California Almonds, 7®714c for soft shell. 4'/4®5o 
for hard shell and 8®8!i4c for paper shell; Pea- 
nuts, m®6Q; Hickory Nuts. 5®«o; FUberts, 

8!4@9c; Pecans, 6c for rough and 8o for polished; 
Brazil Nuts, 7®7Ho ^ ft; Cocoanuts, $4®5 100. 

HONEY— We quote: Comb, 10@llHo; water 
white extracted, 7@7Kc; light amber extracted, 
5H@6c; dark amber, 5(^5 Ho 1» lb. 

BEESWAX— Quotable at 24@26c V lb. 

BUTTER— Easy at ruling prices. Fancy 
creamery, 22®24c; fancy dairy, 17®18c; good to 
choice, 15® 16c; fair, 13@14c; store lots, 12@13o; 
pickled roll, 15®16c; flrkin, 15®16c fl ft. 

CHEESE— Weak at a decline. We quote: Choice 
to fancy, 8@10c; fair to good, 6®7o; Eastern, 
ordinary to fine. ll®14c |* ft. 

EGGS— Are cheaper, with still downward ten- 
dency. Occasionally, a fancy parcel sells at a 
trifle above quoted rates. We quote as follows: 
California Ranch, 30@32c; store lots, 23@27o; 
Eastern Eggs, 23®25c f» dozen for cold storage 
and 26c for fresh. 

POULTRY— The situation ts against sellers, 
offerings being liberal. We quote as follows: Live 
Turkeys— Gobblers, 9®!0c; Hens, 9®!0c * ft; 
dressed Turkeys, I0@12!/jC f( lb; Roosters, $4(3,4 .50 
for old, and $4 ,50@5 50 for young; Broilers, $3@4 for 
small and $4®5 for large; Fryers, $4 50®5; Hens, 
$4(35 50; Ducks, $5®6 50; Geese, $! .50@2 pair; 
Pisreons, $I(ai 50 for old and $1 75@2 25 * dozen for 

PROVISIONS— Trade fair. No improvement in 
values. We quote as follows: Eastern Sugar-cured 
Hamc, lie ¥ ft; California Hams, !0@!0Hc; 
Bacon, Eastern, extra light, sugar-cured, 13; 
medium, 8%,@9c; do, light, 9® 10c; extra light, 
ll®12'/jC f( ft; Pork, extra clear, bbls, $19; half 
bbls, $1(1; Pig Pork, bbls, $21; hf bbls, $11; Pigs' 
feet, hf bbls, $4 50; dry salted Pork, 8!/2(3i9c lb; 
Beef, mess, bbls, $7 50; do, extra mess, bbls, 
$8 50; do, family, $10; extra, do. $10 50@11 
f> bbl; do, smoked, 9® 10c; Pickled Tongues, hf 
bbls, $7; Eastern Lard, compound, tierces.6H®6%o; 
do, prime, steam, 8'/4o; Eastern, pure, 10-ft pails, 
9Hc; 5-ft palls, 99ic; 3-ft pails, Q^^o; California, 
10-ft tins, 7i4®8c; do, 5-tt, 8®8Hc; California pure, 
in tierces, 75i@8o; do, compound, 6@6iio for 

WOOL — No trade of consequence. Several 
scourers are running on contracts made some 
time ago. Neither values nor business Is expected 
to Improve until spring clip comes forward freely. 
We quote Fall: 

Free Northern 7 @ 8Ho 

Northern, defective 6 @7 

Southern & San Joaquin, light and free. 5 ® 6 
Do, defective 3 @4 

HIDES AND SKINS— Nothing of special Inter- 
est in the situation. Quotable as follows: 

Sound. Culls. 
Heavy Steers, 54 lbs up, * lb.... 6V4@7 o 5H@6 

Medium Steers. 48 to 56 lbs 5!^®6 6 ®— 

Light, 42 to 47 pounds 4 ®— 8V4@ — 

Cows, over 50 lbs ...6 ® — 4 @t- 

Light Cows, 30 to 80 lbs 4 @— 8 @8H 

Stags 8 @ — 2 @— 

Kips, 17 to 30 lbs 4W(^ 8 @a% 

Veal Skins, 10 to 17 lbs 5H@— 4 ®4% 

Calf skins, 5 to 10 lbs 7 @— 6 @— 

Dry Hides, usual selection. 9o; Dry Kips, 
7@7Ho ; Calf Skins do, 12@13c ; Cull Hides, Kip and 
Calf, 6@8c; Pelts, Shearlings, 10®20c each; do, 
short, 2.5@30c each; do, medium, 80@40o each; do, 
long wool, 40®70c each; Deer Skins, summer, 
25@30c; do, good medium, 15@22!4c; do, winter, 5o 
^ lb; Goat Skins, 20@35o apiece for prime to per- 
fect, 10@20c for damaged, and 5o each for Kids. 

TALLOW — We quote: Refined, 53^®6o; ren- 
dered, 4^®4?^c; country Tallow, 4@4Xo; Grease, 
8®3V4o ^ lb. 

Business runs along smoothly without any 
marked variation in prices. Following are the 
rates for whole carcasses from slaughterers to 
dealers : 

BEEF— First quality, B@5Ko; second quality, 
4V4o; third quality, SH@4o ^ lb. 

CALVES---Quotable at 4!4(a6Ho for large and 
5H®7c 18 ft. for small. 

MUTTON— Quotable at 5®6c ^ lb. 

LAMB— Yearlings, 6@7c f. lb. 

PORK— Live Hogs, on foot, grain fed, heavy and 
medium, 3^c; small Hogs, 4o; dressed Hogs, 
5M@6X0 IS lb. 


Special attention is called to the adwrtise- 
ment, on another page, of Catton, Bell & Co., 
who are the sole Pacific coast agents for 
"Little's Chemical Fluid Sheep Dip." The 
reputation and sale of Little's Dip have 
reached such proportions that it is found nec- 
essary to caution those vFho want the genuine 
dip, from purchasing inferior imitations. 

They are again compelled to warn sheepman 
and the trade in general from purchasing 
cheap and worthless dips that are now sold in 
this market under the name of " Little Aus- 
tralian Dip," and which is put up in squai'e 
coal-oil cans and sold at prices ranging from 
80 cents to 95 cents per gallon, as also against 
buying any dips that may be sold under the 
name of Little's that are not put up in the 
regulation iron drum. 

The genuine "Little's Chemical Fluid 
Sheep Dip" is put up in round, iron drums, 
painted red, and each drum bears an orange- 
colored label giving the trade mark of Little's 
Dip, and showing the signatures of the manu- 
facturers, and also of Catton, Bell & Co. as 
sole agents. The dip is also put up in tins 
containing a large English gallon, packed ten 
cans to the case. The dip is sold by them to 
the trade by the English gallon only. 

The Imitation is also put up in small Ameri- 
can gallon tins, without labels. 

See that each drum and gallon can is labeled 
with "Little's Dip," without which none Is 
genuine. * 

Back Filbs of the Pacific Rdrai, Press (un- 
bound) can be had for $2..50 per volume of six 
months. Per year (two ^ olumes), $4. Inserted in 
Dewey's patent binder, 50 cents additional per 

xo le/\se: ! 

For one or two years, or for sale. 

Fruit Ranch of SO Acres, 

In Lagoon Valley, near Vacaville, Solano County, 
Cal. French Prunes, Bartlett Pears and Cherries 
in full bearing. House with modern improve- 


y^cATille OaUtornl* 

Or 196 Kearny Street, 6ftn FrasolBoo, 

The above cut siiows tiie CASADAY TWO-QANQ, wliose many years 
of successful work in tlie field have earned for it the title of 

King of Gang Plows. 


The " Casaday'* " praises are heard from end to end of our great State and every year shows a 
rapid growth in its popularity. These plows are strong, durable, light In draft and easy to handle, 
giving perfect satisfaction. If you are in need of a gang do not fall to Investigate the "Casaday " ba- 
rore purchasing. 


Oliver Chilled Plow Works, 



A Short time since there was a State meeting of the creamerymen of Nebraska held at Lincoln. 
They brought samples of their butter along to be judged. Do you know what machine made the best 
butter ? It was the 


It not only makes the best butter but It does the work the cheapest of any separator in the world. 
It uses but a spoonful of oil a day. It skims clean, and is very easy to hajidle. 


Did you ever hear of a separator so filled with patty pans that it takes two hours to wash it ? Well, 
that kind Is not called the Russian. Did you ever hear of a separator bowl jumping out of its frame 
and chasing the operator out of the creamery ? There was never a Russian did it. The Russian Is in 
for business all the time. The bowl does not tremble. Trembling bowls are dangerous. The Russian 
does nothing but attend to business. 

Send for circulars and please mention this paper. 

Baker Sa Hamilton, 

Sole Pacific Coast Ag;e>nts, 



The Pacific Rural Press. 

January 19, 1895. 

Patrons of Husbandry. 

Grange Revival Again. 

A meeting of the Executive Commit- 
tee of the State Grange was held on 
Saturday last at Sacramento, there be- 
ing present besides the members of 
ihe committee a half score of promi- 
nent patrons, including Past Masters 
Flint, Johnston and Overhiser. The 
main theme was that of Grange re- 
vival and the outcome was a deter- 
mination to put the inspection system 
into force. With that purpose, all 
that part of the State north of 
Tehachapi was divided into four inspec- 
tion divisions and an officer appointed 
to take charge of each. To the whole 
region north of Sacramento Mr. E. C. 
Shoemaker was assigned; to the Sac- 
ramento district, Lecturer Good- 
enough; to the San Jose district, Mr. 
Bucher; to the Stockton district, 
Overseer Greer. Our information 
does not give the exact lines of these 
several divisions. The several district 
inspectors are very shortly to meet 
with the worthy master for study of 
the work, in order that it may be uni- 
form throughout the jurisdiction. 

In addition to this plan. Messrs. 
Roache, Jones and Walton were ap- 
pointed a committee to arrange for the 
publication of grange news. They 
were in San Francisco on Monday and 
have set on foot negotiations which will 
probably result in the engagement of a 
writer to regularly supply the Ritral 
Peess with reports and discussions of 
Grange affairs. This is what the pub- 
lisher of the Rural has all along asked 
for He is willing to give space to 
grange news without charge but he 
demands that the Executive Committee 
shall do the work of collecting and 
accept the responsibility of editing the 

In view of these doings there is a 
look of better promise in the grange 
field than for a long while past. It 
will take some little time to set the 
new movement on its feet but by the 
first of March, if not sooner, we ought 
to see new life and new interest all 
along the line. 

Red Letter 

Day for 


To THE Editor:— Sacramento Grange 
decided to install their officers on Jan. 
12th, beginning at 12 m. sharp. Out- 
siders were not expected, but as the 
Executive Committee of the State 
Grange were holding session here, I 
saw a grand opportunity to have our 
grange honored by the presence of so 
many of the State officers. 

I invited State Master Roache to 
take my place as installing master. It 
took considerable persuasion on my 
part to overcome his extreme modesty 
and obtain his consent. As our grange 
has been sometimes called a kid-glove 
grange, he preferred to sit in the rear 
and look on and take notes. 

Bro. I. C. Steele tells a story about 
when he was a lad; how he rubbed the 
ears of a whelp of a pulp he had to get 
up courage for a fight. I adopted this 
expedient on the Worth v Master and 
succeeded in getting up a good glow on 
his ears, and it had a wonderful effect 
Bro. Roache, with the able assistance 
of Bro. Overhiser, installed our officers 
in a graceful and efficient manner 
every chair being filled. ' 

Our new master, although several 
years younger than the grange, started 
off with great for future use- 

fulness in the grange. Although in the 
presence of so many past masters and 
State officials, which frequently em- 
barrasses older and more experienced 
members, he acquitted himself with 
rare ability. 
I When the officers were elected and 
I they selected me as the installing 
j master, I made a particular request 
that each officer should give the grange 
j a short talk. Although in the pres- 
I ence of so many visitors and State 
officers, all responded in good style, 
I and especially the master and chap- 
I lain — mother and son. Those must have 
I been happy moments to that mother, 
i from the suppressed smiles that I could 
i see glowing on her face when she 
witnessed her eldest son being in- 
I stalled as master of Sacramento 
Grange, and later on listened to the 
] noble grange sentiments that he ex- 
pressed in his remarks to the grange. 
There were many persons present who 
would have given a small fortune if 
they could have done half as well as 
that at his age. 

It is a rarity to hear such 
sentiments as were expressed by 
our chaplain after being introduced. 
They were not superficial stereotyped 
expressions, but came from a heart 
full and overflowing with goodness. 
These good words had such an effect 
on me that I wanted to be nearer kin 
than sister — I wanted to say mother. 

Our retiring gate keeper made the 
supreme effort of his life as he welcomed 
his successor with that bird which can 
see better in the night than it can in 
the day perched on a pole as the 
emblem of his office. The stream of 
hot eloquence was about equally divided 
between the trembling standard-bearer 
and the bird, which had large eyes but 
could see not, large ears but could 
hear not. 

It is a rare thing to get together in 
a subordinate grange so many officers 
of the State Grange at one time. There 
were three past masters, present 
worthy master, overseer, steward, sec- 
retary, and two of the executive com- 
mittee, and perhaps some that I cannot 
think of just now. We had visitors 
from several granges, including the 
lady master from Roseville, who was 
present to obtain points. It is quite a 
time since I have seen so much enthu- 
siasm in the grange. It seemed like 
some of the bygone grange days. The 
hall was well filled but the time was too 
short to get a speech from every one. 
I hope some of these intended speeches 
will be bottled up and corked tight, so 
we can call on them at some future 
time. I hope some of our sister granges 
will be as fortunate as we have been in 
getting a visit from the State officers. | 
I think Sacramento Grange has a | 
bright future with her promising .set of I 
officers. I 

Now, members, if you cannot do any- j 
thing else, help us with your presence. , 
I cannot enthuse to empty walls. 

Daniel Flint 

Tulare Grange. 

Election in South Sutter. 

We are indebted to the lecturer of 
South Sutter Grange for the following 
report of the annual election which oc- 
curred on the 12th inst. ; 

M., Henry J. Grunewald; O.. May 
Donaldson; L . Frances F. Purinton; 
S., Henry M. Hawn; Ass't S., Chas. 
Jackson; Chap., Ann M. Roberts: 
Treas., John W. Jones; Sec'v, Willy F. 
Sankey; G. K., Annie M."^ Howsley; 
Pomona, Lottie Annereau; Flora, L. 
Belle Sankey; Ceres, Ella Decker; L. 
A. S., Edna P. Jackson; Organist, 
IdeO Sankey; Trustee, Wm. W. Decker. 
Date of installation. Jan. 26, 1895. 10 
o'clock A. M. 

From Potter Valley. 

New officers for the year: Master, 
Wm. Eddie: O., Mrs. Fannie Thomas; 
L., Miss Rosa Sides; S., Jerry Lierly; 
Ass't S., R. R. Burrows; Chap., Mrs' 
Kate McGee; Treas.. H. P. McGee- 
Sec'y, W. V. Kilbourne; G. K., Miss 
Jennie Desalm; Pomona, Miss Blythe 
Lierly; Flora, Miss Alta Spencer; 
Ceres, Mrs. Laura Lierly; L. A. S 
Miss May Eddie: Trustee, W, V. Kil- 

The regular meeting of Tulare 
Grange was held in its hall on Satur- 
day, the 5th of this month. 

"The newly elected officers were duly 
installed by Past Master Premo, Bro. 
E. C. Shoemaker once more assuming 
the master's gavel. 

Two candidates for the degrees were 
balloted for and elected. 

Sister Ingham of committee ap- 
pointed at last meeting to draw up a 
bill providing for the destruction of 
noxious weeds along highways and irri- 
gation ditches submitted a bill, but the 
lecturer reporting that he had con- 
sulted the then district attorney, Mr. 
Power, he (Mr. Power) had given it as 
his opinion that under Sec. 28 of the 
County Government law, defining pow- 
ers and duties of supervisors, and un- 
der decisions of the Supreme Court of 
California, the supervisors by proper 
ordinance now have the power to pro- 
vide for the extermination of noxious 
weeds, a resolution was passed direct- 
ing the secretary to draw up and for- 
ward to the supervisors a communi- 
cation requesting them to pass an 
ordinance for the suppression of nox- 
ious weeds. 

The grange prepared an address to 
the members of the Legislature from 
Tulare county, requesting such legis- 
lative action as will reduce salaries of 
county officers to such amounts as can 
be obtained for similar services in 
legitimate business enterprises. A 
copy of this address was sent to each 
member of the Legislature from Tulare. 

A committee was appointed to re- 
port amendments to the Wright Irri- 
gation law. There is a strong feeling 
the law as it now stands provides for 
too many salaried officers, and if taxes 
were paid in to the county treasurers. 

to be paid out on a similar plan to that 
of paying out school moneys, the bonds 
of the district would rate higher in 
the market. 

Bro. Julius Forrer read his meteoro- 
logical observations kept at the U. S. 
Experimental Station for December. 

The lecturer announced that Con- 
gressman W. W. Bowers had sent him 
and he had for distribution among the 
members of Tulare Grange, Reports of 
the Secretary of Agriculture for the 
years 1892 and 1893, and also packages 
of vegetable seeds of assorted varie- 

Those reports of the Secretary of 
Agriculture are made up of reports of 
the Chiefs of the different departments, 
each departmental report embodying 
the latest developments in that depart- 
ment. No intelligent farmer can afford 
to be without them. Each volume is 
worth more to him than his year's 
dues in the grange. 

Bronchitis. Sudden changes of tha 
weather cause Bronchial Troubles. "Broicn'o 
Bnmehial Trochn" will give effective relief. 

List of U. 5. Patents for Pacific 
Coast Inventors. 

Reported by Dewey St Co., Pioneer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific Coant. 





531,990.— Bicycle Canopy— M. W. Armstrong, Los 

.531,895.— b'aling Press— H. Bailey. Wlllamina, Or 
531.779 — Carburetor— E. R. Cook, Sacramento. 

531,780.— CARsnRETOR-E. R. Cook, Sacramento, 

!)31.7fll.— Metallic Bung— M. Fischer. S. F. 
iiSl.giS.- Bicycle— J. Forrest, Medical Lake, Or 
531,9,'».— Car— C. S. Hardy, San Dleifo, Cal 
531,696.— Eraser— C. R. Pechin. S. F. 
.^1,857.— Flour Scoop— M. E. retcrson, Igo, Cal. 
531,807.— Gas Engine Starter— J. W Ravmond. 
S F 

532,013.— Furnace— A. Ropp, S. F. 
531,650 —Telephone Indicator— Sabin & Hamp- 
ton. S. F. 

531,812.— Label Manipui:.atob— J. Stltes, Salem. 

531,816.— Clothes Drier — Geo. Wade, San Diego. 
531,818.— Voting Machine— H. Weber, Temescal. 

531,672.— VEHICLE BRAKE— G. W. wise, Warner 
Lake, Or. 

Note.— Copies of U. S. and Forelfirn patents fur 
nlBhed by Dewey 4 Co. In the shortest time possible 
(by mall for telegraphic order). American and 
Foreign patents obtained, and ireneral patent busi- 
ness for Pacific Coast Inventors tr.iusactod with 
perfect security, at reasonable rates, and In the 
shortest possible time. 



"Articles g| 
that are i n o: 
any way dan- oi 
gerous or of- q' 
fensive, a 1 s o g 
medi- O 

trum s 


no8- o 


empirical preparatioiiB, whose o 

Ingredients are concealed, will o 

not be admitted to the Expo-° 

sition." o 


Why was Ayer's Sarsaparilla admit- o 
ted? Because it Is not a patent medicine, O 
not a nostrum, nor a secret preparation, ^ 
not dangerous, not an experiment, and o 
because it Is all that a family medicine O 
should be. ^ 

At the I 


Chicago, 1893. o 
Why not get the Best P o 

Chea p Fruit Tr ees ! 

APPLE SEEDLINGS, home grown, transplant- 
ing sizes, Nos. 2 and 3. 

Also large stock of FRENCH PRUNES. Write 
for prices. 


Oak Monnd Nnrsery. 


Lakeport, Lake Co., Cal. 

Olive Trees for Sale 

GEO. H. imi, Sacramento. 

Mission, 3 years 5 to feat 

Mission, 8 years S to 4 feet. 

ManzaniUo, 2 years 2 to 8 feet. 

1 NeTadtUo, 2 and 3 years 4 tot feet. 

Pichollne, 2 years 2 to 8 feet. 

Kansas Seed House. 

Oar 8peclaltle«! Seed rom, Tre" S' pils. Onion 
Seeds and Sets. Aif.'ilra, S.toalino, l.;i'liyrns. Sll- 
vesrris. Sandvotches, spiirr\-, K.i Itir. .-in i .leriisalem 
Corn, and other now iorai:e'planr6 f'n 'ti- ,ind arid 
countries. XKW f.4.T.VI.OOV"i: MAILED 

F. BARTELDES A CO.. Lawrence. Kansas. 

PosltUin as ;\lHiiHg:er on a^e Farm. 

Thorough acquaintance with Stock Raising, Dairy 
Business, General Farming. Experience In foreign 
countries; French. English. German correspond 
ence; Bookkeeping: Graduate of Agricultural 
Acideniv In Germany. P. O. box ISio. Bakersfield. 
Kern County. Cal. 

50cTrial Sets Plants and Fruits. 

By mull poHtpulU. Kal'e arrival and waf Ufactlou KuuranteetL Order 

by the letters uud the uutubers from tills advert isemunt >0 W, as these are Intro- 
rtuctiiry sets, not In caia logue. an Klemint Annual of 1«S pnnei, which will 
be sent free with Urst order. If none of tlie^i' sets suit you and you want anything 
inourllne send for CATAI.OOlfK FKKK. Ahout 60 duko devoted to 
VECiETAill.E and Kt<»WF.K NF.r.llS, 70 to I»JLA5iT8 and the 

baluucetothe CREAM OF THE FKl^ITS. 

Set n liliTkts. c-holeoVeorvtable Seed-.M s'ts...50c 
•• E-?il |.kts. choice Fluwer f^eudu, 20 sorts.. Sic 

■• U— Elegant Pulma 50o 

" .1—10 Sons liovely Everbloomlntc Roues... Wc 

•• O-IO Prize OhryaanthemuniN, lOsorts 50o 

" H i Superb Freuch ('anuaii, 4 sorts oOo 

•• li- 10 Showy OeranlninK, 10 sorts 50c 

•' r.-.siKlne OIuilloll Fluwerinu' llulh»....50o 
X-l"Tiihero»r», Double Kloiverlug Size. . 50c 

■' O— 10 Fl.iwerlnjf Plant*. 10 sorts Xc 

" "—tt Hardy Ornamental t*hrub», C sorts. .SOo 

Q-^UardyCIImblnn Vines, 'i sorts 50o 

One-half each of anv two sets .'iOo., any 3 sets J1.25, 5 sets f2.00. 


4l9t YEAR. 1,000 ACRES. 29 GREENHOUSES. 

THE STORRS & HARRISON CO., Box 160 Palnesvllle, 0. 

FRriT TREES, Etc.-Mall Slse. 

Set 10:»— 8 Pe:ich, 4 sorts SOo 

'• lo t— 8 Apple, 4 sorU SOo 

" 10.';-2 Pear, 2 Cherry SOc 

" 10«— 6 «}rapc«, X sorts SOc 

" 107-ti fSrapeo, all Concords SOc 

" 10«— 4 Oooi.oberrle», 4 sorts SOc 

" 10»— 10 Cnrrnnta, S sorts SOc 

" 110-30 Raspberrlei, 5 sorts SOo 

" 111—60 Strawberrlei, 5 sorts SOo 

" 1 18—1 each .lapau Chentnut Walnut. SOc 
" 118-30 Blackberrlea, 4 sorts SOc 

January 19, 1895. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


Breeders' Di rectory. 

six lines or less In this directory at 60c per line per 

Horses and Cattle. 

F. H. lJUKKE, (MB Market St., S. P. Al Prize Hol- 
stelns; Grade Milch Cows. Fine Pigs. 

JJEBSEYS— The best A. J. C. C. registered prize herd 
is owned by Henry Pierce, S. F. Animals for sale. 

P. H. MUKPHY, Perkins, Sac. Co., Cal. Breeder of 
Shorthorn Cattle, Poland-China & Berkshire Hogs. 

M. D. HOPKINS, Petaluma. Registered Shorthorn 
Cattle. Both sexes for sale. 

PETER SAXE & SON, Lick House, S. F., Cal. Im- 
porters and Breeders, for past 21 years, of every 
variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

JERSEYS AND HOLSTEINS, from the best But- 
ter and Milk Stock; also Thoroughbred Hogs and 
Poultry. William Niles Si Co., Los Angeles, Cal. 
Breeders and Exporters. Established in 1878. 


J.- W. rOKGEUS, Santa Cruz, Cal., has the best 
stocked and equipped poultry ranch on the 
Pacific coast, and makes a specialty of Barred P. 
Rocks, Brown Leghorns, Black Minoreas. Pekln 
Ducks. Seventy acres to Leghorns, six acres to 
Minoreas, and my home ranch to Barred P. Rocks 
and Pekln Ducks. I guarantee satisfaction In 
every order. Exhibition birds and breeding stock. 
Eggs for sale. Reference, People's Bank. 

BUFF T.EGHORNS Thoroughbred young Stock 

for sale. Eggs, $1, $2 and J3 per 13. C. W. Hansen, 
San Mateo, Cal. 

WILLlAiM NILES & CO., Los Angeles, Cal. Nearly 
all varieties of Poultry, Dairy Cattle and Hogs. 

Send for Illustrated and descriptive catalogue, free. 

R, G. HEAD, Napa, Cal., breeds all kinds pure 
bred fowls; 400 choice birds to select from. 


for poultry. Every grocer and merchant keeps it. 

Sheep and Qoats. 

R. H. CRANE, Petaltuna, Cal. Breeder & Importer. 
Southdown Sheep, also Fox Hounds from Missouri. 


F. H. BURKE, 626 Market St., S. F.— BERKSHIRES. 

REGISTERED Poland-China Hogs for sale. Cor- 
winTecumseh strain. Sulphur Spring Farm, Niles 

M. M:ILLER, Elislo, Cal. Registered Berkshires. 

FORTY HEAD Berkshires and Poland Chinas. 
Chas. A. Stowe, Stockton, Cal. Box 283. 

J. P. ASHLEY, Linden, San Joaquin Co., Cal. 
Breeds Poland-China, Essex and Yorkshire Swine. 


Best Stock; also Dairy Strains of Jerseys and Hol- 
stelns. Wm. Niles & Co., Los Angeles. Est. 1876. 

TYLER BEACH, San Jose, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs. 


SANTA ROSA, CAL. (Care Santa Rosa National 
Bank.) Importer, Breeder. E.xporter. 

S. C W/hlte Leghorns, 
S. C BroiA/n Leghorns, 
Barred F»lymotJth IV o c tc s , 
Black /Vllnorcas. 

Eggs, 83 per 13.-®* «S-Send for Circular. 


In large or small lots, from Barred Plymouth Rock, 
S. C. Brown Leghorn and Black Minnrcas, at 50c 
perdoz. MRS. J. G. FREDERICKS. Madison, Cal. 








Short -Horn Bulls 




Baden Station, San Mateo Co., Cal. 

The cars of the S. F. and San Mateo Electric Road 
pass the place. 

SAMPLE American Bee Journal. 


All about Bees aud Honey 


56 Fifth Ave. 

(EstabUsbed 1861). 
Wf-okly. paf/es. $1 a year. 
160-p!tge j.-f'^K'"; ♦ 
Free 1 





Sample copy oi 


A Handsomely Illastrated nrr CM DDI I CC 
Magazlne^nd Catalog, of D C t OU T r LI 
EREE. TH£A.I.ROOTCO.>i!Iediiia.O. 


And Guide to Poultry Saisers for 1895. 

Contains over JSOfine illustrations show- 
ing a photo of the largest hennery in the 
west, Gives best plans for poultry houses, 
sure remedies and recipes for all diseHses, 
also valuable Information on the kitchen 
and flower garden sent for only 10 cents. 

John Bausober, Jr., P.O. Boz60,Freeport, XU. 

In These Dull Times 

Voii Can Larffely Increase 

Your Income b.v buying an Incu- 
bator and en^apin? in the chicken 
busines.s. Send stamp for our 
cataloerue of Incubators, Wire 
Netting:, Blooded Fowls and Poul- 
try Appliances generally. Remem- 
ber the Best li the Cheapest. PACIFIC 
INCUBATOR CO., 1317 Castro St., 
Oakland, Cal. 



1313 Myrtle Street, Oakland, Cal. 

Send Stamp for Circular. 

^^"■""'^^» provements on the Jubilee Hatcher 
make it head the list. It is a perfect self-reg-nlating 
hot water machine, with copper boilers and an 
entirel.v new s.vstt-m of operation. The sizes made 
now are lUO. 300. HOO and SOO-eg-sr capacity. For sale 
by H. F. WHITMAN. A^ent. 204.5 Alameda Ave.. Ala- 
meda. Cal. Send lor circular. 




Tliousands in Sue- 
ceMNful Operation. 


Guaranteed tohatcha 
larger percentage of 
fertile e(tg8, at less cost, 
than any other Inoabator. 
_ Send 6c. for lllas. Catalog. 
Hafcber made. I Circulars Free. 

GEO, n. STAHL,! 14 to 1 88 8. 6th 8t..Onliicy,lll. 

■^★★★* **★★*★★*★**★* ******* 

* " 

^ III) 

* fOTTl. 

* loinie. POPLTRY FOE PROFIT"mad. pnibi. BwT-kock Information. * 

* Reliable Incubator and Brooder Co.,Quincy, III. * 


We Warrant J 
The Retiable * 

r,, Hatch 811 per cenLrtsLi Rioulatino 
Durahle. Correct in Prini^lplc, Leader ^ 
at World's Fair. 6cta. Id fltampa for . 
112 page Poultry Guide and CaU- * 
■ ■ ■ " d-Rock 




Hatches C'hlckPna hv Steam. 
iAbaolutely self-reeulnting. 
The simplest, most rellahle. 
Cata^ °~Tff and cheapest flrst-class Hatcher 

logue I B In the market Circulars flee 

4ceDts" aEO.£IlT£Ij&CO., Quinor, II], 


\ catalogue giving full" 
iiilormation regardirifj 
urtiticial hatching ami* 
t)rooding, also a 
oil poultry raining seat' 
FREE. Write uov to 
Des Moines Incubator Co. 

Hoi n JlF>.Moi' 


absolutelj Belf.regulatin^ and 
to hatch 90 percent, of the fer- 
tile eggs. Self-regulating Broodera 
Most perfect machines, best material 
and workmanshif). Prices reasonable. 
Send 4c for large illue. catalogue, tes- 
timoniala, etc. High Class Poultry 
& Eggs, Full stock Poultry Supplies. 
Peerlew Incubator Si Brooder Co., 

Qutnay* IlL' 


Porteous Improved Scraper. 

Patented April H, 1683. Patented April 17 

Manufaotiired by G. LISSENDEN. 

The attention of the public Is called to this 
Scraper and the many varieties of work of which It 
Is capable, such as Railroad Work, Irrigation 
Ditches, Levee Building-. Levellngr Land, Boad Mak- 
ing, etc. 

This Implement will take up and carry Its load to 
any desired distance. It will distribute the dirt 
evenly or deposit Its load In bulk as desired. It 
will do the work of Scraper, Grader, and^^rrler. 
Thousands o( these Scrapers are In use Inl^ parts 
of the country. 

IS^Thls Scraper Is all Steel— the only one manu- 
factured In the State. 

Price, all Steel, four-horse, »40j Steel, two-horse, 
»31. Address all orders to 


The Best 

is the 

Don't Buy 
An Inferior 

Because it is More 

Profitable to 
Some One Else. 

Squirreland Gopher Exterminator 



^Dl I vioioua Honaa* 

79,000 sold In 1891, 
100,000 sold In 1892. 


Sample mailed XC for 41 fill 
Nickel, SI. 50. *liUU 
Stallion Bits 50 cts. extra. 



OSinf •'ANTI-OORPTTLlCPrE PaL8"lo9e 15 lbs. 8 = 
~ iDontD. 0*osenoilcttoe8^,ooDttlDnopoI:«oDaiidDfver Z. 
fUl. SoM by r>rn?glst^ eT••rTw^^»^f or --nt hr nmi) par- ^ 
■ ttooUn (soiled) 4«. WILCOX SPSCIFIC CO. Fhlla. Pa. ^ 








With only one valve and GREATEST ECONOMY OF FUEL. 
Cheaper than Single Engine of same horse power. 



Write for Catalogue No. 15. 

(i!45 Sixth Street, San Francisco. 


Beware of Cheap Imitations. One gallon, mixed with 6U ffallons of 
cold water, will dip thoroughly ISO sheep, at a cost of one cent each 
Easily applied : a nourisher of wool: a certain cure for scab. Little b Dip 
la put up in red. iron drums, containing' 5 EnglLsli or 6)4 Anierlean jjallons. 
and is sold to the trade by Ihe English gallon. P'or the couveiiii-uce of our 
many customers It is also put up In one-gallon packages, for which we 
make no extra charge. E.'ich drum and package bears the orange label of 

' Little's Dip.' 


(Successors to Falkner, Bell k Co.) 400 California St., .San Francisco. 


We received many compliments tor our herd from vis 
Itors at the State Fair. We competed for 1.3 ribbons 
and won 11, as follows: 2 special; 2 sweepstakes; 3 
firsts ; 4 seconds. 

We have a few Choice Pigs for sale. 


P. O Box 685. Los Augele,}, Cal 

Feed our Poultry Food and you will have healthy chickens and lots of eggs. Ask your dealer for It. 

Genuine only with RED 
BALL brand. 
Recommended byQold- 
smith, Marvin, Gamble, 
Wells, Fargo & Co., etc., 
etc. It keeps Horses and 
Cattlehealthy. Formllch 
cows; It increases and 
enriches their milk. 
Manhattan Food Co., 
San IVIateo, CaL 



f patent Agents,! 

— .AND — 


A manual of Metliods which have Yieldetl 
Greatest Su« ces.->; with Lists ot Varieties 
liest Adapted to the Ditlerent 
Districts of the State. 

Practical, Explicit. Comprehensive. Embodying 
h e experience and methods of hundreds of success- 
ful growers, and Constituting a trustworiliy guide 
by which the inexperienced may successfully pro-, 
duce the fruits for which California is famous 
Second edition, revised and enlarged. Hy Eowabd 
J: WiciiSON, A. M., Assoc. Prof. Horticulture and 
Entomology, University of California; Horticultural 
Editor Pacific Bural Piran, San Francisco: Sec'y Cali- 
fornia State Horticultural Society: Pres. California 
State Floral Society, etc. 

Large Octavo. 599 pages, fully Ulu8bratai, price, 93.00 


Publishers Pacific Rural Press, 

220 Market Street, 

5an Francisco, Cal. 


When "pestered" beyond endurance, give 
'em a "civil service exam." like tills: Q. Are 
you a fence aeent for revenue only? Were 
you ever a lightning rod peddler? (If 'yes,' 
fire him, If 'no' go on). Are you a practical 
farmer? Know what constitutes a good farm 
fence? Have you tlioioughly tested It your- 
self? Has anyone used 11 nine years? Will 
they buy more? Is It v<!i y elastlcl If he 
answers yes to the last six, give him an order, 
for he representi the 


Orapp cyltlire Ip Caiifofpia. 

Now tliat the liilerest in the culture ot ilic orange 
is extenditig so as to embr,ace nearly all pai ts of the 
State, a book giving tiie results of experience in 
parts of the State where the growth of the fruit has 
been longest pursued will be found of wide useful- 

"Orange Culture in California" was written by 
Thomas A. Garey of Los Angeles, after many years 
of praptical experience and observation in the 
growth of the fruit. It Is a well printed hand-book 
of 22T pages, and treats of nursery practice, plantluf 
of orange orchards, cultivation and Irrlgration, 
pruning, estimates of cost of plantations, beat va- 
rieties, etc. 

The book is sent, postpaid, at the reduced price of 
75 l euts per copy, m cloth binding. Address THE 
PACIFIC RURAL PRESS, 220 Market Street, San 
Francisco, Cal. 


The Pacific Rural Press 

January 19, 1895. 




The Best Implement of lt« clat» ever produced. All of our Reieriible Spaders have adjustable 

heads so arranged that the wings may be extended and thu» run under vines and trees. 


Saj; JOSK, April 27th, 1893. 
HOOKER & Co.— Dear sirs:— I want to add my testimony to those who have tried your Pacific 
Spader asd Cultivator. It is by tar the best cultivator, pulverizer and weed destroyer I have ever 
seen and I can hardlv see how it can be Improved. Breaking; all lumps over iV, Inches thick, and 
working up the ground to the depth of 6 to 8 inches, It is just what orchardlsts and vlneyardlsts have 
loug needed. I flod no objection la your Spader because It takes power to work It. These one and two- 
horse cultivators are ' not in it " alongside of the Pacific Spader. All orchardlsts who wish to work 
up their ground thoroughly and properly should be In possession of one. O. M. BOYLE. 

thoroug:hly tested In all condl- 
tioDH and is acknowledffed to 
have more desirHble features 
than any other Orchard Culti- 


Combined Hand, foot and Power L.irt. 

THE RT5AR PRAJTE, to whleli the lers or shanks are attached, is made from two pieces extra thick 
square gae pipe. This produces the very strongest form of frame They are clamped together with 
thick wrought steel clamps and heavy bolts. T^vo wrouicht steel straps also clamp these gas pipes and 

f>roject forward and encircle the axle, and are attached to the axle so as to raise and lower, which gives s 
ow or high hitch to the gangs, and also gives more or less pitch to ihe^hovels. 

THE SHANKS OR LEGS, to which the shovels are attached, are made from steel with their from 
edge made sharp. These Shanks or Legs have a series of boles so they can be raised or lowered to meet 
any requiremeuls. 

RAISING LKVER.— We have a combined hand and foot Lever, and have also put on a stronfr sprtneto 
assist the operator In raising the gangs. This Improved construction makes this the easiest Cultivator 
to operate now on the market. 


-No. 6. five feet. 11 shovels; No. 8. six feel. IJ shovels; No. 7. seven feet. 15 shovels Write for 


We are Agents for the UNION BICYCLE. The best Bicycle manufactured in the United States. 

CRACKAJACKS RIDE CNION8. Write Immediately and secure the agency. 


The Best Cultivators Ever flade. 

"Sunset" and "Top Notch" Cultivators 



'• Weed-cutting alone will not do In California. The surface will be ashey. but just below there Is 
a hard layer which evaporate.s all that Is brought up to It bv capillary action almost as rapidly as It 
would go from the immediate surface. A slender-toothed cultivator, a narrow chisel-tooth, or a duck 
foot with a long, slim standard, which stirs, but does not ' stir up,' Is needed, as well as a weed 
cutter. Some of the newer cultivators have the two combined." 


" Atmospheric molstnre Is best absorbed by a loose, finely pulverized soil surface. In this country, 
evaporaiiou outdoes absorption over and 07er again during the season of the dryest air. No one would 
think of ' stirring up' soil to get anything out of the air, unless It might be In the fog belt. Better 
keep what moisture you have in the soil so the plant can have the full benefit of It." ^ , 


The above sensible expressions have the endorsement of the sensible fmit raisers of this 
State. Tornlns; damp soil up to the Sim's rays will not keep It damp, bat the air will make the 

Xo A\/oici E\/aporation ! 

Use shovels that loosen the subsoil without 
disturbing the top soil. 







Vol. XLIX. No. 4. 



Office, 220 Market Street. 

The Heavy Winter. 

The winter of 1895 bids fair to go 
upon record as one of tiie heaviest in 
point of snow and rain and prevailing 
low temperature during American oc- 
cupancy of California. The rainfall 
has been very great, exceeding already 
the average for the whole season in 
many localities, and wo have three 
rainy months still to come — not count- 
ing the occasional showers of JVIay. 
Probably we shall have much rain still 
to get into the ocean, for all the land 
can hold and more has already fallen. 
Tilt' mountains also support a weight of 
snow proportional to the I'ainfall of the 
valleys. Fortunately ,so far, though 
there are vast overflowed areas, there 
has been no general Hood working 
great injury to interioi- towns. In 
the open country, thougli great harm 
has been done in some localities, the 
evil of a general flood has thus far been 
averted. The tule island levees have 
thus far stood firm and nothing lik(> 
disaster has yet been experienced. 

Great losses in the aggregate have 
occurred from idleness of farm hands 
and teams. Since the middle of De- 
cember the fields of the northern and 
central regions of the gi-eat valley have 
been inaccessible to teams or have at 
least been too wet for satisfactory 
work. Thousands of acres which were 
plowed have never come into condition 
for sowing, and other lands carry now 
a crop of weeds which almost defies the 
working of the plow. No doubt the 
standing water has already destro\ed much seed on 
early-sown land, and next spring will show consider- 
able losses of fruit trees on low, undrained land 
which has bei'U too often chosen 
for orchards. These are all points 
of damage in the heavy ■rainfall; 
to offset them will come of course 
the vast harvest from lands which 
are usually too dry to yield any- 
thing, and there will be an 
amount of feed beyond all recent 
experience, for every foot of the 
surface which is not impenetrable 
rock will be covered with rank 
vegetation this year. 

On the whole, the year should 
be a notably good one. Wet years 
usually are in spite of their dis- 
comforts and incidental losses. 
We shall have hay and grain and 
pasturage enough to supply half 
the continent and fruit and 
flowers of unusual size and beauty. 
Such abundance should go far to 
srhother the lingering wail of de- 
pression and wake up the State 
to content and confidence. . , 

People who have not already decided on the 
measure of the chilly weather , by the. size of their 
coal bills may be interested to know that there is 
scientific data for a conclusion. The Weather 
Bureau has issued a special circular showing that 
in December we had a mean temperature of 50° in 
San Francisco, when the average. mean temperature 
for twenty-four years is 52°, and 66° is as low 
a mean temperature or as mean a low teniperatuTe 
as we ever had in December for over twenty 

On the California flountains. 


years, although we have dropped to 50° on several 
other years. This thing of low temperature has 
been a weakness of 1894: all through. The 


Weather- Bureau shows : that the aeoumulated 
deficiency of daily temperature during December 
was 79° ' There was an . average daily deficiency 
of 2.5°, and an accumulated deficiency of daily 
mean temperature since January 1, 1894, of 591*, 
and an average daily deficiency of 1.6". This 
wpuld .seem to be enough to account for all the 
crookedness of 1894. To lose nearly 600° of heat 
dtirfeg- the year by a steady drain of 1.6' & day is 
enough to make any ont feel poor and mean. 

Our engravings to-day present one 
of California's resources which is not 
usually counted among the possessions 
of the State, and that is the excep- 
tionally fine snow mantle of our moun- 
tains. It is an exceedingly picturesque 
feature of the State, but one which 
is as little appreciated as it is talked 
about. It is only when it asserts itself, 
as it is now doing, in the stoppage 
of overland traffic, that the public gen- 
erally notes its presence. It has not 
yet caused us the inconvenience of 
earlier years, when days multiplied into 
weeks before the trains could break 
through the mountain blockade, but 
that is no fault of the snow. It is all 
up there ready for the blockade busi- 
ness, but the machinery for its con- 
quering is much superior to that of 
former days. 

The engravings are characteristic 
mountain scenes in .lanuary. One 
shows a site on the overland line where 
the snow has well nigh buried the small 
village, while the railway runs between 
banks twenty or thirty feet high made 
by the powerful rotary plow in keep- 
ing the rails uncovered. The man 
standing in pensive mood on the rail- 
way track is not waiting for the train. 
He is merely thinking what a fool a 
photographer must be to prowl ai'ound 
in such weather. 

The other scene shows the unbroken 
solitude of the snow-clad mountain 
region away from settlements and rail- 
The gorge is well nigh choked with 
snow, and the tall pines, which in the distance seem 
like the trees of the toy shops, are in many cases 
half buried. It is a scene com- 
fortable to contemplate when one 
has his feet on a warm fender. 

The snow regions of California 
are but the settings of her green 
and flower-clad valleys, though 
they are of course of large value 
in themselves. The timber, the 
inetals, the river waters and the 
peerless farm produce of the fer- 
tile areas are all a conspicuous 
contribution to the wealth and 
greatness of the State. The 
mountain region is also a charm 
and delight as a refuge from val- 
ley heat and dust in the summer 
time. Though the country condi- 
tions are in such contrast to Cali- 
fornia's traditional fame for win- 
ter warmth and sunshine, the 
mountain region is still a heritage 
which the State could ill afford to 

way lines. 

The use of the telephone on Australian sheep 
ranches is becoming common. Its employment is 
mentioned on the Clark ranch in Montana, where all 
the sheep and shepherds are watched and handled 
telephonically by means of six stations, all communi- 
cating with a central point from which come weather 
signals, orders, etc. 

TlJ season so far has been quite open in England 
and oth* European countries. 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

Jauuary 2G, 18'J>o. 


'/,/., , . .\;.jM Markd St.; EUmlor, So. 12 From St. .Han FrancUco. Cat. 

All aubscrlbers paying 13 lu advance will receive 15 months' (one 
.\ e ir and 13 weeks) credit. For $3 In advance, 10 months. For t\ In 

vanee, five months. 

Adve,rliiin\i rates made kiwwn on iippiii'd (/<>». 

Any subscriber sending an Inquiry on any subject to the Ri-''"'!' 
PRESS, with a postage stamp, will receive a reply, either through the 
columns of the paper or by personal letter. The answer will be gUen 
as promptly as practicable. 

Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening. 

Chl7ago Office CHAS. D. SPALDING,^, 189 La Salle St. 

Registered at S. P. Postofflce as seconU-class mail matter. ^ 


K. J. WICKSON Special Contributor. 

San Francisco, January 26, 1895. 


upon him and pushed him into utterances not alto- 
p^ether creditable to Mr. Lelong. These utterances, 
as we understand them, refer merely to Mr. Lelong's 
literary and entomological talents, but when the re- 
porters carried them over to Mr. Lelong for com- 
ment they seemed to signify an impeachment for 
high cTimes and misdemeanors, and Mr. Lelong pro- 
poses, so the reporters say, to see whether there is 
any law in this country to protect a man's good 
name. Thus we have the old issue, which we hoped 
had died of heart failure long ago, reassert itself. 
The \'edalia, whose seizure from Australia has turned 
her into a sort of entomological Helen, and over 
whose economic charms the Trojans of California and 
the Greeks of Washington have so long fought, comes 
forth again to disturb the public peace. There is 
nothing in the newspaper contention of the parties 
named, except what Rural readers knew and grew 
weary of long ago, but it serves very well for the 
great dailies to make sensation of during this sort of 

not only a revelation to the Eastern visitors, but as 
well to the housewives of Sacramento, many of 
whom declared that never before had they coniprr 
hended the uses to which our dried fruits may be 
put. It is believed that this work, persistently 
carried on here and abroad, will vastly increase the 
market for our cured fruits. The expense of main 
taining the kitchen at the Pure Food Show will 
necessarily be considerable, and it will in large part 
be borne by the State Board of Horticulture, it 
being clearly within the lines of the work which it 
is commissioned to do. 

The Situation as to Wheat. 

ILLUSTRATIONS— Scene on the Railway iu the Caliloruia .Mouu 
tains; A Mountain (Jorge in Its Snow Mantle. 49. 

KDITORIALS.— The Heavy Winter: On the California Mountains, 
4i(. TheWetls; The Situation as to Wheat 50. From an Inde- 
pendent Stanilpoint. ."il. . , . 

CORRESPON'UENCE.— Mr. Keesling's Cherry .\rticle; Automatic 
Frost Signal, 52. ,,. , . , 

P.\TRQNS OF HL'SBANDRV. — A Dull Grange Week: Agri- 
cultural Experiment Stations: From Selma: Sonoma Pomona 

IIORTICULTURK.— Pomological Progress: Persimmons from Cali- 
fornia, .53. 

THE STOCK Y.VRU— American Beef Sound and Good, 53. 

THE POULTRY YARD.— Now and Then: A Hen's Rights: Cost of 
Raising Chickens, ,54. 

THE DAIRY.— U. S. Supreme Court Says Butter Must Bo Imi- 

tated. ,54. 

THE FIELD — Alfalfa Growing in Kern County, 55. 

TR.^CK .\XD FARM.— Preventing Gambling Hurts the Thorough 

bred; How ti> Miike Trotters Faster: Horse Notes, 55. 
THE HOME CIRCLE,— Words; Do All That You Can; A ConU- 

deuce. 50. The University Wants California Books; Smiles; 

Children's Hour; Bound to Have His Walk: Gems: How the Mlnd 

Is Atlected bv the Weather. 57. 
DOMESTIC ECONOM'Y — A Good Cup of Coffee, 5T 
MISCELL.\NEOUS.— CJleauings, 41. Bells; Highest Bridge iu the 

World: Cost of Railroad Cars, 58. Coast Industrial Notes. 80. 

Convention of the Fruit Exchanges: Temperature and Rainfall; 

Fruit Exchange Bulletin, 61. Sacallne. 63. 



{Xeu- /A<* 

Sprayers— H, B. Rusler, Johnstown. Ohio 

Fruit Lauds— D. N. Dilla 

Fruit Trees— Luther Burbanlc, Santa Rosa, Cal. 

Mammoth New Violet— Cox Seed & Plant Co 

Walnut Trees, Etc— Felix Gillel, Nevada City. Cal. 

Thoroughbred Poultry— A. Buschke, Tracy, Cal 

Agricultural Implements— Hooker & Co 

Sacaline— Sunset Seed and Plant Co 


63 : 

.... 58 I 
... .58 

Since ouv note last week of the de- 
sirability of an awakening on ad- 
vanced swine culture in this State, 
we have received the following invitation: 

Mr. (Kill .U;>. F. u. Lush, 
Heqiiest the pifdjfiiic o/ yuiir i'oi/ij«i;i(/ 
(It the liniiquel 
Given til the breeders attending tite annual meeting 
of the 

Xatiunal Berkohlre llceord Association, 
on Wednesday evening, 
Feb. 13. ISHo; 
at their home in Indianapolis, 

The above shows how Eastern swine bi*eeders asso- 
ciate and how they have pleasure as well as business 
in it. We are glad to see that the National Berk- 
shire Record Association have three stockholders in 
California, viz: Thomas Waite and P. H. Murphy of 
Perkins. Sacramento county, and H. P. Mohr of Mt. 
Eden, Alameda county. Mr. Mohr is down on the 
programme of the annual meeting for an essay on his 
method of breeding and handling Berkshire pigs 
from birth to weaning time. We hope it will not be 
long before we have such meetings of swine men in 
this State. 

The Exchange 

The Week. 


The meeting of the American 
Pomological Society in Sacramento 
last week was sadly depressed 
and limited by the thoroughly unsympathetic 
weather which has ruled so long. There were about 
fifty attendants from beyond the mountains, and at 
some of the sessions there were hardly fifty Califor- 
nians to participate with them in the work of the 
society. The eastern people were, however, ladies 
and gentlemen of notable horticultural eminence, and 
the earnest effort put forth by the Saci-amento 
people to welcome and entertain them was fully 
appreciated. Sacramento did herself and the State 
credit by her acts of hospitality, and it was sadly 
unfortunate that the weather prevented a fuller 
attendance of welcoming Californians. The display 
of products in the meeting hall was very fine and the 
demonstration of the quality of California dried fruit, 
cooked and served in the hall, was a success in every 
way and a taking feature of the meeting. The 
papers and addresses were of high order, as the 
columns of this and future issues of the Rural will 
show. The Eastern pomologists and their friends 
are visiting central California this week, and next 
week will receive the welcome of southern Califor- 
nia. They seem to be having a good time, and if 
they can enjoy California in her present mood, how 
they would rejoice when California is herself agaui. 
It is unfortunate to plan such events in widwinter 
even in California. 

The Convention of Fruit Ex- 
changes which was in session in 
this city last week was a business- 
like body, duly accredited by organized co-operative 
societies, and whose members, acting under the re- 
sponsibilities of representation, and unembarrassed 
by the presence of the reporter, frankly and freely 
discussed all aspects of the c(uestion.s- before them, 
finally reaching deliberate conclusions, which were 
unanimously agreed to, and which will doubtless be 
ratified by the constituencies which accredited them. 
The results are stated on other pages of this number, 
in an official statement by Manager A^^dams. and in a 
statement of the plan of organization which accom- 
panies the list of delegates. It is sufficient to say 
here that the outcome of the coiivention is a com- 
plete, and we presume final, indorsement of the plans 
of the original founders of the State Exchange, 
which wei'e, in substance, that the State Exchange, 
for a time, should lead in organization, and there- 
after become the servant of the societies which it had 
helped to create. In future the State Exchange 
must be recognized simply as the executive embodi- 
ment of all the local Exchanges, whose creature it 

State iioaril of 



The arrival of Prof. C. V. Riley in 
California to attend the meeting of 
the American Pomological Society 
in Sacramento, has stirred up B. M. Lelong, secre- 
tary of our State Board of Horticulture, and now 
the bees in both their bonnets are humming as 
angrily as during the sharp controversy of 1893. 
During the presence of Messrs. Riley and* Lelong in 
Sacramento last week they did not walk under the 
same umbrella, nor indeed was the same hotel large 
enough for both of them. Apparently neither party 
desired a renewal of the conflict, and Prof. Riley ex- 
pressly stated that he came to California on a peace 
errand; that he was out of Governmental entomology 
and that all he asked was a chance to enjoy the 
glorious climate, which he proceeded to do, with his 
trousers' logs and collar turned up — as did all others 
who attended the Sacraim^nto meeting. We imagine 
the weather had much to do with the renewal of hos- 
tilities between the parties, for when Prof. Riley 
reached San Francisco, the reporters, who are put 
to their pencils" ends for news this weather, pounced 

There is in the minds of many a 
very definite fear that the State 
Board of Horticulture will be in- 
cluded in the legislative condemnation which is just 
flow the rule at Sacramento. It is feared that the i 
Legislature will not discriminate between an agency ' 
which is faithfully doing necessary public service 
and other agencies which do little more than draw j 
money out of the public treasury, waste it in ex- i 
travagances or employ it in corrupt waj's. How ; 
ever, from what we can learn there seems little 
danger that any step will be taken which will stop 
the work being done by this Board. As yet no bill 
hostile to it has been proposed and nothing seems in 
prospect which need give fruit growers any alarm. 

Cooked Fruits at 

the Food Show. 

It is very gratifying to know that 
the free provision of properly 
cooked dried fruits to all comers, 
which was so notable a feature of the late Pomolog- 
ical meeting at Sacramento, is to be repeated at the 
Pure Food Show which opens in this city on Monday 
next. Prof. Allen, at a very considerable sacrifice 
to himself, has consented to superintend the work — 
a fact which fully assures its being done in the right 
way. All varieties of California dried fruits will be 
cooked in public and served to all who want it free 
of charge, and free instruction will be given in the 
processes of prejuiration for the table. The value of 
this is very great, for it not only calls attention to 
our fruit product, but shows people how to make use 
of it. The dried fruit kitchen at Sacramento was 

In the statistics of the world's wheat supply as 
reported at the first of the year there is a crumb of 
comfort for those who have waited long and patiently 
for an upward movement of wheat prices. It looks 
as if the decline had at last reached a point where it 
had been met by a decrease of production sufficient 
to stay the price. Taking the world at large, the 
stocks as reported January 1st are a little less than 
at the corresponding date one year ago. The figures 
are: Jan. 1, 1895, 184,753,000 bushels; Jan. 1, 1894, 
190,223,000 bushels. The difference of six million 
bushels is very slight indeed, but it is on the right 
side and is believed to mark the turn of the tide. It 
makes no perceptible difference in the immediate 
situation, for there is still a prodigious oversupply, 
and ruinous prices still rule; but it indicates better 
things for the future. 

In all the older countries where land is valuable 
the production of wheat shows a marked falling off. 
In England the area planted to wheat is very much 
reduced as compared with a few years back It is 
understood that India is in a measure drawing out 
of the market, for there is no profit to her people in 
growing wheat at present prices. Only in the Ar- 
gentine Republic is the industry still expanding, and 
that country will probably continue a great producer 
of wheat. The American production for last season 
was up to the average, in spite of low prices, and it 
is promised to repeat the performance this coming 
season. Whether in the long run we can compete 
successfully with the cheap land and cheap labor of 
the Argentine remains to be demonstrated, but there 
is certainly no disposition to give way at the first 

While the general situation is thus significant of 
better times ahead, the immediate situation in Cali- 
fornia is not what we would like. The ''Deal, "or 
speculative syndicate, of which we have often spoken, 
is at last out of the market, but it holds in ware- 
house at Port Costa a vast store <)f wheat — generally 
estimated at 160,000. tons— and this in the nature of 
things is a standing menace, for it is possible at any 
time to be thrown upon the market to its utter de- 
moralization. Much of this wheat has been brought 
over from the season of 1893, and is therefore dan- 
gerous to hold. Another danger in connection with 
the facts above stated is their possible effect upon 
the freight situation. Last year, by diminishing the 
shipments of wheat and depressing the rates of 
freight, the '■ Deal ' made a bad season for shipping; 
and the consequence is that ship owners are fighting 
shy of San Francisco. The prospective tonnage 
supply is very short. e\^n for the ordinai-y volume of 
traffic, and if, in addition to the normal supply for 
shipment, there should be added the vast stock now 
held by the "Deal," it would make a wide dispro- 
portion between the amount to be shipped and the 
available tonnage. In such a situation, the natural 
result is a boom in freights. This — in view of the 
inevitable relationship of the price of freight to thi^ 
local price of wheat — would mean disadvantage to 
the producer. Whatever amount the ship owner 
might be able to exact in excess of the normal ton- 
nage rate must, in the nature of things, be taken 
from the price paid by the exporter to the producer. 

The hope is, of course, that the managers of the 
"Deal '" will unload in such ways and at such times 
as will least disturb prices. This will naturally be 
their policy, since, as large holders, they are inter- 
ested in maintaining prices: but the fear is that they 
may find themselves in a fix where they must do, 
not as they would, but as they can. The danger is, 
perhaps, not very great. We have given the facts, 
not to add to anybodv' s distrust of the market, but 
because it seems right that the farmers of the coun- 
try, who are directly interested, should know the 
inside of the situation. 

January 26, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press 


From an Independent Standpoint. 

In another column there appears information which 
will be read with satisfaction by those who have long 
waited for better prices in the wheat market. Re- 
ports of the world's wheat stocks indicate that the 
decline has reached its lowest limit, and that from 
this time on conditions are likely to be a little more 
favorable for the producer. It is hardly necessary 
to say that the Rural Press hails this prospect with 
.satisfaction; but it must add that it has small hope 
of anything like normal conditions in the world's 
wheat market until there shall be such readjustment 
6f money systems as will do away with the silver dis- 
count. Here is the situation ; In the countries which 
compete with us in the wheat trade — in Argentine, 
in India and in southern Russia — the currency is sil- 
ver alone. For all local purposes silver is as good 
as it ever was, being accepted readily in all the op- 
erations of business. In buying wheat in these 
countries the European merchant pays wholly in 
white metal, which he buys in Europe or America 
for about half of what he had to pay a few years 
back. For example, fifteen years ago an English 
sovereign ($5) would buy fifteen Indian rupees, while 
to-day it will buy thirty. Now, since the rupee is 
accepted in India to-day just as it used to be, the 
gold sovereign (when invested in rupees) will pay for 
twice as much wheat as it used to. In other words, 
the decline of fifty per cent in the value of silver has 
practically reduced the price of wheat one-half. As 
in India, so the principle applies in other silver coun- 
tries, and since we have to compete with them in the 
wheat trade, prices with us are directly affected. 
Miscellaneous circumstances have to some extent 
aided the recent downward movement in wheat, but 
in our judgment the chief reason why the old Cali- 
fornia price of one dollar per bushel has been suc- 
ceeded by a price of approximately fifty cents per 
bushel, is that silver is worth only half its old price 
in the European and American markets, while it 
still goes current on the old terms in the silver coun- 
tries. There are indications in India — where there 
is almost universal bankruptcy under the injustice of 
the silver discount — that this system cankot always 
be worked, but in the Argentine and in southern 
Russia, where the people are grossly ignorant and 
profoundly conservative, the game goes on as suc- 
cessfully as ever. What is needed — what in our 
judgment is absolutely essential to the financial 
health of our own country and of the world — is the 
restoration of silver to its old relation with gold. 
This, we believe, can only be brought about through 
international arrangement, and such an arrange- 
ment ought to be the settled purpose of American 

All of which brings it painfully to mind that there 
is in fact no such thing as an American policy. We 
have shown great capacity in political self-control 
and in the construction of governmental machinery; 
but we have failed miserably in ou'' efforts to make a 
policy — relative to finance or anything else — really 
representative of American ideas and backed by the 
national strength. Possibly, this will be denied, 
for the protectionist, the free trader, the champion 
of tariff for revenue, the gold money man, the green- 
backer, the silverite — each of these will declare that 
his particular specialty is "the true American 
policy" — but this does not make it so. Apolitical 
idea which cannot maintain itself with certainty 
through two successive elections, which is per- 
sistently and violently opposed by a large part of the 
people and which is liable at any time to be over- 
thrown, cannot reasonably claim for itself the 
character of a national policy. For example, the 
Rural Press believes, with reference to the tariff', 
that Protection in equitable and reasonable degree 
is, in our situation, a wholesome principle; but under 
all the circumstances of the time we cannot 
claim for it the status of an established 
national policy. It takes something more than 
the backing of individual opinion or of a party to 
make a national policy — in truth it takes nothing 
less than the acceptance and approval and support 
of approximately all the people. The mischief is 
that we are trying to solve scientific and social and 
philosophic problems by political methods. As Re- 
publicans and Democrats and Populists we are 
fighting over mfitters which slioiild be considered 

wholly apart from partisan motives. Brass bands, 
torchlights and passionate oratory have no just re- 
lationship to the tariff or money questions and any 
adjustment made under their influence is much more 
likely to be wrong than right. These are questions 
which should be determined upon broad considerations 
after careful study and wholly free from partisan 
motive. England does this with respect to finance 
and she makes the world pay tribute to her. Ad- 
ministrations change, men and parties come and go, 
but her national policy does not change. Is the in- 
ability to make a stable public policy a necessary and 
permanent defect in the American system ? Are we 
to be forever batted back and forth between the 
theory of one party and the theory of another ? Are 
industry, trade and commerce never to know three 
years ahead which way the national policy is going to 
face ? Are these demoralizing conditions to con- 
tinue; or shall we learn how to agree upon some just 
and permanent course of national action and be wise 
enough to hold fast to it until changing times 
enforce new motives ? 

There is a direct relationship between prudence in 
public expenditures and political morality; and by 
those whose eyes are open to the deeper significance 
of things, this fact appears the most important of the 
many considerations supporting the reform effort at 
Sacramento. Reasonable appropriations for legiti- 
mate purposes would make the State service a busi- 
ness instead of a political organization and would 
prevent the ten thousand petty corruptions which 
destroy the dignity of official life and degrade to a 
greater or less degree the character of everybody 
connected with it. Thus a system of reckless ex- 
penditure first impoverishes the tax-payer and then 
vitiates our public service. It is not too much to 
say that every dollar unwisely spent in an economic 
sense is a dollar viciously spent in a moral sense. 
It is the illegitimacy of our public expenditures which 
makes the scene alike pitiful and shameful just now 
to be witnessed at Sacramento. The State Capitol 
swarms with place hunters of every age, condition 
and sex — present not because they have any genuine 
taste or capacity for public service, but because it 
is known that effrontery, importunity and petty 
bribery may open to them small streams of illegiti- 
mate profit at the public cost. There is now in 
session at Sacramento a legislature elected in the 
midst of hard times and pledged to economy; but in 
spite of these facts, it is spending $728 per day for 
clerk hire. Of course, everybody knows that this is 
unnecessary and without excuse; that the legislature 
would be better off if it would go about its work un- 
annoyed by a swarm of sinecure employes. It is 
illegitimate, it is vicious — but it goes with the system 
and will continue until the system shall be super- 
seded by another founded upon and limited by the 
necessities of the public service. Another fact very 
notable at Sacramento just now is that funds appro- 
priated for the promotion of certain large public in- 
tents are being spent to secure still further appro- 
priations. Thus, State money given into the hands 
of commissions is being used to perpetuate the life 
of these commissions rather than for the purposes 
for which it was (with rather more than less impro- 
priety) originally designed. It might further be 
shown how there is at Sacramento a powerful lobby 
of present officials, of prospective officials and of 
political managers united in a defensive fight for the 
system as it now exists. These facts illustrate the 
connection between public extravagance and political 
immorality; and they afford the best possible reason 
— a reason even more vital and profound than the 
purely economic motive upon which the reform move- 
ment is founded — why the whole system should be 
swept out of existence. Does anybody suppose for 
one moment that, if State appropriations were given 
only to legitimate uses, and if places and salaries 
were limited to legitimate service, that the gang 
which now discredits the State and degrades itself 
would be found at Sacramento ? 

News has been received of an abortive attempt to 
enthrone the deposed Kanaka queen. A half-caste 
Hawaiian named Wilcox collected a force of 250 na- 
tives in a mountain stronghold near Honolulu, 
secured a thousand stand of arms and was making 
X'eady to attack the Government House In the name 
of the queen when bis plans wort? reported to the au- 

thorities. He was attacked in his retreat and his 
forces routed, with some loss of life on both sides, the 
principal casualty on the Government side being the 
killing of Charles Carter, a young man who was one 
of the original commissioners to Washington and well 
known in the United States. Order was promptly 
restored and affairs were moving along in their usual 
channel when the steamer left Honolulu. This little 
passage at arms in mid-Pacific has been made the 
occasion of very severe criticism in the Senate and 
throughout the country, of Mr. Cleveland. Some 
months ago, Admiral Walker reported that a revo- 
lutionary attempt was bound to be made at Honolulu 
and advised specifically that a United States ship be 
kept in the harbor, ready at a moment's notice to 
protect American citizens and their property. This 
counsel was disregarded; the event cam? when th^i-? 
was no United States ship within a thousand miles; 
and that great loss uf American life and property 
did not follow was due to the accidental fortune 
which brought the plans of the rebels to the authori- 
ties before they were able to carry them into effect. 
No immediate renewal of revolutionary effort is 
looked for, but Mr. Cleveland has been roused to the 
possible danger and has dispatched the cruiser 
Philadelphia to the Islands. The whole matter has 
had the effect to revive annexation sentiment in this 

The agitation concerning the San Francisco police 
commissionship, of which we wrote last week, has 
advanced to the stage of a fight in the courts. Mr. 
Gunst declines to recognize the authority of Gov. 
Budd to remove him and is supported in this atti- 
tude by his associate commissioners (Alvord and 
Tobin), who decline to recognize the Governor's 
appointee. This puts Mr. Menzies in a position 
where he must fight for his claims, and he has made 
formal application in the courts for an order to com- 
pel Alvord and Tobin to recognize his commission 
from the Governor. In the meantime. Gov. Budd, 
fired to indignation by the course of Alvord and 
Tobin, declares that he will remove them, and has 
named James V. Coleman and L. R. Ellert as his 
prospective appointees. 

The election of Hon. George C. Perkins to the 
U. S. Senate, which occurred at Sacramento on 
Tuesday, was the best practicable outcome of the 
situation. Mr. Perkins is not an ideal Senator, but 
he is at least a respectable and presentable man who 
may be depended on to perform the routine duties of 
his office with intelligence and fidelity. His election is 
for the unexpired term of the late Senator Stanford, 
and he will hold until March 4th, 1897. De Young, 
who was Mr. Perkins' most noisy competitor, got 
barely sixteen votes in the two houses. 


HE.4.LDSBURG is talking about putting in a creamery. 

The Zumwalt Creamery, says the Visalia Delta, cannot keep 
up with the demand for its butter product. 

Santa Barbara is preparing for its annual flower festival. 
The whole community is joining hands to make it a notable 

There is a movement on foot at Modesto looking to the ap- 
pointment of a horticultural commissioner for Stanislaus 

The Tulare Register reports that the Porter Packing Co. is 
already buying the yield of vineyards in the vicinity of Por- 
terville for the season of 1895. 

The Tulare Board of Supervisors have appointed D. J. F. 
Reed as Horticultural Commissioner to the vacancy made by 
the resignation of J. H. Morton. 

Cloverdale will hold its third citrus fair on Feb. 8th, 9th 
and 10th. The executive committee is composed of John 
Field, I. E. Shaw and L. Halloway. 

Mr. C. p. Bailey of Santa Clara Co., the well-known 
breeder of Angora goats, shipped twenty-five bucks, worth 
$100 each, to Cape Town, South Africa, last week. 

A creamery designed to work up the milk product of 1.500 
cows is about to be put in at Bodega. The directors are ; .J. 
D. Williams, L. S. Goodman, G. W. Smith, T. B. Joy and 
B. B. Biaggi. 

Blackh (Yolo Co.) letter in Woodland Denwcrat: The 
farmer who makes up his mind to buy nothing that his own 
land will produce, and then gives the plan a fair trial, will 
make a long stride in the direction of getting ahead in the 

Redlands F«c(8 ; Colton has shipped but two cars of or- 
anges thus far this year. The Exchange there is holding 
back till the fruit reaches the $3 point. Redlands people do 
not consider that the best policy, as the loss from culls will 
exceed the increased value of the fruit, In value per box the 
Colton idea may make the best appearance at the end of tho 
aeasou, but jt wiU W% Win In yesftr4 to the actual profit pep 

The Pacific Rural Press: 

January 26, 1895. 

Convention of the Fruit Exchanges. 

The AuthorltBtlTe Statement by Manager Adams ot What 
WaR AocompUshed at Last Week's Meeting. 

Sax Francisco. Jan. 21, 1895. 

In response to many inquiries respecting the 
action of the late Convention of Fruit Exchanges, I 
make the following statement ; 

It was a purely business convention whose mem- 
bers had written authority to represent important 
interests. There were represented in the conven- 
tion twenty-one local Exchanges and Unions and nine 
individual growers representing important interests, 
and who qualified for membership by expressing in 
writing their desire and intent to co-operate with 
the Exchanges upon equal terms. None of these 
gentlemen were oflieially invited — the intention being 
to first cc>n.solidate the Exchanges themselves— but 
they were unofficially given to understand that they 
would be vo!-y welcome, as they were. The Ex- 
changes unquestionably desire that all large growers 
not connected with any Exchange shall unite with 
them on equal terms. 

All fully organized dried fruit Exchanges north of 
the Tehachejn but two were represented, and from 
these there are unofficial assurances of their inten- 
tion to act with the rest. 

Fresh fruit shipping associations, representing a 
majority of the output of fresh fruit shipped in a co- 
operative way, were represented, and a committee 
from those associations was appointed to confer 
with the others. 

Lack of complete organization of the southern 
California deciduous fruit interests, sufficient to 
confer real representative power on delegates, pre- 
vented representation from that section, but our 
correspondence indicates their readiness to unite. 

The real co-operative movement of the San Joaquin 
raisin interest was fully represented and heartily in 

While all the delegates had written authority to 
consider certain specified topics, they had no power 
to absolutely pledge their constituents. The action 
of the convention will therefore go back to the Ex- 
changes and Unions for ratification; it will there be 
fully discussed by the full boards, and, when ratified 
by them, will rest upon such a broad basis of intelli- 
gent support as no co-operative movement in this 
State has ever yet had. 

As a business convention, discussing the business 
and financial affairs of the co-operative element of the 
State, its sessions were necessarily private; and 
such accounts of its proceedings as I have seen in 
the daily press not only did not cover the ground 
discussed, but often gave wrong impressions of the 
acts of the convention. All who desire to unite with 
us can readily get full information. 

Without attempting to report the proceedings of 
the coavention, I may state briefly what will be the 
effect of the ratification of its acts by the constituent 

1. Every Exchange, and every individual grower 
who joins us independently, will have placed in its or 
his hand, direct connection, through responsible 
agents, with every existing market and every new 
one which can be created. This connection will be 
of the same kind and cost the same money, if used, 
as the connections now had by the largest Exchanges 
and commission houses. 

2. Each Exchange and contributing individual 
will be supplied confidentially, and daily when neces- 
sary, with all attainable information required for the 
prompt and intelligent marketing of its or his crop. 

3. Local public Exchanges, presumably to be 
conducted by local people in the name of the Califor- 
nia Fruit E.Kchange, will be established in such local- 
ities as desire them, where, upon appointed sales 
days, all members who so desire may publicly buy or 
sell our dried products. 

4. The facilities being thus provided, each Ex- 
change or individual is left to sell when and where 
and to whom he pleases. What is paid for are the 
facilities for sale and the information. 

5. The way is opened for any closer connections 
amoBg growers through the California Fruit Ex- 
change, which experience may prove desirable. 

6. The California Fruit Exchange, as it will here- 
after be constituted, will be practically the embodi- 
ment of all existing and future local Exchanges, to- 
gether with such independent individuals as may 
join us. 

7. The general Exchange will be supported by an 
annual uniform assessment upon the sales of each 
Exchange, Union or individual. We all pay alike 
and obtain the same advantage. 

8. The Exchange will be open to all who desire to 
join it. 

9. Foi- convenience, and indeed necessity, the 
State Exchange will maintain its separate corporate 
existence, but it will be owned and controlled by the 
Exchanges, Unions and individuals who pay its ex- 
penses, and be managed by their representatives. 

10. In the fresh-fruit branch the lines have been 
laid down whereby all that can at present be accom- 
plished by any agency that can be created, will be 
done, and reliable data and studies made tor more 
effective measures in the near future. The exact 

language of the committee on the fresh-fruit trade is 
as follows: 

Rcmlvrtl, That it is the sense of this convention that the 
California Fruit Exchange, as it will be hereafter constituted, 
can profitably serve the fresh-fruit trade in the following 

1. It can watch over the promised expediting of fresh-fruit 
service as promised by the railroads, and by frequent con- 
sultation with the railroad officials ascertain and make known 
the degree of perfection or imperfection maintained, and 
whatever can be done cither by the railroads or tho growers 
to impi^ove the efflcienoy of the service. 

2. It can cause accurate official experiments to be made 
under disinterested insijection of new devices for refrigera- 
tion and other devices for packing and shipping. 

ii. It can, if proper Eastern representation can be secured, 
obtain accurate official reports ujwn existing Eastern abuses 
in the fresh-fruit trade, with names and dates of instances 
in sufficient detail to ensure correct knowledge of usual and 
average conditions, with tlio remedies, if any. which lan be 
applied, by united action. 

4. It can represent that interest in any formal consulta- 
tions which may be necessary Or wise with those engaged in 
tho business of "shipping fresh fruits, with the view.of i-emedy- 
ing any abuses which may be found to exist in that depart- 

5. It can obtain and make known the prospects of crops in 
all competing fresh-fruit districts, with the dates upon which 
their products may be likely to appear in tho markets in com- 
petition with our own — the last to be wired to us in season to 
permit all to exercise judgment in forwarding. 

6. That all fresh-fruit co-operative organizations who pack 
and sell as growers, and all persons engaged in the same busi- 
ness, and .sellers of fruit grown by such persons, shall become 
eligible to all privileges to which dried-fruit co-oiierative com- 
panies have by becoming stockholders of the State Fruit Ex- 
change, and shall pay the same percentage on gross sales of 
said green fruit. 

All the above being preparatory and looking to effective re- 
medial action, whenever sufficient reliable data have been ac- 
cumulated to justify such action. 

The manager of the Exchange is requested to officially com- 
municate with the Executive Board of the Southern California 
Fruit Exchanges, and ascertain whether it would be agree- 
able to them for the State Exchange to unite with them in 
the support of an ICastern agency, upon the basis that they 
pay the salary and direct the agency from December to June 
and the State Exchange from June to December; and if so, 
what would be the expense to this Exchange. 

The Committee on the Fresh Fruit Trade is requested to 
ascertain what number of fresh-fruit shipping associations or 
individuals are willing to join the Exchange for the above ob- 
jects, with the probable value of shipments from each, and to 
report whether in their judgment the revenue from such as- 
sociations on the same ratio that dried-fruit associations pay 
is likely to be equal to the expenditure incurred in the fresh- 
fruit interests. 

That in our judgment the railroads should assume the duty 
of supplying whatever form of refrigerator cars may be found 
best, without the intervention of refrigerator companies, 
thereby making possible at least a reduction of charges equal 
to the present profits of the refrigerator companies. 

H. E. Parkek (Penrynt. 

J. A. Web-ster (Vacaville). 

J. B. BcRRELL (Wrights). 

D. C. Vestal (San Jose). 

Geo. D. Kellogg (Newcastle). 


On motion the report of the Commltiee on Green Fruits was 

There was represented at the Convention an out- 
put of not l6Ss than $2,000,000, ' and probably over 
$2,500,000, and an additional output of not less than 
$500,000 is now ready to accept the work of the Con- 
vention. This quantity alone is sufficient to support 
tho central Exchange by a tax which will be felt b}'^ 
no one, and which will make the actual aggregate 
expense of marketing not greater, but 

The above outline expresses not only the views of 
the Convention, but those which the stockholders 
and directors of the California Fruit Exchange have 
had from the beginning. 

In order to afford time for the ratification of the 
work of the Convention by the several Exchanges, 
and to give the latter, after uniting in the State Ex- 
change, to have their proper influence in the election 
of directors, the annual meeting of the stockholders 
of the California Fruit Exchange was adjourned to 
meet on Thursdav, Jan. 31st, at 10 a. m., at the of- 
fice of the State Board of Horticulture, 220 Sutter 
street, San Francisco. Edward F. Adams, 

Manager California Fruit Exchange. 

Following is a complete list of the delegates present 
at the meeting : 
California Fruit Exchange— B. F. Walton, Timothy Paige, 

F. N. Woods, John Marklev, Philo Hersev, E. A. Wheeler, 
C. H. Norris, D. T. Fowler, Ben. H. Allen, W. J. Dobbins, C. 
C. Thompson. 

Saiiffi Clara County Fruit Exchange (San Jose)— Philo Hersey, 
H. G. Keeslinp, G. A. Bean. J. T. Grant, C. F. Wyman, Noah 

G. Rogers, F. M. Righter, H. C. Morrell. 

Wcsl Side Fruit Growers' Asgocialion (Santa Clara)— S. P. 
Saunder.s, R. W. Hersey. 

fViUow Gien Fruit r;»i((jH (Santa Clara Co.)— David Cobb, C. 
W. Cutler, G. W. Worthen. C. R. Williams, A. H. Upton, 
Hiram Pomeroy, Edward Mavnard, E. M. Thomas, J. W. 
Badger, E. A. Wilcox, E. C. Slowe, Mrs. J. H. Starke. 

Campbell Fruit Union (Santa Clara Co. )— F. M. Righter. 

East Side Fruit Union (Santa Clara Co.)— G. A. Bean, H. L. 
Stevens, A. Y. Chamberlain, A. H. Stinson. 

Ben-y&surt Fruit Union— .J. T. Grant, D. C. Vestal. 

Pajaro VaUey Fruit Exchange (Watsonville)— J. A. McCune, 
Wm. Henderson. 

Napa Fruit Company (Napa) — A. D. Butler. 

Kern Count u Fruit Ejc/ia?ioe (Bakerslield)— R. Frisselle, H. 
C. Park. 

Sonoma County Fruit Erchange (Santa Rosa) — E. W. Dev- 
ereaux, H. Lapham, W. H. Harris, C. S. McLellau, E, Hart. 

Corralitiii Co-operative Drying A Cnnnlnii Co. (Corralitosi— H. 
M. Rider, A. M. Tate. 

Mt. Shatta Fruit Association (Anderson)— L. C. Frisbie, Wm. 

Sutter, Butte A Yuha Co. Fruit Exchange iYubn City)— B. F. 
Walton, H. P. Stabler. 

Oswald Fruit Amiociittion (Yuba Citv) — F. Hauss. 

mUs Co-operalivr. Pried Frail Union (Nilos)— H. J. Tilden, J. 
C. Shinn. 

Ea*ton Packing Co. (Fresno Co.)— Robert Smith. 
Selma Raisin Packing Co. (Fresno Co. )— Geo. W. Terrill. 
Orosi Friiif Exchange (Tulare Co.) — A. J. Bump. 

" nlle>-r. 

(by S. W. Hoyt, proxy), J. W. Gates, W. J. Dobbins, J. A. 
Webster. ^ 

Producers' Raisin Packing Co. (Fresno)— A. H. Powers, D. 
W. Parkhurst, W. F. Forsey. 

Contra Costa Co. Fruit Union (Martinez) S. Potter, A. B. 

Penryn Fruit Co. (Placer Co.)— H. E. Parker. 

Santa Cruz Ml. Fruit Br«/irmcre (Wrights)— E. W. Marston, 
J. B. Burrell, Edward F. Adams. 

Winters Fruit E.rchnnge (Winters)— T. S. Taylor, Geo. North, 
A. L. Stinson, Wm. Brink, J. B. Griffin. 

.•li//<itru Fruit Co. (Placer Co. )— W. E. Duzan. 

Cnli.fornia Fruit Atxociatlon (Vacaville)— J. W. Gates, J. A. 

Individual Members— T. H. Derby, F. H. Pomerov, W. H. 
Gilmore, C. C. Agee, Geo. D. Kellogg, J. D. Caunev, D. T. 
Fowler, Dr. C. M. Bates. 


In addition to the information given above by Mr. 
Adams, we learn that the form of the proposed or- 
ganization was agreed on by the proper committee, 
as follows: 

Resoh'cd — 

1st. That we recommend and urge that the fruit growers 
of this State unite in co-operative companies in their several 
localities for the better curing, packing and otherwise handling 
their fruit products. 

2d. That these several co-operative companies unite in and 
form one central Exchange. 

.3d. That the California Fruit Exchange be said central 
Fruit Exchange. 

4th. That in the formation of any plan we favor the Ex 
change method of selling. 

5th. That each co-operative fruit association become a 
stockholder of the California Fruit Exchange. 

I'lth. That a tax for the support of the central Exchange be 
levied pro rata upon the gross sales of the fruit product of the 

7th. The articles of incorporation and by-laws of the Cali- 
fornia Fruit Exchange are hereby approved! 
Respectfullv submitted. " Noah 

S. P 

A. N. 

E. W. 







D. T. Fowler, 
H. C. Park, 
H. E. Parker, 


This report was read and discussed section by sec- 
tion and unanimously adopted. 

Rainfall and Temperature. 

The following data for the week ending 5 a. .m., 
January 23, 1895, are from official sources, and are 
furnished by the U. S. Weather Bureau expressly 
for the Pacific Rural Press: 



a . 

.■ «" 

■ I- g 

: ^ 
: ? 

: & 
\ ^ 

1 Total Sea.sonal Rain- I 
: fall to Dale 

Total Seasonal Rain- 
fall Last Year to 

Average Seasonal Raln- 

Maximum Temperature 
for the Week •. ... 

Minimum Temperature 
for the Week 







Red Bluff 





14. GO 




19 70 


10 49 



San Francisco. 



12 76 











Los Angeles 

2 53 


5 32 

10 28 



San Diego 



8 23 











r(r<((c/i).' lirird Fruit F.rihonge iVaoavi 

W. Oystal 

Mr. Keesling's Cherry Article. 

To THE Editor: — I note in last week's Rural the 
reprint from the Cf/^f'w^or of Los Angeles, on the 
matter relating to cherries. There was an error in 
the article as printed, which I see you did not notice. 
It reads: "One hundred and fifteen carloads were 
canned." It should read, One hum/red mul fiftern car- 
loads Hi re s/iipji'd East. I have no means of knowing 
how many were canned, but think that more were 
canned in" 1893 than in 1894. 

I am not planting any fruit trees this winter, be- 
lieving that it is a good time to stop and let another 
season's crop and .«alos point the way for further 
planting. I would be glad to read the opinions of 
some of the Rural readers who tliink they know 
what fruits are best to plant at this time, giving 
their reasons therefor. H. G. Keeslino. 

San Jose, Jan. 14, 1895. 

No subject is more interesting or important than 
Mr. Keesling proposes. Who will tell what to plant 
this year, and why 

Automatic Frost Signal. 

Tij THE Ekitou ;— Some years ago 1 road in j-our paper an 
article saying that some one had an automatic frost signal 
that would ring a bell when there was danger from fi-osl. 

If .vou can tell me who has it or who makes it you will confer 
a great favor on an old subscriber. C. W. Brett. 

San Jose. 

We would like to know more about this frost 
alarm. It is some years since it has been publicly 
mentioned and the result of experience should now 
be made public. We shall be glad to hear from any 
one who has such a device or knows about it in the 
bands of others, 

January 26, 1895. 

The Pacific Rural Press 



Pomological Progress. 

At the meeting of the American Pomological 
Society at Sacramento last week, of which general 
mention is made elsewhere in this issue, the Presi- 
dent, Mr. P. J. Berckman of Georgia, gave an able 
annual address from which we take the following sig- 
nificant paragraphs: 

We rejoice that we arc afforded this opportunity of 
greeting our Pacific friends upon their own hearth 
and form new friendly ties, which shall be as ever- 
lasting as ar6 the ethics of our society. In reviewing 
the work of the American Pomological Society since 
its inception in 1848, and the comparatively restricted 
tei-ritory which it then covered, we stand amazed at 
the progress made in this science. In the early his- 
tory of the society many problems relating to po- 
mology were unsolved ; scientific investigations had not 
received the attention which in later years have made 
clear what was once obscure, and many of the ob- 
stacles to successful fruit culture have been gradually 
removed by systematic scientific work. Our General 
Government has given matei'ial aid toward advanc- 
ing our methods of production, by diffusing there- 
suits of the work of the various scientific divisions of 
the United States Department of Agriculture, but 
greater benefits have been derived from our State 
and local horticultural societies whose work is of more 
practical value for their immediate sections, and such 
of our States that have appreciated the value of 
llioir fruit products as a source of wealth have wisely 
given their aid to its progress. 

Many States by legislative appropi-iations and 
legal enactment have so protected the fruit-growing 
industry as to have vastly increased their revenue 
and population and advance their educational and 
material progress. The )nagnitude of California's 
fruit industj-y is in a great measure due to the liberal 
course adopted by its State Government; older States 
may derive a practical leS!5on from these commendable 
principles, and be morefiberal in giving the practical 
aid they have so far withheld. The establishing of 
State Experiment Stations sustained by Federal ap- 
pi-opriation is wise in pi-incii)le. and whei-e sucii sta- 
tions are conducted solely with a view of advancing 
all methods of culture they have been connected with 
good results. 

I'rogirsKii.'n Fainoloj/ij. — We number now among us 
as co-workers your own Burbank, whose conscientious 
experiments have given you such new creations in 
fruits and flowers as has never heretofore been 
achieved. We honor him and gratefully acknowledge 
his efforts in advancing scientific pomology. 

While the object of the American Pomological So- 
ciety at its origin was the advancement of a scien- 
tific pursuit, its influence upon fruit culture became 
so marked that it was deemed necessary to devote a 
portion of its work to commercial pomology in order 
to improve the methods of bringing fruit products 
before the people, and thus materially aid both in 
the production of better fruit and educating the con- 
sumers as to their special value. The gradual and 
rapid changes which have taken place in our large 
market centers denote that this is due to a better 
knowledge of fruits by those who dispose of our 
products. Certain varieties of fruits owe the in- 
crease in their production to the intelligent manner 
in which our most progressive commission merchants 
bring these before the purchasing public, and many 
methods as to the proper handling of fruits for com- 
mercial purposes have been adopted from their sug- 
gestions and thus greatly benefited the producer. 
Many varieties of indifferent quaUty which formerly 
contributed to the bulk of our market products are 
superseded by better sorts, and are now seldom seen. 
In this commercial pomology has been greatly aided 
by scientific methods of cultivation. 

('omjxtition in Fnii/ Pnidiictx. — The supply of prod- 
ucts has kept pace with the gradual increase in the 
area of fruit culture, but the old methods of both 
supply and demand have been revolutionized with the 
advent of California products in Eastern and Western 
markets. Eapid transportation has solved the prob- 
lem of increased production in your State, where 
fruits of endless varieties attain to such wonderful 

The immense quantities of your atti-active fruit 
which have of late years been so almndant in our 
Eastern markets have had the effect of cheapening 
fruits and bringing these within the means of those 
who were formerly debarred from their purchase and 
use, and also caused fruit-growers in other sections 
to so improve their methods of cultivation by a judi- 
cious selection of varieties and careful ])a( king and 
handling, that the results of this compel i1 inn liave 
been most-)jotent in advancing poniologie il jjrogrc'ss 
and augur well for further improvement. 

Cimliali/j/ Ainoni/ F/inuilnf/f.sfs. — The cordiality 
which exists among the progressive pomologists of 
the world is to be commended; there is a freedom of 
that prejudice^ and ji>alousy which is so often mani- 
fested in other avocations. Our European friends, 
among whom we find men of the most, advanced 
scientific attainments, greet their American co- 
workers with that s])irit of friendship which is ea- 

gendered from mutual appreciation and esteem, and, 
as is shown by the special report of Felix Sahut, 
President of the Horticultural Society of the Depart- 
ment of Hera,ult, France, in which the work of the 
twenty-third session has been extensively reviewed 
and commended as worthy of imitation by their own 

In asking your acceptance of this token of coi-diality 
from our friends of the National Pomogical Society 
of France I feel assured that you will unite in tender- 
ing them your fraternal greeting and well wishes for 
their success. The National Society of Pomology of 
France has also devoted a large space in several of 
its monthly bulletins to elaborated notices of our last 
session, and the following extract from their report 
will also be gratefully appricated by all our 

"The American Pomological Society can justly 
lay claim to its influence in the rapid development of 
the prosperity of the United States, a development 
of which we have fully noted the many great charac- 
teristics. Through its powerful organization the 
dissemination in fruit culture throughout the immense 
territory of the American Union is greatly due. It 
has also rendered a notable service to that country 
in increasing the fi'uit products which form such a 
large proportion of food elements, and these have 
given to the Americans another material for com- 
mercial exports. W^e think that we can draw from 
all this a valuable lesson, and for that reason we have 
considered it, our duty to elaborate this subject in go- 
ing beyond the limits of a inei-e notice." 

Aiviiti tn- Fruit- G'roir/'rs. — When this society sprung 
into existence its membership was in the main com- 
posed of amateur fruit-growers— men whose love foi- 
this pleasant occupation prompted them by united 
action to diffuse the result of then- experiments with- 
out othei' reward than the improving of our fruit 
resources. Their unselfisli laboi-s, while bringing to 
them an abundant return of personal gratification 
and pleasure, have, however, resulted in giving 
financial aid to the ])rof(>ssional i)omologist, who. be- 
ing unable to devote eit her time or money toward the 
production of new oi- inij^roved fr-uils, has found his 
pursuit made easier and moi-e remunerative from the 
work of the ainateui-. lie has drawn from the latter 
the material which has been the basis of his commer- 
cial success; wilhout this great store of pomological 
wealth his pursuit would have been practically im- 

While a large number of American nui-serymen and 
commei'cial fruit-growers have failed to affiliate with 
this society, we acknowledge the great aid which many 
of those who have become the leaders in that pro- 
fession have freely given this organization, and who 
are to-day its most loyal and active supporters. 
This society must retain its original distinctive 
characteristic scientilic amateur line of work, as 
pomological progress nuist in the end come from the 
work of amateurs, and those who are reaping the 
harvest should recognize the importance of aiding in 
its future welfare by becoming active co-workers and 
contributing their share toward an organization that 
has in a great measure been the foundation of the 
success in their commercial venture. Our older 
members are leaving us one by one; those that are 
still remaining look to our younger men to perpetu- 
ate the great work which has brought American 
pomology so prominently before the civilized world 
and given such wonderful sources of wealth to this 

We cordially invite the attendance at our session 
of our young men who look upon fruit-growing as 
their avocation. W^e desire to encourage those who 
may entertain a latent fondness for rural pursuits by 
listening to the teachings of men whose long and 
practical experience will aid them to solve hitherto 
unexplained problems and thus aid them in their 
prospective career. I earnestly ti-ust that this ap- 
peal will meet with a ready and generous response; 
we need you now that you may be prepared to suc- 
ceed us in our endeavors to promote human progress. 
We rejoice at the increased strength of many State 
Horticultural Societies, and especially the liberal 
appropriations which they receive from their respec- 
tive State G'overnnients, and as many of these legisla- 
tive grants are gradually increased it is evident that 
this is because of a corresponding increase in their 
State's revenue. In this way the co-operation of 
their most active and best citizens is enlisted, as the 
surest means to improve their jtroductive resources 
is by a judicious expenditure of public funds. 

Permit me, therefore, to urgue upon every member 
present the necessity to use his ettorts in bringing 
before their respective State's authorities the impor- 
tance of substaining their State Horticultural So- 
cieties by a liberal annual appi'opriation. It is 
through "societies that the work of the American 
Pomological Society can increase in usefulness, and 
this is only possible by muutal co-operation. 

Persimmons from California. 

Large and beautiful .Tapanese persimmons from 
California are still in the market and enterprising 
growers of this fruit are endeavoring to popularize 
it by every means possible. One method of work in 
this direction is to wrap every fruit in a square of 
thin paper on which are printed the following direc- 

tions: '' Place this fruit on a shelf or sideboard for 
ornament until it becomes soft. It will shrink some- 
what and turn to a dark color; it must not be eaten 
until it is soft in every part, which will be the case if 
it ripens properly. It should then be peeled from 
the apex. The thin skin will leave pulp readily." 
To this may be added that a Japanese persimmon, 
when set in a cut-glass or silver cup of proper size, is 
a beautiful object. It is also very nutritious, and 
when properly cooked its delicate flavor is very re- 
freshing. It certainly must prove one of our most 
popular dessert fruits when better known.— N. Y. 
Gai'den and Forest. 


American Beef 5ound and Good. 

.1. Sterling Morton, Secretary of Agriculture, 
recently examined the microscopical department of 
the Bureau of Animal Industry at Omaha. In reply 
to the question as to the object of his visit to the 
packing-houses, the Secretary said; 

" I am on a tour, investigating some of the charges 
of the European governments against American 
meats. Singularly enough, just at this time tlie 
searchlights of German}' and France are turned up- 
on the methods of governmental meat inspection in 
the United States and I am creditably informed by 
a party of high standing, socially and politically, that 
certain foreign governments are exercising a sort of 
espionage over all the pi'incipal abattoirs of the 
United States. The object of this is, undoubtedly, 
to find, if possible, some dereliction of duty on the 
part of the meat inspectors. The foreigners may 
desire to make out a case against the sanitary con- 
dition of American cattle, and from that they pre- 
mise to reduce the unliealthfulness and unedibility of 
canned and otherwise cured American beef and other 

"But during the year 1894 the Un'ited States 
Department <'f Agriculture inspected more than 
12, ()()(), UUU head of cattle. Up to date not one of all 
these millions has been demonstrated to be otherwise 
than in a sound sanitary condition. It is true, how- 
ever, that within the last four months, from a cer- 
tain foreign port, a case of contagious pleuro-pneu- 
monia in an American fat steer was proclaimed. But 
the department demanded at once by cablegram the 
number of the tag on that animal and the transmis- 
sion of a part of the lungs. The tag came, the animal 
was traced by its number to a farm where it was 
born and raised in the blue-grass region of Kentucky. 

"The animal had what veterinarians term tran- 
sit pheumonia; i. e., a cold taken on the Atlantic 
voyage. The investigation proved there never had 
been a case of pleuro-pneumonia nor any other com- 
municable or contagious disease during the last ten 
years. The European diagnosis seemed to have been 
made to order for the purpose of furnishing a sani- 
tary reason for the exclusion of American live-stock. 
The truth is that there has not been a case of pleuro- 
pneumonia among the cattle herds of the American 
Republic during the past three years. Nor was the 
sanitary condition of American herds or flocks ever 
more satisfactory than it is to-day. 

"As to microscopic inspection," continued Mr. 
Morton, " it will continue only for those houses which 
have a German or French demand for export hog 
products. During the last fiscal year 15,000,000 
more pounds of pork were microscopically inspected 
than during any preceding year. All that inspection 
was made for the purpose of satisfying the demands 
in that regard for the German and French consum- 
ers. And while it cost tlu; people of the United 
States a considerable sum to thus cater to these two 
foreign markets, the amount expended for micro- 
scopic inspection was $78,000 less than during the 
preceding year. 

"The number of cattle inspected for the fiscal 
year more than doubled that of any previous year. 
The expenses of cattle inspection was reduced from 
41 cents per head to I'i cents per head. This last 
year we inspected more than 12,000,000 head of 
cattle, and the highest number ever inspected dur- 
ing any previous year was less than '),000,000. 

" It is my ambition," said the secretary, " and my 
duty to make the United States meat inspection so 
thorough, so (flicient and just that not a single 
animal or a single pound of meat unfit for human 
food can possibly l)e passed on to the interestate 
or export markets. The stamped tag of the United 
States inspection should be, either at home or abroad, 
as satisfactory a guaratTtee^dU edibility as the certi- 
ficate of the assayei' of the United States Mint is of 
the lineness and weight of an ingot of gold. It is, 
therefore, the intention of the United States Agri- 
cultural Department to five its certification of cat- 
tle, swine and all tlie products thereof the highest 
money-purchasing power that their commodities 
can be endowed witli anywhere in the civilized meat- 
. eating world. " 

Late dispatches from Riverside state that the 
continued heavy rains have delayed the shipment of 
oranges. Until the late rains but few oranges were 
sufficiently colored to be fit for shipment but since 
then the f)-uil lias ripened very rapidly. 


January 20, 1895. 


Now and Then. 

To THE Editor:— There is an old adage, says Mason 
C. Weld, and one the truth of which is proved in our 
experiences almost every day, that "there is 
nothing new under the sun," and probably many of 
those who can remember the poultry mania of forty 
years ago, may have been led to think that the un- 
doubted revival of interest in poultry which has 
taken place within the last few years, is simply a 
repetition of that mania. Then, as now, poultry 
sold for fabulouri prices, and it was no uncommon 
thing to hear of a bird having realized S200, or a set- 
ting of eggs $25; and the fact that in 1882 a game 
cock was sold at Birmingham for $500, and at the 
Crystal Palace shows a game bantam cockerel was 
claimed for $250, would at the first sight appear to 
warrant such a conclusion as I have named. But, on 
considering the matter a Httle further, we find a 
marked difference in every respect, save only the 
large prices paid for specimens. 

The mania of forty years ago was almost entirely 
relating to one breed — the Cochin — whereas now all 
varieties of poultry receive a share of attention, 
although there are .some greater favorites and more 
valuable than others. Then, the general belief was 
that the fowls named — which, b\' the way. were new, 
and had only recently been imported from China — 
were the greatest layers and the best table fowls 
ever known, that their importation was of national 
importance, and that to obtain possession of some of 
these birds was a sure road to wealth. 

At the present day. poultry fanciers, i. e., those 
who go in for poultry breeding as a hobby, without 
caring much for the economic qualities of the birds, 
and who are the persons that pay such high prices 
for first-class specimens, have no claim to be re- 
garded as public benefactors, and neither deceive 
themselves nor any one else by ]X)sing in such a man- 
ner. They say plainly that they keep poultry as a 
hobby; it ministers to their pleasure when striving ' 
after an ideal standard, which may or may not im- 
prove the birds so far as their profitable qualities 
are concerned, but for that they care little. They 
claim the same liberty as the fox-hunter or the 
sportsman, and are willing to pay for their pleasure; 
and if they pay very high prices for birds they do so 
in the same way as others do for fancy stock, and | 
can generally get their money back again. There- 
fore, it will be seen at once that there is a very 
marked difference between the poultry fanciers of ' 
forty years ago and those of to-day. and there is [ 
very little probability of any repetition of the col- ] 
lapse of the present mania, if such it can be called, 
for there is now no deception as to the end in view. 


The prices now paid for fresh eggs, not only in the 
cities but in all great manufacturing centers, would j 
have been regarded as fabulous a few years ago. j 
Thirty years ago fresh eggs could be bought at | 
twelve and one-half to twenty cents a dozen, but now i 
these are seldom ever less than two cents each, and . 
oftener three cents, four cents, and even five cents 
each. We have been informed by a lad}', who lives 
within two or three miles of a military headquarters, 
that during June and July she can sell about thirty ! 
dozen eggs per week at sixty cents a dozen. They ■ 
are sent for, to her own door, the cash paid [ 
down, and she could sell twice as many if she had . 
them. This is undoubtedlj' an exceptional instance, j 
but only exceptional as to the time of year, for the i 
price is not an uncommon one for the winter season. 
Doctors, when ordering their patients to have eggs, | 
nearly always insist upon their being fresh, as they I 
know how much better they are than when even only 
a few days old. And cooks can tell the same story 
with respect to the way they use them. Only those 
who have kept fowls of their own, or been favored 
by getting properly fresh ones, know the real 
pleasure of eating an egg, and there are many who 
cannot eat one if more than three or four days old. 
And when we consider how important an addition, in 
its varied uses, an egg is to the meal, it will be seen 
how the matter comes home to every one, apart 
from all economic questions. H. F. Whitman. 


for laying hens. Never give more food than will be 
eaten up clean. 

Give the hen a chance and she will pay 200 per 
cent on your investment. I had 125 chicks hatched 
in an incubator in March last. I gave fifty chicks to 
the tender care of a mother hen, and put the others 
in a brooder. The hen scratched and labored for her 
flock: I did the same for the brooder chicks and, if 
anj'thing, I beat the hen. When three months old I 
sold the young broilers, which left sixty fine pullets. 
When six months old they commenced to lay. Eggs 
soon were twenty-five to thirty cents per dozen. 
Through November and December, two months, each 
pullet has averaged for eggs seventy-one and a half 
cents apiece, or a total of $43. Feed for two months 
has been $6, or ten cents a chick, besides having the 
milk from one cow to mix their feed. 


U. S. Supreme 

Court Says Butter Hust Not 
Be Imitated. 

Cost of Raising Chickens. 

The Experiment Station at Geneva, N. Y. , has 
just issued a report on an experiment conducted 
there to ascertain the cost of raising chickens. For 
the purposes of the experiment two breeds were 
selected — Cochins and Brown Leghorns. One hun- 
dred and seventeen Cochin eggs and one hundred and 
one Brown Leghorn eggs were set. In the case of 
the Cochin eggs. 4G.1 per cent were represented by 
strong, healthy chicks. In the of the Leghorns, 
75.2 per cent were so represented. Charging the 
Cochin eggs at twenty-four cents per dozen, the 
cost of each chick, when hatched, including the cost 
of keeping the hens while setting, was 4.65 cents. 
Charging the Leghorn eggs at twenty-four cents per 
dozen, the cost of each chick when hatched, includ- 
ing, as before, the keep of the hens whilst sitting, 
was 2.82 cents. Taking the two breeds together, 
the cost of every strong, healthy chick hatched was 
3.58 cents. The young chicks were kept indoors a 
few days and then put into an apple orchard and 
allowed to run at will. The food fed to the growing 
chicks was mixed grain, cracked wheat, skim milk, 
dessicated beef, and finely-cut fish bones. 

When the young fowls were put into the poultry- 
houses and the sexes separated, which was for the 
Cochins at the average age of 109 days and for the 
Leghorns at the average age of eightj'-four days, 
the Cochins averaged 4.05 pounds in weight and the 
Leghorns 1.83 pounds. The total cost of all food 
consumed up to this time averaged 19.17 cents per 
chick for the Cochins and 9.77 cents for the Leghorns. 
The cost per pound gain in weight made by the 
Cochins was 4.90 cents, and of that by the Leghorns, 
5.65 cents. Including the cost of hatching, the aver- 
age total cost of each chick at this time was 24.36 

cents, and of each Leghorn 12.59 cents, or 6.01 cents | United States secures 

A Hen's Rights. 

As I have studied the hen and her peculiarites 
somewhat, says a southern California writer. I would 
say that what a hen wants is hor rights If she does 
not get them she will strike just when eggs are the 
highest. First, give her a good clean house: next, 
fresh water and change of feed. A hen does not ob- 
ject to wheat three months at a stretch, but longer 
than that makes her tired. A warm mash should be 
fed in the morning— say shorts, bran and milk: then 
a feed of wheat and corn in the evening; then, for a 
change, rolled barley boiled till it is soft, and boiled 
and mashed potatoes, when cheap. Cabbage, onions 
and red poppers chopped fine, once a week, are good 

per pound for the former and 9.88 cents for the lat- 
ter. The Cochin pullets average 3.56 pounds in 
weight and the cockerels 4.52 pounds. The Leg- 
horn pullets averaged 1.65 pounds and the cockerels 
2.06 pounds. 

The Cochin c^ockerels were fed separately for a 
short period and then caponized and used in another 
feeding trial. Had they been sold, when separated, 
at the local market price, twelve cents per pound, 
they would have more than paid the cost of food up 
to this time for all in the lot. The cost of feeding 
the pullets from this time (September 17th) until 
November 21st, was an average of 20.07 cents per 
fowl. Deducting the market poultry value of the 
cockerels at the time separated from the total cost 
of all the lot would leave the net cost of eggs, hatch- 
ing and food for the Cochin pullets averaging 5.50 
pounds in weight. 13.24 cents apiece. 

The Leghorn cockerels were fed for some time 
after they were separated from the pullets before 
being sold. The cost of feeding the Leghorn pullets 
from September 7th to November 21st. was 13.09 
cents apiece. Deducting the local market value of 
the cockerels at the time of the removal, from the 
total cost of all birds in the lot, would have left the 
total net cost for the Leghorn pullets averaging 2.81 
pounds at 16.78 cents each. The sexes were about 
equal with the Cochins, but there was an unusal ex- 
cess in the number of pullets among the Leghorns 
hatched (37 per cent, more pullets than cockerels), 
so that the poultry value of the cockerels represent- 
ed a lesser proportion of the value of food consumed. 
Had the sexes been equal, at the same proportion- 
ate cost for growing, and considering the poultry 
value of the cockerels, the net cost of Leghorn pul- 
lets would have been 13.55 cents apiece, nearly the 
same as that of the Cochins. 

In calculating the cost of the food used, wheat was 
rated at 65 cents per bushel, corn at $20 per ton, 
corn meal 822, wheat branatSlS. buckwheat mid- 
dlings $18, wheat middlings $20, ground oats $26, 
linseed meal. $28, cotton-seed meal S30, dessicated 
beef at two cents per pound, fresh bone at one-half 
cent per pound, and skim milk at twenty-four cents 
per 100 pounds. 

It may be noticed that Leghorn eggs hatched more 
chicks than Cochin eggs; that fifty chicks from 100 
eggs, under hens, were secured from Cochins, that 
the Leghorns ate less food; that the Cochins were 
much heavier at certain ages. It shows that six 
cents per pound covered the cost of the most expen- 
sive chicks. The experiment is a valuable one. and 
may be studied carefully with advantage. 

The U. S. Supreme Court, the highest tribunal in 
the land, has declared that, to give a thing the 
semblance of butter which is not the true product of 
the cow is an offense against society. The decision 
was rendered in a case which went from Massa- 
chusetts on appeal from the law of that State, which 
declared that no compound manufactured of fat not 
butterfat could be sold in the State when made in 
imitation of yellow butter, but provided for the sale 
of oleo " in a separate and distinct form and in such 
manner as will advise the consumer of the real char- 
acter, free from coloration or ingredient that causes 
it to look like butter.'' A salesman of oleo was con- 
victed under this act and the case finally went to the 
United States Supreme Court, which affirmed the 
decisions of the lower court and declared the law 
sound. The court, through Justice Harlan, argues 
the case vei'y clearly and cogently as follows: 

It appears, in this case, that oleomargarine in its 
natural condition is of " a light yellow color." and 
that the article sold by the accused was artificially 
colored " in imitation of yellow butter.'' Now, the 
real object of coloring oleomargarine so as to make 
it look like genuine butter is that it may appear to 
be what it is not and thus induce unwary purchasers, 
who do not closely scrutinize the label upon the pack- 
age in which it is contained, to buy it as and for 
butter produced from unadulterated milk or cream 
from such milk. The suggestion that oleomargarine 
is artificially colored so as to render it more pal- 
atable and attractive can only mean that customers 
ai-e deluded by such coloration into believing that 
they are getting genuine butter. If any one thinks 
that oleomargarine not artificially colored so as to 
cause it to look like butter is as palatable or as 
wholesome for purposes of food as pure butter, he is 
already, as observed, at liberty under the statute of 
Massachusetts to manufacture it in that State or to 
sell it there in such manner as to inf(jrm the cus- 
tomer of its real character. He is only forbidden to 
practice in such matters a fraud upon the general 
public. The statute seeks to suppress false pre- 
tenses and to promote fair dealing in the sale of an 
article of food. It compels the sale of oleomargarine 
for what it really is by preventing its sale for what 
it is not. Can it be that the Constitution of the 
to any one the privilege of 

manufacturing and selling an article of food in such 
manner as to induce the mass of people to believe 
that they are buying something which in fact is 
wholly different from that which is offered for sale ? 

This question of the court, says the Breeders 
Gazette, carries its own answer. In this city some 
manufacturers of butter and lard compounds are 
advertising them as substitutes of greater merit 
than the articles named, and if all manufacturers 
had dealt thus openly with consumers we should have 
been spared the necessity for restrictive legislation. 
Unfortunately, they at first assumed the right to 
sell these substitutes to jieople as the genuine 
articles, justifying the fraud on the ground that they 
were giving the public a better article than the 
genuine. Of course such sophistry cannot stand a 
moment's scrutiny. 

The court thus disposes of the original- package ' 
argument : 

"And yet it is supposed that the owners of a com- 
pound which has been put in a condition to cheat 
the public into believing that it is a particular 
article of food in daily use and eagerly sought by 
people in every condition of life, are protected by 
the Constitution in making a sale of it against the 
will of the State in which it is offered for sale, 
because of the circumstance that it is in an original 
package, and has become a subject of ordinary 
traffic. We are unwilling to accept this view.'' 

And so are all other intelligent and honest peopl*. 
But observe this ringing declaration of our highest 
court — it cleaves the question to the very heart: 

" The Constitution of the United States does not 
secure to any one the privilege of defrauding the 
public. The deception against which the statute 
of Massachusetts is aimed is an offume against society; 
and the States are as competent to protect their 
people against such offenses or wrongs as they are 
to protect them against crimes or wrongs of more 
serious character." 

To sell an article for what it is not is an ''offense 
against society. The Supreme Court never pro- 
nounced a fairer opinion. It does not declare oleo- 
margarine an unwholesome product; it concedes its 
right to sale as food, but strikes from it the right to 
fly the golden-hued flag of nature's finest and most 
delicate product — butter from the milk of the cow. 
If oleo can make a market for itself the law will not 
interfere; but when it seek.s to steal the market long 
held by a pure and unadulterated natural product 
the State can compel it to be honest. The public 
has vested rights which the greedy manufacturer of 
food substitutes cannot infringe. 

January 26, 1895. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 



Alfalfa Growing in Kern County. 

C. L. f'(niiii't\ Baktrsfidd. — I have grown alfalfa for 
the past twenty years, with from 1,000 to 12,000 
acres, some on sandy loam river "bottom," and some 
on sandy desert lands. The plant is most productive 
on a sandy or loose loam surface, with a clay subsoil 
five or six feet below the surface, which assists in 
retaining moisture. Hardpan, when eighteen or 
twenty inches below the surface on irrigated land, 
does not materially affect the growth of the plant, 
but there is no profit with alfalfa on cold, wet ground. 
On lands here that have never been irrigated, the 
suface is always dry, sometimes to a depth of six or 
seven feet, but below that moisture continues until 
water is reached. Our California lands require no 
fertilizing for alfalfa, and the method of seeding is 
very simple. In December or January we plow the 
land to a depth of, say six or seven inches, and about 
the first of February sow thirty pounds of wheat or 
barley to the acre, harrowing thoroughly one way; 
then sow about eighteen poimds of alfalfa seed, har- 
row lightly, and, if the surface is rough or cloddy, 
pass a light roller or clod breaker over the field, 
leaving it in suitable condition for the mower as welt 
as insuring the best retaining of the moisture. The 
seed may be sown any time during February or March, 
and the grain and young alfalfa should be ready to 
cut by the 1st of June, yielding about two tons to the 
acre — principally wheat or barley. We then irri- 
gate, and by August 1st the alfalfa should be ready to 
cut, and will yield about three-fourths of a ton of hay 
to the acre. By the middle of October, we cut it for 
the third and last time that year. If allowed ten 
days to grow, it will then furnish good pasturage for 
all kinds of stock, if care is taken not to pasture it 
after heavy rains or during the forenoons, when the 
grass is moist from dew. The precaution is taken 
because of the danger of bloating, although in this 
dry climate, where the rainfall is not more than five 
inches during the year, there is little trouble from 
this source, and we allow the stock to run on the 
fields during all the months of the year. By seeding 
in February, we expect to have sufficient rain to 
bring up the crop and keep it growing until the 
grain is about six inches high, after which one irri- 
gation will mature the grain and keep the alfalfa alive. 
The second irrigation is given as soon as possible after 
the hay is removed from the field, and the third after 
the second cutting, the water being passed quickly 
over the land, and not allowed to stand but four or 
five hours. To accomplish this, use a large head of 
water, rush it over the surface, and remember that 
it is as essential to get the water off as it is to get it 
on, allowing no lakes or ponds to i-emain longer than 
a few hours, else the plants will be drowned out. Our 
source of water supply is the Kern river, but farms 
located so as to not admit of the use of this are pro- 
vided with pumping plants, using the " Byron Jack- 
son Centrifugal Pmnp," usually a No. 6, with a six 
or eight horse-power engine, lifting the water from 
fifteen to twenty feet. Such a plant can furnish 
water sufficient to irrigate about ten acres a day, 
where the land is properly leveled before seeding. 
Too much stress cannot be laid on the importance of 
leveling the land, so as to allow of the covering of a 
large surface with a small quantity of water. It is 
better to have the water on one inch deep than a 
foot deep. Irrigation gives quantity, while quality 
depends largely on the curing. The plant is in its 
prime after the first year, and under proper treat- 
ment will last a lifetime, though the best results are 
obtained by plowing and reseeding every seventh or 
eighth year. With a damp soil and a rainfall of from 
ten to twelve inches, the crop will not need more 
than one irrigation, and that more to drown out the 
gophers than for any other benefit. We cut our 
crop of old alfalfa about the 1st of May, and expect 
about one and a half tons to the acre; then we can 
cut every sixty days after that until cold weather 
sets in, about the middle of October or 1st of Novem- 
ber. We usually cut the first crop for hay when it 
is well blossomed out and the bloom of a deep blue; 
and when we wish to cut for seed we do not irrigate, 
as a heavy growth of grass will not produce seed. 
We never think of using a new field for seed, but much 
prefer an old one, with about half a stand, and do not 
crowd the growth; after taking off the first crop for 
hay, say between the first and middle of May, allow 
the seed crop to grow and mature the seed pods un- 
til some time between the middle of September and 
first of October, and then, under favorable conditions, 
there will be ripe, half-ripe and green pods and blos- 
.soms on the alfalfa when it is cut for the seed; the 
mowing should not be done until the older pods show 
signs of shelling out. Here, where we have no 
moisture in the atmosphere and the temperature is 
110 degrees in the shade, we rake about two hours 
after cutting, cock up immediately, and haul in three 
or four days; the hay should be thoroughly wilted; 
but not dry, before raking, and the curing should 
take place in the cock. When this is properly done, 
the hay can be stacked in any form desired, with no 
danger of heating, Good alfalfa land near here is 
worth from $75 to $100 an acre. The cost of the ap- 
pllcutiou of water, wheu properly used, is about lU 
cents ])or acre, and tin.' cost of the huy in the .stack 

is about $1.25 a ton. Contractors furnish machinery, 
labor, wire, and board and bale the hay for $2 a ton. 
Preferred bales weigh 175 to 180 pounds, and baling 
in no way affects the keeping quality of the hay, 
which, if kept dry, will remain sweet and nutritious 
for several years. Good hay, baled and delivered 
aboard the cars, is now selling for $8.50 a ton, and a 
fair average for a number of years would be $6 a ton. 
A good stand of alfalfa should yield 500 pounds of seed 
per acre. We do all our own thrashing with our 
grain separators, Pitt's being the favorite. An 
average price for the seed is about $5 per bushel. 
There is about the same difference between the hay 
and the straw that there is between wheat hay and 
wheat straw. To rid a field of a stand of alfalfa re- 
quires a strong plow and a strong team, but when it 
is plowed and cross plowed, planted to corn, and 
thoroughly cultivated for a season, the field will be 
clear of alfalfa. The pasture is profitable and satis- 
factory for horses and sheep, and hogs do remarkably 
well on it during the spring, summer and fall months. 
To pasture hogs to the best advantage, there should 
be several inclosures, in which the grass is kept 
young and tender by cutting for hay and irrigating. 
With such an arrangement, so Lhat the hogs can be 
changed from one lot to the other, the fields will be 
kept in good condition, and ten to twelve head of 
shoats should be carried through the spring and sum- 
mer months for every acre of good alfalfa. While 
they will not be fat for the butcher, they will be in 
good growing condition. During the spring months, 
cattle and sheep are liable to bloat, and as it is better 
to prevent the trouble than to try to cure it, we 
keep the stock off during wet weather and when the 
dew is on. Experience has taught us to salt our 
stock liberally while pastured on yoimg alfalfa, and 
we find that sheep and cattle do better at all times 
of the year when some rough, dry feed can be had in 
connection with the green; hay or barley straw, 
placed in mangers so that they can have free access 
to it, may save the life of many a good animal. I 
would also recommend that where the acreage is 
small no stock be allowed to pasture on the alfalfa 
at any season of the year; instead, mow the alfalfa 
every day and haul it to the stock in some less valu- 
able field — some old, worn-out pasture or timber lot. 
Horses, cows, sheep and hogs will all take kindly to 
it and thrive upon it, and the cutting can be made 
first in the spring when the plant is only six inches 
high. During wet weather it would be better to 
feed it in shallow mangers, but in dry weather it 
could be scattered on the ground. Give them all 
they will eat up clean, do not waste it, and the stock 
will do well, with no loss from bloat; and a twenty- 
acre field managed in this way will carry double the 
number of stock that could be pastured. A farmer 
should take some interest and pride in doing this 
cutting, laying off a strip each day sufficient to feed 
his stock, and he will find that in a very few days he 
can go over the sam3 groimd again, continue this 
treatment from early spring until the frosty weather 
sets in, and obtain some hay besides. 


Preventing Gambling Hurts the Thor= 

The trotting-horse men of the State of New York 
are not nearly so much exercised over the anti- 
gambling amendment of the State Constitution as 
are those who run thoroughbreds, says Macon in the 
Philadelphia Times. There are a hundred men who 
own speedy trotters to one owning a runner. This 
is because the trotter is the most useful animal. 
The thoroughbred is valuable only for the racing and 
breeding purposes. Very few thoroughbreds are 
used as saddle horses, and still fewer are broken to 
harness. The trotting man doesn't bet so heavily on 
his pets, either. Contests of speed at country fairs 
and agricultural meetings often engage the very best 
of trotters. The kings of the running turf ai-e 
seldom engaged in any meetings of the kind. The 
trotting man, therefore, feels that he is likely to 
benefit more by the new order of things than his 
confrere of the running turf, and he seems disposed 
to let the latter bear the brunt of getting any relief 
possible from the incoming Legislature. He was 
pretty generally ignored when the negotiations for 
the Ives pool law were in progress, and now he is 
possessing his soul in patience. He feels certain 
that he won't get the worst of it in any event. 

How to Make Trotters Faster. 

Since the pneumatic tire has done so much for 
trotting speed the racing thought seems to turn to 
increasing speed in the track rather than in the 
horse. W. B. Fasig, the retiring vice-president of 
the New York Driving Club, has a new idea about 
track preparation, which, if accepted, he believes 
will enable Alix to trot very close to 2:00 next 
season. Mr. Fasig was for many years secretary of 
the Cleveland Driving Park, where Maud S. made 
her still unbeaten record of 2.03^ to a high wheel 
i sulky on a regulation track, and he is an expert in 
j the busincbij of putting' trottiujj' trackhi ou thu edge 
' for record-breaking. His idea \h that a track should 

first be made elastic and firm by sprinklmg. When 
it had dried out just right on the surface he would 
harrow a pathway for the queen of the turf as close 
to the pole as possible, making the surface loose 
enough to the depth of half an inch, so that it would 
take away the sting to the feet which comes from a 
too hard track, and then with a narrow roller he 
would make a hard, smooth path for each of the 
sulky wheels, thus getting the least amount of 
friction on the ground. Mr. Fasig estimates that 
this special preparation for both horse and sulky 
would make a dift'erence of one or two seconds in the 
record of Alix, and he says the little mare can surely 
trot in 2:02 under favorable conditions without this 

Monroe Salisbury has a like idea. The track is to 
be wet down at least twelve hours before the trial. 
By this time, Mr. Salisbury argues, the top of the 
track will be firm and the water will act as a cushion. 
With a combination of the Fasig and Salisbury ideas 
Alix will be the two-minute trotter. 

Horse Notes. 

When Harry Livesey of Rotherfield, England, was 
in New York last month as sole judge of hackneys at 
the National Horse Show, he made the acquaintance 
of the trotting horse, and expressed great admira- 
tion for the distinctly American type. Alix, in par- 
ticular, he pronounced to be an almost perfect speci- 
men of horseflesh, and manifested much interest in 
the queen of the trotting turf. At the Tattersalls 
sale, which followed the show, there were three mys- 
terious purchasers " for an English gentleman," who 
proves to have been Livesey, and three American 
trotting mares are now on their way to his famous 
Trull's Hatch Stud, in Sussex, where they will breed 
to one of Livesey's prize-winning hackney stallions 
with a view to establishing a new type of road 

'■ Ringing " has become a great evil in Missouri, 
and a bill will be introduced in the Legislature at its 
present session making it a penal offense to enter a 
horse in a race to which he is not eligible or under 
an assumed name, says the Kansas City Times. This 
bill is substantiallj' the Indiana law, with a few 
changes in verbiage, which has been approved by the 
American Trotting Association. 

Summing up true economy in carrying colts 
through the winter consists not in stinting or starv- 
ing them, but in feeding them bone and muscle-form- 
ing grain in such shape as to insure its perfect mas- 
tication and assimilation. Of whatever food a colt 
eats, so much is first taken for the work of mainte- 
nance — of maintaining his body; the rest, if any is 
left, goes to form more bone and muscle, to give him 
more strength and courage, and to make him supe- 
rior to his fellows not so well fed. By far the major 
portion of his ration is used up in the work of main- 
tenance, but the profit is derived from the added 
amount which promotes his growth. Hence, to stint 
the colt's feed is to voluntarily cut off profit. Bad 
treatment never made a good horse. If a colt is 
worth keeping at all, he is worth keeping well. 

It is said that more mares will be bred this coming 
season than were bred either last spring or the pre- 
vious one, which is undoubtedly due principally to 
the reduction that has taken place in service fees, 
says the Horse World. When the services of a highly- 
bred stallion of good individuality and demonstrated 
race-horse qualities can be secured for a fee ranging 
from $25 to $50 any owner of a good mare can raise a 
colt that can be disposed of at a price that will yield a 
fair profit on the cost of raising and developing it. 
The prices of light-harness horses seem to have 
reached a basis now upon which each person identi- 
fied with the young horse during his breeding, growth 
and development may be assured of a fair profit for 
the time and money spent in preparing him for the 
field he is eventually destined to fill. 

Elephants are extremely afraid of horses, writes 
Major John Butler in "Travels in Assam." To that 
fact he owed the deliverance of his wife and child 
from a terrible death. With them he was traversing 
the jungle over an exceedingly rough road, through 
forest and grass jungle alternately. The way had to 
be cut as they advanced. I was in the lead on a 
large elephant in my whodah, with a good battery of 
guns, when about midday I heard behind me a gen- 
eral cry of alarm, and hastily rode to the scene of 
danger. It seems that just after I had passed, 
with the coolies who had cut down the jungles, a 
huge Mukna elephant rushed from the jungle in a 
terrible rage and pursued the little baggage ele- 
phant, which was just behind my wife and child. The 
little elephant screeched and fled for its life straight 
ahead. Fortunately a pony was led beside the palkee 
which contained my wife and child. The wild ele- 
phant was close upon them, and they closed their 
eyes in horror, expecting to be dragged from their 
places and trampled to death. At that moment the 
great beast caught sight of the pony. It stopped 
short, turned aside, and fled back to the jungle as if 
pursued by an evil spirit. The men were filled with 
aitouisluncat. Most of them had fled to the protec< 
tion of the trees, leaving my wife and child alouc, 




One day a harsh word rashly said, 

Upon an evil journey sped, 

And like a sharp and cruel dart, 

It pierced a fond and loving heart : 

It turned a friend into a foe, 

And e%-erywhere brought pain and \vo<>. 

A kind word followed it one day, 

Flew swiftly on its blessed way : 

It healed the wound, it soothed the pain. 

And friends of old were friends again ; 

It made the hate and anger cease. 

And everywhere brought joy and peace. 

But yet the harsh word left a trace 
The kind word could not quite efface; 
And though the heart its love regained, 
It bore a scar that long remained ; 
Friends could forgive but not forget. 
Nor lose the sense of keen regret. 

Oh, if we could but learn to know 
How swift nndsure one word can go! 
How would we weigh with utmost care 
Each thought before it sought the air, 
And only speak tlif words that move 
Like white-winged messengers of love. 

—Sunday-school Times. 

Do All That You Can. 

' I cannot do much." said a little star, 
"To make this dark world bright : 
My silvery beams cannot pierce far 

into the' gloom of night : 
Yet I am a part of (iod's great plan 

And so I will do the best that 1 can." 

' What can be the use," said a fieecy cloud, 
" Of these few drops that I hold ; 
They will hardly bend the lily proud. 

If "caught in her chalii-e of gold : 
But I. too, am part of Go<rs great plan. 

So my treasures I'll give as well as I can. ' 

A child went merrily forth to play. 

"But a thought, like a silver thread. 
Kept winding in and out all^ay 

Through the happy golden head 
Mother said ; " Darling, do all that you can. 

For you are a part of God's great plan." 

She knew no more than the twinkling star. 

Or the cloud with its rain-cupful, 
How, why, or for what all strange things 

She was only a child at school. 
But she thought : " 'Tis part of God's great 

That even I should do all ttrat Tcan." 

So she helped another child along 
When the way was rough to his feet. 

And she sang from her heart a little song 
That we all thought wondrous sweet: 

And her father- -a weary, toil-worn man — 
Said : " I, too, will do the best that I can." 

— Margaret E. Sangster. 

A Confidence. 

" Oh, the bumblebee in the punkin blow, 
Punkin blow — bumblybee, tam-te-de." 

"Clari.sse, what are j'ou sinf^ing ? 
What is the rest of it ? " 

Clarisse laughed aloud. " There isn't 
any rest to it or for me either. .1 heard 
a little child singing that as we came 
out through the streets, and it's been 
haunting me ever since. I think a 
touch of premature summer weather 
goes to my head like champagne. I 
can't be very "serious on a day like 

Louise, for this was the name of the 
other speaker, twitched with a little dis- 
contented move the boa at her throat. 
" I hate such uncertain weather my- 
self," she said; " one never knows 
what to wear. Here I am with a 
spring gown on and winter furs." 

"I don't think this uncertain," 
Clarisse returned. " When it rains 
one moment and the sun shines the 
next, I call that a day which doesn't 
know its own mind, and I have the 
same contempt for its vionilr as for a 
vascillatiiig mortal." 

■ ■ Do you always know your own 
mind ? " asked Louise, lifting a pair of 
large mournful eyes. 

" Of course. For instance, I knew 
your spring gown was lovely the mo- 
ment I saw you this afternoon. I like 
those ribbon bands so much." 

Louise turned the same doleful glance 
upon her costume. 

" Do you ? I thought I looked like a 
peppermint stick when I saw myself in 
the glass. There's just another in- 
stance of my miserable indecision of 
character. I hesitated for days over 
those ribbon band.s for fear I shouldn't 
like them, and now they are irretriev- 
able. I hate them." 

" What is the matter, dear ? " said 
Clari.s.sci. with coiniias^^ioii ;ind com- 
parative irrelevance. 

As answer two large tears rolled 

nvited us for a 
■ Thev will think 

down the cheeks of Louise. " Oh, 
Clarisse ! " she sobbed, " they are turn- 
ing back, and they'll find me crying." 

The two girls were sitting side by 
side on a rustic bench under a gnarled 
old oak tree whose .soft spring leaves 
seemed to deny the rude strength of 
the twisted boughs. It was one of the 
quietest corners of a park which had 
not been despoiled of its natural beauty. 
Where hills rose and rolled they still 
found lovely wild ravines between and 
sharp steeps. Though the land was 
clear shaven about the rustic bench, 
the rising slope behind was crowned by 
a tangled brake, a trysting-place for 
noisy birds and st|uirrels. A beaten 
park road, already white and dry, as 
if summer had indeed come, swept past 
the bench; and rounding the curve of 
the hill some distance beyond, was lost 
to view. 

Just at this vanishing point two men 
were standing, half turning in the road, 
as if to retrace their steps to the 
bench. Clarisse, darting a look at 
them, rose quickly to her feet, waving 
her two hands dismissingly. 

" Go on." she called, her hands hol- 
lowed about her mouth. " Finish your 
walk and come back for us; we want to 
rest here." 

The men seemed to hesitate and con- 
sult together. 

' ■ But they have 
walk, " said Louise, 
this so odd." 

It's their own fault. They walked 
on talking together and quite for- 
got us." 

■'We left them first to gather wild 

" Well, if you want to be caught cry- 

"Oh, no. no; send them away, 

Clarisse advanced into the center of 
the road, her lifted hand imperiously 
pointing over the hills. The fresh 
spring breeze carried to her the sound 
of the two men s laughter as they 
turned obediently away with exag- 
gerated courtesy of sweeping 
Until the little hills screened 
they kept looking back over 
shoulders. Clarisse watched their de- 
parture smiling. The smile was yet 
on her lips as she turned back to 

"Well, dear," she .said, mischiev- 
ously, ' what is it ? " 

And Louise, her eyes still on the 
road where the two figures had been, 
cried with misery too deep for blushes,. 
"Oh, Clarisse, I can't decide whicl> of 
them I love." 

" What ! " Clarisse sat very upright 
on the bench. 

" You can't be more disgusted with- 
me than I am with myself. I told you 
I had no decision in me. Until this 
winter I always thought it would be 
Laurence in the end, and I'm afraid he 
had some little reasoxi to agree with 
me, but now — " 

Clarisse waited. No more came. 
"Now is it to be Richard Manter ? " 
she asked at length. 

"I don't know. Do you think it 
should end so ? " 

"That depends," said Clarisse slowly, 
"on the beginning. To tell the truth, 
I have always agreed with you in 
thinking that Laurence would be your 
end. But of course if you find that 
you honestly love another man — and he 
loves you — " 

The last words were not exactly a 
question, yet they had the inflection of 
interrogation. Louise so accepted 

" Yes, he loves me. Sometimes I al- 
most wish he didn't, for then I could 
have settled down quietly with Lau- 
rence and not be racked as I am now. 
Clarisse, if you had to choose between 
them, which would you choose ? " 

Clarisse shook her head. "I .shall 
never be so embarrassed. This i& ati 
unequal world. If I can be sure of one 
good man's love I shall thank heaven 
fasting, and here are you with the love 
of two so equally good that you can't 
choose between them. Which is the 
most eloquent in pleading his cause, 
Tiouise ? ' 

■■ I think," said Louise, rellectively, 
■• that Mr. Manter is." 

"Dick Manter I If you can say that, 


you must be in love with him. " Why, 
he stammers horribly whenever he is 
at all excited. If he didn't stammer 
when he told you he loved you, Louise, 
I should question his sincerity. Did 
he T' 

"How can you be so trifiing. Cla- 
risse? Mr. Manter has never said he 
loved nio. I supi)Ose he will do all that 
is ])ropcr, including stammering, when 
the time comes. 1 like his little stam- 
mer. It sounds so eager." 

Clarisse sat at her friend with 
wide eyes and parted lips. "Louise ! " 
she exclaimed, " do you mean that you 
are sitting here on this bench (juietly 
disposing of a man who hasn't even 
stammered love to you " 

■'That's jiisi what he has done in 
everything but words. He's not like 
Laurence. 1 think that's his charm to 
me. For years Laurence has never 
been alone with me for a moment with- 
out saying a downright 'I love you.' 
It's almost gro,ss. Mr. Manter doesn't 
need to do that." 

"I'm afraid," said Clarisse. dryly. 
" that I like grossness in such matters. 
It saves trouble. For instance, you 
might be thinking it was yourself Mr. 
Manter cared for when it really was 
some one else. Your pretty sister 
Rose, for example, or it might even 
be I." 

Louise turned swiftly. "Rose !" she 

" It strikes me," said Clarisse, laugh- 
ing, "that you dismiss with a most 
unflattering case of mind the possibility 
of Mr. Manler's nursing a secret pas- 
sion in my direction. Now. T think of 
it, I believe his manner to me has been 
rather devoted of late. My question is: 
Is Mr. Manter attentive to me for your 
sake, or to you for my sake, or to lx)th 
of us for Rose's sake. I'm sure to an 
impartial observer it might seem any 
of the three." 

"You are talking nonsense, Louise, 
and you know it. He likes well 
enough, but — oh, I know he doesn't 
love her." 

"Then if you know, that ends sj)ecu- 
laiion. It seems a reasonable conclu- 
sion to ine, for, while 1 also like Rose 
well enough, it's you 1 love. Louise." 

She held out her hand affectionately 
to Louise, who caught and pressed it 
between hers. 

"Now, Rose is disposed of, what of 
me ■? " asked Clari.sse, nTerrily. 

Louise laughed with her. "You! 
How could it be you and 1 not 
know it ? " . 

"i don't'-quite see myself, " said 
Clarisse, candidly. " I was only U-ying 
to prove to you that you ought to be 
careful. Men do sometimes confuse 
mat-tt'rs by paying more attention to 
those near the rose than to the rose 
herself. It's often hard, i)articularly 
with a shy man, to distinguish between 
a vicarious affeclion and the real pas- 
sion. All things considered, I must 
confess again that I prefer what you 
call grossness in these affairs. I sup- 
pose I shall shock you horribly, Louise, 
but I carry my preference so far that I 
really wouldn't trust any man on earth, 
not even Dick Manter, except tied with 
the string of clearly spoken words. 
But of course if you can understand 
Mr. Manter fully without speech — " 

Louise interruiited impatiently. " Oh, 
a girl always understands if she chooses 
to. When I hear them declare they 
were 'so surprised,' I never believe a 
word of it. N^o, the only thing that 
troubles me is having no answer ready. 
Mr. Manter is not like Laurence. It 
will have to be yes or no with him. and 
I can't decide." 

Clarisse drew her 'hand from iter 
friend's clinging grasp, and deliberately 
opened her jwcket-book, from which 
she selected a small coin. 

" Do you see this " she said, hold- 
ing up the silver between her thumb 
and forefinger. Her lips were twitch- 
ing with a smile. "This is my luck 
penny, a silver lliiee-penny piece. 
Now, do you i)ray that it may be your 
luck penny. Heads, Dick — tails, Lau- 

Ijouise caught the lifted hand, her 
face glowing. "Clarisse. how can you 
When 1 asked you to help me decide, I 
never thought you could do anything 
so— so — " 

" Vulgar," su])plied Clarisse. ' 'Flip- 
ping' for a husband doesn't sound par- 
ticularly delicate, I'll admit. But I 
have a good motive back of it. I can't 
advise you, dear; you ought to know I 
can't, and if you will just trust me a 
little, this won t bo indelicate, and it 
will help you. Now. come. I promise 
you that when it'.s over you'll say that 
it was the most delicate policy. Will 
you try '!" She held up the coin and 
smiled winningly. "Trust me!" she 

With Louise's ' ' yes, " the coin snapped 
by Clarisse's thumb-nail rose in the air 
and fell upon her knee. Louise bent 
forward, half unwilling, half eager; but 
Clarisse had her hand pressed tightly 
over the bit of silver, hiding it. 

'' Wait one moment,'' she said; " we 
must fully realize the solemnity of the 
moment. If you expect this chance as 
final it has ceased to be skirmishing for 
you, Louise, as it means a close en- 
gagement. Tails will give you Lau- 
rence; heads, Dick. I choose it so be- 
cause I really think Dick has the better 
head of the two, inside. On the other 
hand, Laurence's head is of infinitely 
better finish outside. Dick's hair is 
red. and he hasn't a Roman nose. Com- 
paring further, Laurence's temper is 
the sweetest in the world, but Dick's is 
more scintillating. I should say Lau- 
rence would be the easier to live with, 
but then think of dying with Dick ! 
There seems hardly a pin to choose be 
tween them, exce})tin one point; that's 
in Dick's favor. He has known you hut 
one year, and Laurence is an old, old 
tale of devotion. Which do j'ou think 
this coin is, Louise, heads or tails " 

"Oh, let me see it, Clarisse." 

" Do you mean to abide by iff" 

"I— i think I do." 

Clarisse raised her hand and peeped 
under it. "Heads ! ' she cried, sweep- 
ing the coin into her palm. "Poor 
Tyaurence I" 

Louise, with an involuntary gestur*', 
lifted her finger to her lower lip, i)ress- 
ing it between her tei th. Clarisse 
looked up quickly. 

"It s to be Dick," she said, briskly, 
snajjping the clasp of her purse on the 
coin. "Now, that's decided, and 3'ou 
can be at peace, Louise, imless you'd 
like to ' flip " once more. Some people 
prefer to take the best two out of 

Louise's finger droi)ped from her lip. 
which curved instantly into a smile. 
" I would feel it surer," she said. 

"Would you?" answered Clarisse. 
She thrust her pocket-book deep into 
her pocket as she si)oke, and settled 
herself judicially u]K)n the bench. 
"Louise," she said, severely, "-look 
me in the face. 1 forgot to mention to 
you that j)eople only prefer the best 
two Hips out of three when the first 
flip does not suit them at all. Now an- 
swer mc one (|uestioii. ^Vhy did you 
suffer a distinct shock, and show it 
plainly, when Dick was suddenly de- 
cided upon ?" 

■'It wasn't that exactly," began 

"Then of what were you thinking 
that made your face fall inches as I 
called heads ? " 

■'I was only thinking," faltered 
Louise, ' ' that 1 could never break it to 

Hig^hest Honors — World's Fair. 





A pure Grape of Tartar Powder. Free 
.'rom Ammonia, Alum or any other adulterant 

January 26, 1895. 


Laurence, and that if I felt it so for 
him, perhaps — " 
"Perhaps what ? " 
" That I loved him best after all." 
" Clarisse bent toward her friend 
affectionately, almost gratefully, grasp- 
ing her two hands. "Of course you 
love Laurence best after all, and be- 
fore all, too. I knew you did. One 
can't always decide what one wants, 
but you can find out what you don't 
want every time by simply 'Hipping.' 
Don't you see my delicate policy now, 
Louise ? If the wrong man came I 
knew you'd feel disappointed, and so 
you did. But are you perfectly con- 
vinced, dear ? It is really and with no 
mistake to be Laurence in the end ?" 

Louise was gazing down the road to- 
ward the hill behind which the two 
figures had disappeared. . " It couldn't 
ever have been any one else," she said, 
absently. " I know now it was to be 
Laurence from the beginning." 

Clarisse lowered her eyes. ' ' Louise, " 
she said, softly, " as you are so sure, I 
must confess a little fib to you. That 
coin really fell tails, for Laurence, but 
I had to say it was heads to convince 
you that you didn't want Dick. Will 
you forgive me ? " 

Louise did not answer. Following 
her absoi'bed gaze, Clarisse also looked 
down the road to discover why. Two 
figures were approaching them from 
about the base of the green hill. 

" Louise," Clarisse whispered, "what 
a funny world this is ! Here comes the 
man you threw for and thought you 
lost, and found you must have, and the 
man — Oh, dear me, I have so much 
to confess to you ! You can't guess 
what I've been going through this half 
hour, dear. Since yesterday I've been 
engaged to Dick myself — and he stam- 
mered horribly." — Ma,rgaret Sutton 
Buscoe in Harper's Bazar. 

Children's Hour. 

The University Wants California 

To THK EurroR; — The important col- 
lection of the writings of California 
authors gathered by the San Francisco 
Women's Literary Exhibit Committee 
for the Chicago Exposition has been 
presented to the library of the Univer- 
sity at Berkeley. It is to be preserved, 
together with similar material already 
in the library, as 3, pfviuamnt i-.r/n'/iif of 
California literature. 

It will be the aim of the library to 
render the collection as complete as 
possible, and to this end the active co- 
operation of all California authors is 
earnestly solicited. 

Critics and reviewers into whose 
hands come such books and pamplets — 
many of them privately printed or is- 
sued in small editions — can render valu- 
able service to future students of our 
local literature by sending them to the 
University library for careful preserva- 
tion. J. C. RowELL, Librarian. 

Berkeley, Jan. 16, 1895. 


Much charity that begins at home is 
too feeble to get out of doors. — Texas 

" That's a good idea. Carry it out," 
said the editor to the man who came in 
with a better plan for running the 
paper. — Philadelphia Record. 

Jinks — "There is one drawback to 
these self-made men that they usually 
overlook." Filkins— " What is it?" 
Jinks — " They're seldom able to select 
their materials." — Puck. 

Scientist (at railroad restaurant) — 
" Do you know, sir, that rapid eating 
is slow suicide ?" Drummer — " It may 
be; but on this road slow eating is 
starvation." — New York Weekly. 

"When a man has attained the 
wisdom of years," asked the youth, 
"he loses his foolish belief in omens, 
does he not?" "He loses," said the 
sage, " his belief in the good ones." — 
Indianapolis Journal. 

He — "I wonder when you will be 
able to set as good a table as your 
father does?" She— "By the time 
you are able to provide as good a table 
as Vyour father does, my dear."- 
Burlington (Iowa) Gazette. 

Between the dark and the daylight, 
When the night is beginning to lower, 

Comes a pause in the day's occupations 
That is iinown as the children's hour. 

I hear in the chamber above me 
j The i)atter of little feet ; 
The sound of a door that is opened. 
And voices soft and sweet. 

A whisper and then a silence, 
I Yet I know by their merry eyes 
They are plotting and planning together 
To take me by surprise. 

A sudden rush from the stairwa.y, 

A sudden raid from the hall, 
By three doors left unguarded 

They enter my castle wall. 

They climb up into my turret, 
O'er the arms and back of my chair; 

If I try to escape, they surround me — 
They seem to be everywhere. 

They almost devour me with kisses, 
Their arms about me entwine, 

Till I think of the bishop of Bingen 
In his mouse tower on the Rhine. 

Do you think, oh, blue-eyed banditti, 
Because you have scaled the wall, 

Such an old mustache as I am 
Is not enough for you all ; 

I have you fast in my fortress 

And will not let you depart, 
But put you down in the dungeon 

In the round tower of my heart. 

And there I will keep you forever. 

Yes, forever and a day, 
Till the walls shall crumble to ruin 

And molder in dust away. 

— Longfellow. 

Bound to Have His Walk. 

! Jack is a handsome Newfoundland 
dog. Every evening at nine o'clock he 
is taken for a walk by his master, who 
has an orange wood walking-stick 
>vhich he particularly likes and usually 
tarries. Every evening at the stroke 
6f nine. Jack rushes to the hatrack in 
the hall, noses about among the walk- 
ipg-sticks and umbrellas imtil he finds 
the orangewood stick, and immediately 
afterward appears before his master, 
cari-ying it in his teeth. He wags his 
tail, and prances delightedly about, and 
shows as plainly as possible that he 
will be a broken-hearted dog if his 
friend and master omits the usual 
evening stroll. 

One evening the family were hi the 
sitting-room with some guests. A 
shower had come on, and it was rain- 
ing hard when the clock struck nine. 
The strokes had hardly died away, 
when Jack danced gayly into the room 
with the orangewood stick in his 
mouth. "No, Jack," said his master, 
" we cannot go to-night. It is raining 
too hai'd. We should get wet. Jusi: 
listen to it. Jack!" With that the 
host turned his attention once more to 
his guests and presently they heard 
.lack pulling over the things in the hat- 
rack. They supposed he was putting 
away the walking-stick, like the clever 
dog that he is. 

A few moments later a beseeching 
little bark was heard. There at the 
sitting-room door stood Jack, with an 
umbrella in his mouth. Every one flew 
for the waterproof and hat of the man 
of the house, and that gentleman, 
bearing the umbrella so persuasively 
offered him, took Jack out for his walk- 
without further delay. — Harper's 
Young People. 


The first virtue is to restrain the i 
tongue. I 
He approaches nearest to the gods I 
who knows how to be silent, even 
though ho is in the right. — Cato. I 

A pair of bright eyes with a dozen 
glances suffice to subdue a man; to en- 
slave him, and inflame; to make him 
even forget; they dazzle him so that 
the past becomes straightway dim to 
him; and he so prizes them that he 
would give all his life to possess them. 
What is the fond love of dearest friends 
compared to his treasure ? — Thackeray. 

A vulgar man is captious and jealous; 
eager and impetuous about trifles. He 
suspects himself to be .slighted, thinks 
everything that is said meant at him; 
if the company happens to laugh he is 
persuaded they laugh at hhn; he grows 
angry and testy, says something very 
impertinent; and draws himself into a 
scrape by showing what he calls a pro- 
per spirit and asserting himself. — Lord 

Sympathy, what is that? A sigh 
that flutters on the lips of the tender 
girl and dies in the whisper of the 
breeze. Individuals may know of sym- 
pathy, but when a people's aggregate 
sentiments become collected in the 
crucible of policy, sympathy vanishes 
in the air like the diamond when burn- 
ed, and nothing then remains but an 
empty crucible surrounded with the 
ashes of gross egotism. — Kossuth. 

Alas! how few of nature's faces there 
are to gladden us with their beauty! 
The cares, and sorrows, and hunger- 
ings of the world change them as they 
change hearts; and it is only when 
those passions sleej), and have lost 
their hold forever, that the counte- 
nances of the dead, even in that fixed 
and rigid state, to subside into the 
long-forgotten expre.ssion of sleepless 
infancy, and settle into the very look 
of early life; so calm, so peaceful, do 
they grow again, that those who knew 
them in their happy childhood kneel 
by the coffin's side in awe, and see the 
angel even upon earth. — Dickens. 

The superintendent, in receiving 
orders to be delivered at a certain 
time, takes this factor into calculation. 
There is a theory among many persons 
in the fire insurance business that in 
states of depressing atmosphere 
greater carelessness exists and more 
flres follow. Engineers of railway 
locomotives have some curious theories 
of trouble, accidents and increased 
dangers in such periods, attributing 
them to the machinery." Dr. Crothers 
adds that the conviction prevails 
among many active brain workers in 
his circle that some very powerful 
forces coming from what is popularly 
called the weather, control the work 
and the success of each one. 

How the Mind is Affected by the 

The psychology of the weather is 
suggested by Dr. T. I). Crothers as a 
promising subject for study. He says: 
"Very few persons recognize the 
sources of error that come directly 
from atmospheric conditions on experi- 
menters and observers and others. In 
my own case I have been amazed at 
the faulty deductions and misconcep- 
tions which were made in damp, foggy 
weather, or on days in which the air 
was charged with electricity and 
thunder storms were impending. What 
seemed clear to me at these times ap- 
peared later to be tilled with error. 
An actuary in a large insurance com- 
pany is obliged to stop work at such 
times, finding that he makes so many 
mistakes which he is only conscious of 
later that his work is useless. In a 
large factory from ten to twenty per 
cent less work is brought out on damp 
days and days of threatening storm. 


A Good Cup of Coffee. 

If thei-e is one daily comfort more 
soothing than all others, it is to be 
greeted at the breakfast table with a 
steaming cupful of good coffee these 
cold winter mornings. Now mind you, 
I say !/oo(/ coffee. Not the lifeless', in- 
sipid, sloppy liquid that often goes by 
that name; but coffee possessing that 
distinctive, delicious coffee flavor, which 
once enjoyed makes the consumer dis- 
content ever after with anything else. 

Now such coffee can be had in only 
one way— to use home-roasted and 
freshly-roasted cotfee. The factory- 
roasted coffee so extensively used by 
housekeepers is wholly devoid of that 
fine flavor. This loss may be due to 
staleness, for there is no telling how 
long the coffee has been roasted, per- 
haps months; or it may be that the 
strength is extracted in the process 
of roasting for making coffee extract. 
Anyway, the line flavor is gone, and 
the liquid made from it stands in the 
same relation to the home-roasted 
article as the warm, flat-tasting water 
of a shallow pool to the cold, crystal 
nectar of a mountain spring. 

The fact that roasted coffee is offer- 
ed at as cheap a price, and sometimes 
even cheaper, than the green coffee, is 
very conclusive that there is some 
deteriorating mystery in coimection 
with the roasting. 

It is rather an exacting task to roast 
coffee perfectly, but exjM'rience soon 
masters the work. I know of no article 
that requires a more particular tem- 
perature of the oven. If too low, the 
coffee will dry up and the flavor be 
spoiled; if too hot, it will burn <(uickly 
and roast unevenly. It recjuires vei-y 
frequently stirring. AVhen 1 roast cof- 
fee, I take a seat by the oven door, with 
.spoon in hand, and remain at my post 
until the coffee is done. I roast enough 
at one time to fill a quart jar. The in- 
stant it comes fi-om the oven it is put 
into a quart glass jar and sealed tight- 
ly. It is more convenient, of course, 
to use the market-roasted coffee. It is 
always ready for use without the labor 
of roasting it. But that convenience 
does not pay for what is lost in quality. 

To clean wall paper, wipe from the 
top toward the bottom, in strokes 
about half a yard long, with the crumb 
side of a loaf a week old cut in two. 


F in grocery 
peddlers in 



any baking 

stores, in cooking schools, or by 
kitchen, other baking po-wders 
urged upon you in place of 
is unsafe to substitute 
of the old standby, the 

recommended or 
Royal, reject them. It 
powder in place 
thoroughly tried Royal. The official reports show 
that all others are cheajjcr made powders of inferior 
strength, and contam lime, alum or sulphuric acid. 




Bell makiiif^ is one of the great in- 
dustries in this country, yet how 
seldom we hear of it. Foreign coun- 
tries recognize that our bells are 
superior in tone to any other make, 
and even the Japanese are sending 
orders to this country for bells. The 
Japanese have long been regarded as 
famous bell maKers, but they do not 
hesitate to apply to American manu- 
facturers when they find it to their ad- 
vantage to do so. There is grim humor 
in the fact that the fire-alarm bells to 
be used in Tokio have been ordered of a 
manufacturing firm in Jersey City. 

The largest bell in America is in the 
cathedral of Montreal, and it weighs 
28,000 pounds. The bell in the public 
building at Philadelphia is to weigh 
between 20,000 and 25,000 pounds. 
There is a bell at Erfurt, Germany, 
cast in 1479, and one in Notre Dame, 
Paris, cast in I860, each weighing 
80,000 pounds. The great Chinese bell ! 
at Pekin weighs 120,000 pounds, is 14 I 
feet high and 12 feet in diameter. By | 
the way, the Chinese used to make | 
1 heir bells nearly square in .shape. The 
largest bell is, of course, that in the \ 
Kremlin at Moscow. It is over 19 feet i 
in height and measures nearly 23 feet 
across the mouth. It.s thickness at 
the point where the clapper would 
strike is 23 inches; the cost of manu- [ 
facturing this work of art was about 

Highest Bridge in the World. 

Seeds, Plants, Etc. j HJ TW 

The highest bridge of any kind in the 
world is said to be the Leo river via- 
duct on the Antofagasta Railway, in 
Bolivia. South America. The place 
where this highest railway structure 
has been erected is over the Melo 
rapids, in the Upper Andes, and is be- 
tween the two sides of a canyon which 
is situated 10.000 feet from the level of 
the Pacific. Counting from the surface 
of the stream to the level of the rails 
this celebrated bridge is exactly 636i 
feet in height. The length of the prin- 
cipal span is eighty feet, and the dis- 
tance between abutments (total length 
of bridge) is 802 feet. The largest 
column is 314 feet 2 inches long, and 
the batter of the pier what is known ' 
to bridge builders as '"one in three."} 
The guage of the road is two feet six 
inches, and trains cross the bridge at a 
speed of thirty miles an hour. 

Cost of Railroad Cars. 

An ordinary flatcar costs to build 
about S380; a flat bottom coal car costs 
$475; a gondola drop bottom coal car, 
$525; a double bottom hopper coke car, 
S400; a box car. $(500; a stock car. $550; 
a ventilated fruit car, $700: a refriger- 
ator car, $8(10; a four-wheeled caboose, 
$550, and an eight-wheeled caboose, 
$700; a fifty-foot mail and baggage car, 
$3500: a second-class passenger coach. 
$4800; a first-class coach, $5500, and a 
first-class Pullman car costs $15,000. 

If Congressman Livingston can se- 
cure enough votes there will be no 
more '' waste of powder "' for informing 
people in the neighborhood of the vari- 
ous posts of the Army that ■ ' the sun 
has risen," or •'it's sundown." He 
objected to a clause in the A rmy A p- 
propriation bill a few da3's ago provid- 
ing for "$20,000 for firing the morning 
and evening gun at military posts " as 
an unnecessarj' waste of powder. ' ' My 
question is," he said, '"What is the 
practicability of it ? What is the ad- 
vantage of it either to the country or 
to the Army ? If the Lord says when 
the sun shall go down, I want to know 
how much advantage this gun is to the 
country ? " ' 

The meter is 39.375+ inches, the ! 
decimeter 3.9375, the centimeter .39375 ■ 
and the millimeter .039375 of an inch. 
A fair approximation can be had by 
calling the millimeter .04 or jV of an 
inch and the centimeter .4 of an inch, 
and by having some number to use as 
a comparator we get a better idea of 
the actual sizes, for five millimeters 
mean very little to us unless we think ! 
that it is Rbo\it I of an inch ' 

Walnut Trees. 

The most complete collection of Walnuts to be 
found anywhere: 23 varieties, including the 
May^itte or Grenoble. Franquette. Parislenne, 
Chaherte, and Vourey. the leading miirkt/ wal- 
nuts of France, all Hr"/ ijrnUf, Htvond r/fntiotion 
seedlinp trees, the only class of seedlings worth 
planting, of all the above-named varieties, besides 
rra'parturieiis and Cluster. Also r/rn fte<t trees. 


'Clairac Mammoth" D'Ente! 


The finest and largest prune ever introduced 
into this State, grading (cured) from 20 lo .3.1 per 
pound: splendid to ship East as a plum. This 
season is the first oni' that this remarkable prune 
has been put on the market. 
Everything else in the nut and fruit trei- line. 
General Catalogue, with essay on Grafting the 
Walnut, and how to redeem by grafting large, un- 
productive and defective walnut trees, with cuts, 
10 cts. per copy. 

Supplement, with Price List for the season of I 
lSi)4-95, sent free on application. This supplement 1 
contains a full description of the ■Clairnc Mam- I 

'• Plums — tell your people to grow the best 
plums: they will always find a good market." 

So said several of the largest handlers of fruits 
in Chicago when the question was asked them re- 
cently. •■ What is the most profitable fruit to plant 
now y '" 

Clyman. Uurbank. Mikado. Normand. 

Satsuma. Tragedy. Kelsey. Diamond. 
Grand Duke. Simon. Ickworth. Pond. 

Write for prices, which will 

These are the best, 
be made very low. 

Also, ulmost everything else in the Fruit and 
Nut Tree line. Seeds, Bulbs. Plants, etc. 


Napa Valley NurMeries-, 





M ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ ^^♦♦♦♦♦♦♦-♦-f 

No Irrigation. 

Crou/ers of all the L-eadlng; 
V/arletles of F'rult Tree-a. 

Correspondence .solicited. 

JAS. O'NEILL & SON, Haywards. 

Alameda County, Cal. 

Barren Hill Nursery. 

Nevada City, Cal. 


New Violet 

I 1895 

Floral Wonder. 

T!!! California. 

Immense in size; stem 12 inches long 
Intensely fragrant: color Pure V'tolet Purple. 


It has captured the San Francisco market. ' 

Last year a few thousand flowers were offered In 
San Francisco, and they were sold for TEN TIMES 
THE PRICE of Marie Louise and Russian. 

Plant vigorous and absolutely free from disease. 
Does not fade out. Last season several hundred 
flowers were picked from a single plant. 

Price of Plants on Application. 

Descriptive Catalogue of Seeds, Plants and Fruit 

Trees mailed free. 





Olllcf and < ireenliouse^ : 
Cor. ISaker and Luiubard St8., Nan KraiicUi'o. 

Nursery at Millbrae, Sau Mateo Co. 
Prune an Myrobulau. French. German. Bulgarian. 

Robe de Sargent. Cl.vman. Trajfedy. Fellenbure. 

St. Catherines tS and JIO per 100 

Apples, leadliiF sorts $8 and *I0 per 100 

Apricots, the best varieliee *I0 per 100 

Aluionds, tli»- best soft-shell sorts, 18 and $10 per 100 

Cherries, an Mazzard $10 and *12 per 100 

Peaches, best free and cllnr varieties. J.S A- f 10 per 100 

Pears, Barlli tt and other sorts iW and *12 per 100 

Koses, two-.veur-old. fleld grrown. newest and 

best old varieties 30c each. J18 per 100 

Monterey C.vpregs, Blue and Red Gum. in 

boxes, transplanted.. ll.2o >■ 100. »10 to ^^..^O i* 1000 ' 
Palm California. Japan and Australian Fan Palm. 
Phcenix (Dale Palini. Dracaenas, and a large assort- 
ment of evergreen trees, deciduous trees and slirub- 
bery. Azaleas Itidica an<l Mollis. Camellias. Rhodo- 
dendron. Fuchsias, at low prlocn. F. LUDEM.-\NN. 


Large Stock of Unirrigated Trees 

on whole Seedling Roots, warranted free 
from scale and root knot. Prices low. 
Cherries, Grapes, Nut and Shade Trees 
very low. All leading varieties. 
Normand, Abundance, Willard and Simoni 
Plums: Bungoume Japan Apricots, Early 
Bearing Apples, and Earliest Yellow 

New Price List Free. 

R. W. BELL, 


400,000 Fruit Trees 

— — OF 

Sacramento River Nursery Co., 

For sale at Cut Prices No better trees In Call 
fornla. Terms and dlaoounts aatlsfaotory 
Address OSCAR KJfOTT, Walnut OrQve, 
Or A. R. HAKVIK. Iii|el<iii. 

James A. Anderson, 

Lodi, San Joaquin County, Cal. 

Has a Choice Stock of YEARLING NURSERY 
TREES for this season's planting. Guaranteed 
free from disease and insect pests, and at prices 
to suit the limes. 

Blenheim. Royal and French Apricots. 

Hungarian, Tragedy and French Prunes. 

Burbank. Satsuma and Kolsey Plums. 

Ne Plus Ultra, La Prima. Texas Prolific, I. X. L , 
Nonpariel and Languedoc Almonds. 

Salway, Crawford, Muir and twenty other vari- 
eties of Peaches. 

Also Nectarines, Apples, Pears, Cherries, Figs, 
Oranges, Lemons, etc. 

Your prices are mine. Don't forget to write for 
particulars. Correspondence solicited and cheer- 
fully answered. Address all communications, 
J. A. ANDERSON, Lodl. Cal. 

E. J. Bo\A/en, 


Alfalfa, Grass, Clover, Vegetable 

and Flower Seeds. — Onion Sets. 

Largest Stock and Most Complete Assortment. 

Send for large illustrated descriptive and priced 
Catalogue, mailed free. 

New crop Salt Lake Alfalfa. Inquire for samples 
and prices. 

Address — 

815, 81? and 819 Sansome St., San Francisco, Cal. 
65 Front St., Portland, Or. 
Or 214 Commercial St., Seattle, 'Wash. 

Mission and Nevadillo, 

Three-Year-Old Stock, 

4 to 6 Feet and 6 to 8 Feet High. 



Pomona, California. 

Olive Trees for Sale 

GEO. H. KUHZ. SacratncDto. 

Mission, 3 years. 5 to 8 feet. 

Mission, 2 years 3 to 4 feet. 

Manzanillo, 2 years S to 3 feet. 

XevadiUo, 2 and 3 years 4 to 8 feet. 

Plcholine, 2 years 2 to feet. 

Olive Trees. 

our Book on Olive Culture. 

I-Io\A/lanci Bros.* 


01i\/e Tr^^s 


For prices and a pampblet on Olive Culture, ad- 


Orange Trees. 

Uadded trees of the leading varletieH. one and 
tnro-yPHr huds, hIso Heedllng trees from 
one to ft>ur years old — all Kood, thrifty 
Htork. free froiu scale. 

Also, a general variety of 

Nursery Stock and Trees. 

Prues to .suit the times. 

Oroville Citrus Association, 




French and Robe de Sargent 




Boj SSI SantM rura, Ca'i 


Doubtful i^eeds alone. The best 
are easy to get, and cost no 
more. Ask vour dealer for 


.Always the brst. Known 
everywhere. F^erry'* Seed 


Annual for 1805 tells 

hat, how, and when to plant, 
Bnt Free. Get it. Addruss 

D. M. FERRY & CO. 

Detroit, ,Micli. 


Sparli's Mammoth 


Prices to Meet the Timet. 

Before purchashlng elsewhere write 

H. B. SMITH Ventnra. Ventura Co., Cal. 



Apple, Peach, Cherry, Apricot and Almond 
Flrst-Clasa Trees at very low prices. 

E. GILL, Nurseryman, Oakland, Cal. 


— AND 

best varieties, free from 
pests of anv kind. Prunuii 
J — ^ J M >l<uoul, Hluf7, Kontraver 

t~^l— r-%r^ I C5 and Murd<irli Cherries; 
Klack California F1b«; Klce Soft shell and 
other Alinouds; .\raerlcan .Sweet Chestnuts; 
Prieparturlens Walnuts. Hardy mountain grown 
Oranice Trees. Our oranges have Blood 22 degree* 
ttilH winter wittiout Injury. Dollar Strawberry, 
the best berry for home use or market. Address 
C. M. SILVA « SON, Lincoln, Placer County, 


/Wonterey Cypress ! 

I> LOTS Tf> Sl lT. 

Write for Prices. 

Delivered on wharf in San Francisco. 

Address W. A. T. STRATTON, 
Seedsman & Florist, - - Petaluma, Cal. 

Cheap Fruit T rees ! 

APPLE SEEDLINGS, home grown, tranaplani. 
ing sizes, Nos. 2 and 3. 

Also large stock of FRENCH PRUNES. Write 
for prices. 

Oak Monnd Nnrsery. Lakeport, Lake Co., Cal. 

Kansas Seed House. 

Our 8pec-lnltle«t Seed Corn. Tree Seeds. Onion 
Seeds and j-ets. Alfalfa, Sacallne. Laihyrus. SU- 
vestrls. Sundvt'tclifS, Spurry, K.ilflr, and Jerusalem 
Corn, and other new foraKe plants for dry and arid 
. count rli-s. m:W C'.VTAI.OOrE MAII.F.O 

p, BARTELDES & CO., Lawrence, Kansas. 


Send {or Catalogue. 
6> F. UOOP ft SON Pomona, Cat. 

January 26, 1895. 

The Pacific Rural Press 


Once planted, stands 

Roots penetrate deep 
into the soil. 

Needs no cultivation, no 

Requires no plowing be- 
fore planting. 

It Endures the severest 
drought with impunity 

Is more nutritious than 
Clover or Alfalfa. 

Water will not drown it. 
Fire will not kill it. 

It grows where no other 
forage plant will grow. 


use but for the 




Ouc ? 25 

Six 1 2o 

Twelve . 2 2.'; 

Fifty 8 00 

Hundred 1.') 00 



I lur stock of Saraline seed is limited, but we will book 
■ irders at the following rates until stock is exhaust- 
ed. 1 pound of seed contains about 100,000 seeds. 

Packet 10 15 

Ounce 2 50 

]4 pound 7 50 

Orders booked now, for delivery after February 1st. 1895. at the above prices. 

SUNSET SEED AND PLANT COMPANY, 427-9 Sansome street, San Francisco 

Grows In poorest soils. 

Cattle cannot destroy It 

Affords shade to cattie 
In Summer. 

Is a protection against 
storms in Winter. 

Gives three andfourcut 
tings per year. 

Produces 90 to ISO tons 
of green forage per 

Stems and leaves, green 
or dry, greatly relish- 
ed by cattle. 

A "W i^'wr i ■^T'Wv "■^'■v £\ WW . m ir IK /r /\ T incorporated 1884. 500 acres 

ALEXANDER & HAJ»lMON, California Nursery Company. 

RIO BONITO NURSERIES, Biggs, Butte Co., Cal. MT ^ ^ 



Fruit Trees, Nut Trees, Small Fruits, Ornamental Trees 


The most Cuuiplele Assortment ot General Nursery Stock grown on the Pacltlc Coast. 

1,000,000 Trees for the Season of 1894-95 in Stock. 

and Shrubs, Palms, Flowering Plants, Etc, 

«- Acknowledged everywhere to be equal to the best. Guaranteed to be healthy and free from | SPECIALTY: All thC Italian, FfeilCh [and Spanish Varieties Of OUVCS Of 

cale or other pests. . Note— " Truc " Spanish Queen, Rubra, Regalis, Etc. 

Send for Catalogue and Prices. Correspondence solicited. Address: 

Alexander & Hammon, 

QtgcSCB, Butte CountVt Cal. 



Offers a Full and Complete Assortment of 




Send for Descriptive Catalogue and Prices. 

^,--=™«SS^^». ADDRESS -^li^UUW"" - 

GEO. C. ROEDING, » - = = 








(Successor to Van Gelder & VVylie.) 
Write for prices on large auU small orders. 

AC/\/VlF»0, CAL. 


at Rock Bottom Prices. 

To Close out a special lot of three-year buds of Med. Sweets (five-year roots), finely 
branched, 4x6 feet, we offer them at S25 the hundred. 

Write us if you want Med. Sweets or Wash. Navels; we can give you lower prices 
for good trees than any one. 

CaL Fan and Cham. Excelsa Palms, Laurustlnus, Dracaena Indivisa, Roses, 

Tnberoses, Etc., Etc. 

Agents wanted in every town in Northern and Central California where we are 
not represented. 



Mrs. E. M. Phaser, Propi- 
Fred C. Miles, Manager 


iiiiiiniiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitinntiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniinniiniiiinimin. '<ne 

THE most successful fanners and gardeners 2 
bny their seed directly from the growers ; for 1 
this reason we raise largely the most riskj | 
kinds, especially Cabbage and Onion Seed. This 5 
latter is extra tine this season. No catalogue con- | 
tains more varieties of vegetable seed, and none more 5 
of the new that are really good — see outside cover | 
for an illustrated selection from our new special- | 
ties, which we will sell at half rates. Catalogue /ree. | 
J. J. H. GRGOORT Sc SON, S«ed Orowm, s 

Write us tor new Catalogue.s' and Estimates Prices tu suit the times. 

JOHN ROCK, ::::::: Hanager. 

FCJUMDED 1 £3 e> =5 . 

Pajaro Valley Nursery. 



The only nursery ol'ferinjf the true and genuine Loganberry, one of the finest berries ever produced 
None can equal it. "First Introduced and ottered for sale at this nursery 

Send for catalogue, colored plate and circular 






Get our Catalogue and Prices be- 
fore purchasing your Trees or 
Anything in the Nursery Line. 

Clean, Thrifty, Healthy Stock at 
Prices to Suit the Times. 

E. C Clow/es, 



s-f -f 4- ESTABLISHED 1863. -f -f-f^ 

rsuRSER vm/viN /\rJD seedsman, 



Large aud Coiiipleli- SlocU o( Ki-uit uud Ornamomal Ti-cos and Plants, at prices to suit the time^ 



Catalogue mailed free on application. Please mention this paper. 

THOS. MEHERIN, 516 Battery Street (P. 0. BOX 2059), San Francisco, Cal. 

FINE SMALL FRUITS a specialty. 


Best Market Berry known- large, firm and lu»- 
cl )UB, stands travel fine';., bears Immensely, and 
has two crops a year; 60 cents per dozen: $3 per 100. 
Also Strawberries, Blackberries, Gooseberries, Cur- 
rants, etc., of the Qnest imported varieties. Prices 
on application. L. U. McCANN, tiautu Cruz, Cal. 


Citrus and Deciduous Trees, 


In the State, at the Home Nurseries, Pasadena, Cal. 

One and two-year-old Orange and Lemon Trees, 
the finest aud thriftiest stock ever grown any- 
where, and all the best varieties, also Homolo 
(Grape Fruit), and the Japanese Red Daucy Tan- 
gerine Orange: also the best deciduous trees 
Raspberries, Blacl?bcrries and the Wonderful 
Everbearing and other flne varieties ot Strawber 
rles. Nothing but the best of all varieties of 
Fruits and Nuts Don't fail to write for prices to 

HEWITT & CORSON. Pro'ps, Pasadena, Cal. 


Louisiana, Mo,, for free sample copy telllny about It 
A practical Fruit and Farm paper, published by 
Stark Bros.. 40c a ^ ear; circulation, 480,000 copies 
The ■• Cream of the Cream "—gives the busy Fruit 
Grower or Fanner, who hasn t the time or the money 
to buy and read a great mass ot papers, what is best 
from them all, what he wants to kuow. 


Coast Industrial Notes. 

—Southern California is now daily pro- 
ducing over seventeen hundred barrels or 

—The city of San Diego has offered JCiOO.ihki 
for the plant of the San Diego Water Comiwny. 
The offer has been declined. 

-Theraiadam and reservoir, the Wolfley 
ditch " in Arizona, has been bouirht by 
Charles Crowley of Los Angeles for *.5(i(i.(it)0. 

—Water from the Bull Uuu river was turn- 
ed rnuj the mains of Portland, Or., week. 
The water is brought nearly forty miles from 
the Bull Uun river, a mountain stream nsing 
in the Cascades near Mount Hood. The plant 
cost the city over *-j,0(l(),(KKl. 

—At the recent sale of the Hudson Bay 
Companv in London the highest price brought 
was 3Ds" a seal skin the average was .30s. 
There is a blue lot of sealing men in Alaska. 
The news was a complete surprise, for never 
have skins sold so low in the history of the 
Bering sea industrj-. 

—The Sierra Valleys Railway Company has 
incorporated to construct and oi>erate rail- 
roads in Washoe c-ounty. Xev., and in the 
counties of Sierra, Lassen and Plumas. Cal. 
The estimated length of the road is W) miles. 
The directors are J.M.Piatt, J. Elder, J. 
pnitlie, F. F. Rver and W. S. Kittle. Cap- 
ital stock i\.m).im. 

—Captain J. A. Mellon is having two lioats 
built here which he will take by rail to (ireen 
River, Wyo., in April, and, assisteil by river 
men. will'descend the Colorado river to Yuma 
and the Gulf of California. Captain Mellon 
has been running steamers on the Coloi-ado 
river thirtv-two years. He is a resident of 
Yuma, Ariz., and" proposes to make the trip of 
;iOOO miles in seventeen days. 

—Charles England, of Kelso, Wash., who is 
running a logging camp near Olequa. has a long 
chute, just one mile long, and when a log is 
placed in it at the top of the mountain, it 
reaches the bottom, plunging into the Olequa 
<-reek. in just fourteen .seconds. The chute is 
a perfect one. as there never has been a case 
where one jumped the chute. The water at 
the mouth of the chute is of sufficient depth 
that the logs are not injured in striking the 
lx>ttom of the stream. 

— D. Freeman, president of the Los Angeles 
Chamber of Commerce, the past year writes: 
■'We are still suffering from underproduction 
in the very necessities of life. When it takes 
a train of "cars nearly a mile long to bring into 
thi.s State the eggs that the enterprising hens 
of Kansas and Iowa lay for us, and when we 
import annually over 4,()(X) carloads of bacon, 
poultrv, dried fruits and other prwlucts, to the 
value "of 000, 000, that could be raised here, 
let no one croak about overdoing things in this 

—In Orange Co. the Union Oil Company has 
begun sinking wells live miles north of Fuller- 
ton and adjoining the Puente wells on the 
west. The company has over eleven hundred 
acres of land east of the Puente wells, which 
it purchased from the Stearns Ranchos Com- 
pany, a year ago. The Puente Oil Company 
is securing the right-of-way for its pipe line 
to Fullerton, and it is the intention of the 
Santa Fe Company to make this town the oil- 
ing station for their engines, as that is the 
onlv point on their line that oil can be piped 
to. ■ 

— The Snoqualmie Falls Electric Power Co., 
State of Washington, has acquired 350 acres 
of land on both sides of the Snoqualmie river, 
and an option on as much more land adjoining. 
The theoretical energy of the falls is .51,li07- 
liorse power. The plans of the coniijanj- are 
to develop and deliver by electrical transmis- 
sion, power for factories, lighting, heating, 
etc. A contract has been arranged with the 
Union Electric Company of Seattle to have 
the company furnish them with its power en- 
tirely : the price charged per horse power be- 
ing *30. The capital sto<-k is •)0,000 shares of 

—The new Sierra Valley railroad, which 
has been completed for a distante of twenty- 
three miles and is projected to ci-oss the Sier- 
ras through Beckwith Pass, has been mort- 
gaged to the Southern Pacific. Nevada pa- 
pers think that the fact that the Southern 
Pacific is aiding the project indicates that 
corporation has secured control of the prop- 
erty, with the probable intention of abandon- 
ing the Central Pacific line across the Hen- 
ness Pass route during the winter season, 
thus avoiding blockades and the heavy cost of 
maintaining the long lino of .sheds across the 
snow belt on that route. 

—Nearly 100 new buildings arc to be 
built this j'ear at the Presidio, to be 
occupied as barracks, built of brick and stone 
and inclosed by a stone wall. They represent 
an aggregate cost of about *:i(K),('lOO. Seven 
brick stables, costing about *ll(i,00ii, will also 
be built. An adniinistiation building to cost 
*.t(),(JOO, and forty brick and stone buildings, 
to cost in the aggregate *-JOO,lKXt, a stone wall 
to include a large jart of the reservation, the 
improvement of the grounds and other minor 
changes, aggregate up to ¥1.(NH).(KM) in total. 
The contract for one barrack building, to cost 
AlO.OOO ha.s been awarded. The second build- 
ing is to be tinished by next July. The de- 
IKirtmeiit is nuvv receiving bids for the stone 
wall and will soon receive bid.s for the work 
of filling in the jiarade ground, macadamizintr 
etc. ^ 

- The rivers of the Pacific coast formerly 
contained no shad, but in inro the tish com- 
mission carried a quantity of shad fry across 
the country and placed theui in the Columbia 
and other rivers. The fish propagated to such 
an extent that in IWJ th(!. number of shad 

catch of South Carolina. Though the total 
catch of shad on the Pacific coast is at present 

I very small in comparison with that of the At- 
lantic seaboard, their i-apid multiplication 
since thev were placed in the rivers of Cali- 
fornia. Oregon and Washington renders it not 
unlikely that in the near future they may be 

more plentiful on the Pacific than on the At- 
lantic coast. This is one of the most interest- 

I ing results so far recorded of the work of the 
government fish commission. 

State !>!' Ohio, Citv of Toledo, |*s C'fii-NTV. ) 
Fkank .1. Cheskv makes oath that he is the 
I senior partner of the tirm of F. J. t;HESEY & Co.. 

Uoinp business in the City of Toledo, Tounty and 
; Siati- aforesuid. and that said tlrm will pay lh<- 
; sum of O.VE HL'NURKU Ul'I^L.ARS lor each and 
' everv case of Catarrh that cannot be cured hy the 
' use of H *LL s Catarrh Cube. 

Sworn to l)efore me and subscribed in my 
presence, this 6th day of December, A. U. li«8. 


1 MadM Id ttiO Styleit, 

For either road or stable osa. 

All abapet, 8lz«« and qiuJltle& 
Wm. AVHt-S * SovB, Philada. 


A. \V (JI.EA.SON. 

\ntat ti I'lililic. 

Hall's Catarrh Cure is taken luterually and acts 
directly upon the hluod and mucous surfaces of the 
system. Send for testimonials, free. 

F. J. CHEXEV & CO.. Toledo. O. 
»*-.Sold by Druggists. 75c. 

—There are overa thousand laborers working 
with scrai)ers and shovels on the Yaqui c^inal, 
Sonora. Mexico, besides those employed on 
the dredge. The canal is expected to be fin- 
ished by April, and the dam will be constructs 
ed in May. 

A CoiGii .Shoi'lii Not ue NE<ii.E<'TEi>. 
'■ HiDwu'n BiDiicliiiil Trinhrx" are a simpli' 
remedy and give immediate and sure relief. 




Destroy the Gophers ! 

You may now gn)W alfalfa on the uplands and 
save garden, trees and flowers. 
Price t-.'. .Sold l.v tin' iraili or tjy manufacturer of 


I tnli Mini AIhiikmIh si,... Saii KraiK io-o. 


' ... . UEALEKS IN 


I 512 to 510 Sacramento St.. £>un Hranciscu, Cal. 

BLAKE, McFALL 4t (X). 

. Los Angeles 
Port land. Or. 

We desire to call the atteutiou of our read- 
ers to the advertisement of H. B. Ruslcr. 
"The Comet Force and Spraying Pump." 
which appears in another columu of thisfiaper. 
Spraying has liccoinc an absolute necessity, 
and no farmer should be without one, espe- 
cially when they i-an be purchased at .so low a 


.\ .^^'^I1II.\ .JoritN.M. fiiu 
AOc. a year In .MU'amM-. Sliiiiplc rop.\ tiialU-il l''ri»f 
on auiillcalioii. AdUresa 
P O. Box iO*. M I N N KA IM H, I S, y\ I N N. 





All Aches, 

Cuts, Hurts, 


\V.- niariiifa' tiire the ccli'bralcd ill Potato riaiiti r. .\-.|iiii»all Potato Ciiin r, 

A'<pliiuall I'ari'i Ci-i-cn Spri ii !•; !• r, etc. F.vcry niachine w:i ; i a oti'd. Thi-.-e nKi.-liiiMs 
(.Tfailv r.'flii.-c till -t of r:i;-iiu' pMiatoe<. Send Utr Free IlliiKtralcd f alaloirnc. 

ASPINWALL MANUFACTURING C3., 48 Sabin St., Jackson, Mich^ 

HUOKEK & ( <>.. .VgeiitH, 1 (i an<l IK Uruiuni Slrei-t. San KranciHCo, Cal. 

Store Vour Grain \AI\r\&r& Vour Best -<^isssBn— 
^-^-nBoa^^l nterests VA/ill MI\A/ays fc>e Consulted. 



Grangers' Business Association, 


Capacity of Warehouse, 50,000 tons; wharf accommodations tor ilie largest vessels aHoat. 
Grain received on storage for shipment, and For sale on consigDment. 

OFFICE, 108 DAVIS STREET. - - - - 


FIKST PRIZE— Medal and Diploma— California Mid-Winter Internaliooal 
RitHisitiou. . 

Cheapest, best and only one to protect trees and vines from frost, sunburn, 
rabbits, squirrels, Imrcrs and other tree pests. 

For testimonials from parties who are using them, send for descriptive cir- 


Sole /Via n ijf a c- 1 ij re r of l-*««tetit Tule Cov/ers. 

420 Ninth Street. San Francisco, Cal. 




Protect Your Trees 

Gilman*s Patent Tule Tree Protector. 


S.\N KK.*NtI.SC<», f.VI.. 


Cupitai I'Hiii ri» • 

Kenrrve Fiiixl and Cndlviiletl ProiitK, 130,000 
Ulvideudit Paifl to Stockholdent H32,04>e 

— omCBRH 

A. D. LOGAN PrHBldenl. 

I. (■. STKKLE Vice-President. 

ALBKKT .MONTPKL,LIKK....C»BhlerBnd M.ina«rer. 
FUANK .M( Ml'LLKN Sec.retar>-. 

Geiit-ral Baiikiiiir. Ix-pciB'ts R«-Hlv.'d. Gold and 
Sliver. Blllrt uf Kxcliaiitre Roiiirht and Sultl. Loann 
on Wlii'al and Cmintrv Pn>diu i- a SiH clallv. 

JaiMiar.v I. l-*;M. A -MoNTPKl.I.lKR. M.mager. 

Price's Traction 

Wc have one of these engines that was used 
abuui uuc month last seasun and was taken bacli 
by us lj> reason of illuess of purchaser. Engine Is 
in perlcci order, and in better wnrking order than 
whi^u lirsl sunt rrom the factory. A HAKG.\1N. 
Indicated power. s>horse; Cylinders. 8xtt; Wheels, 
8 ft. high. in. wide: weight, less thao m loQa.' 
Price when new, HSM). 


M> iiiiil IX l>rtiiiiiii sirf«-t. Sail l-'rauclitro. 


for your 


Any size yon want. 20 
io&6in l)>;;h Tirefl I 
to 8 in %»i<le— bube t j 
fit auy aild. Haves 
< m.-iD7 times in 
a 9eat*<'.i to have set 
of low wh(>el8 to fit. 
jroarwacnn for bauliocr 
grain, fodder, manure, 
^i :-r«. kc. No peeettinu of 
ttrefl Oatl'g tree Addrees 
iiulucy, 111. 

Busine'Ss Oollege. 

84 Pout Htreet, . - - f^^n Franrlsro. 


Tills Coilt pe Instructs In Shoi tliaud. T.viK'-Wrliliig. 
H'liikkfi'iiliitr. TfU'trraphv. Peniiiaiishlp. Drawing, 
al . Iht' Kiitjltsh branohOH. and everyltilnp i>ertalnlnjr' 
i(» hnshn'ss, for full si.x months. We have 8lxt,cen 
ti-.-irhcrs ami ^rlvf Imllvhlual Instruclli^n tti all uur 

A Department of Electrical Ensfineering; 

flab Lmm*ii i>Ht:ililiMhr>d under a tlioroufrltly qnattfioti 
iiiHlnictor. The <'inirHi' in pra*-lloaI. 
Send for i'lriMiiar. r. s. HALKY, Sec. 

caught on the coast of California vvas 5>n, 4^4; u . , • ^?.'^ ^ "^^.^^'^ ^C.?" "^f - >,V'?,''r^^ r-. 

and 2ii,a5o more was taken in the Columbia HyQraulic, Imgatiou and.Power Plants,.WeU Pipe,.Etc., all >sizes. 

river. The totii pati<li i>f chml fr.,- 1 suo „„ ° ' - .. .. 

river. The total catch of shad for 1.^1*2 on the 
Hacific coast was in excess of the number 
caught off Connecticut, .Rhode Island and 
Massachusetts, and it nearly equaled the 

,: 130 BEALE STReET,.SAN l-R ANCISCIT,'"GAL-. j"; 
j Iron cut, punched find formed, for maHitiK pipe on srouafj vi)ie;:e.a'UilUeff, I'AU Ulllds.Tjr.TobljsAup-. 
piled fortaaUinR Pipe. Estimates (?lvetf trheB iiei^uired. Are prepared for coatlnir all sizes of Pipes 
with a comjjositlon of Coal Tar and Asphaltuni. 

School of Praciical, Civil, Mechanical, 
Elccirical and Mining: Engineering:, 

SurvoyiDK, Ardiilcclurc, Urawinx and^^a.NiUK 
7.23 mrtRK-ET STREET. 
San F'KANcrsfjo, C*i.. 
Open All Year : A. VAH DER MAILLEH, Pres't. 

As3ayiQK ol,pre^, t^-ilullioa-UMl- Ghl«ria«vion 
•Assay, taT; Blowpipe Assay, flO. Full course of 
assayiDK.liO. Rstablisbed ImH. Send for Circulitr. 

January 26, 1895. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 



Market Review. 

San Francisco, Jan. 23, 1895. 

FLOUR— We quote: Net cash prices for Family 
Bxtra.s, *3 40r« 3 SO bbl; Bakers' Extras. *3 30® 
(S 40: Superfine, t2<'n2 25 7> bbl. 

WHEAT— The market does not have promising 
appearance and sellers are at a disadvantage. 
Foreign centers are reported as being of eas.v 
character, and local exporters do not feel encour- 
aged to do much in the way of prompt shipping. 
At the moment 839^ ^ ctl. is a full quotation for 
standard shipping Wheat, while something extra 
would probably bring Hoc. In milling grades there 
is no heavy business just at present, though sales 
are being made within a range of ft7!4fS92Hc ctl. 
Offerings of Walla Walla W'heat are fairly liberal, 
being quotable at 75<& 77'/ic forfair average quality, 
fS>c for bluestem and 'iXa TZVic for damp. 

BARLEY— Sample business is of very moderate 
proportions, while prices remain sleady, without 
being buovani. Considerable Barley is said to be 
stored in warehause against Call Board contracts, 
so that spot oBerings of domestic product are not 
of large magnitude. At the same time there is 
goodly supply of both Oregon and Washington 
Barley. The weather is becoming a rather more 
important factor tn the situation. Incessant rain 
has operated against planting, and farmers in 
some sections are likely to become nervous about 
the new crop, unless there soon be a cessation of 
the storm which is generally prevailing. We quote : 
Feed, fair to good, 7o(5-80c; choice, 81Hc; Brew- 
Jng, 85@92!4c i» ctl. 

OATS— Receipts are falling off, but this circum- 
stance has not affected values. There are offer- 
ings large enough to meet all reasonable demands, 
and until stocks are materially lowered it is not 
likely that prices will show any great change for 
the better. We quote as follows: Milling, $l@l 12'/,; 
Surprise, $1 O.Val 15; fancy feed, 97'/4c@$l 02H; 
good to choice, 90(tt95c: poor to fair. 80@87Hc; 
Black. $1 15@1 30; Red. $1 05(g,$l 17!4; Gray, 
92'/4@97!4c ctl. 

CORN— Offerings of large Yellow are none too 
large under existing conditions, and prices have 
rather steady tone. Other kinds also have im- 
proving tendency. We quote: Large Yellow, 
$1 20®1 25: small Yellow, $1 22'/,®! ^Yi; White. 
$1 22',4®l 27i4 per ctl. 

CRACKED CORN— Quotable at *27@27 50 ¥ ton. 

CORNMEAL— Millers quote teed at J26 to $26 50 
^ ton; fine kinds for the table In large and small 
packages, 3(a,3Hc ^ lb. 

OILCAKE MEAL— Quotable at $30 ton from 
the mill. 

FEED— Manhattan Horse Food (Red Ball Brand) 
In 100- B) cabinets, 18; Manhattan Egg Food, 100-lb 
bags, til 50. 

COTTONSEED OILCAKE— Quotable at »26®27 
f( ton.' 

SEEDS— A shipment of 80KX)0 Ihs Mustard went 
to New York on the last Panama steamer. We 
quote as follows: Mustard. Brown, $1 75@2; Yel- 
low, $2 KKgi .50; Triesie, $2 30(a2 35; Canary, 3(ff. 
4c; Hemp, 3%(Siiic: Rape, l?i@ 2^0; Timothy, 5'^ 
@6'/4C; Alfalfa. T>i@7^c f", ft); Flax. $2 25® 2 50 1? 

MIDDLINGS— Quotable at $17 50fnil9 ton. 

MILLSTUFFS— We quote: Rye Flour. 3Hc; 
Bye Meal, 3c; Graham Flour, 3c; Oatmeal, 4><(gi5c; 
Oat Groats, 5c: Cracked Wheat, 3'Ac; Buckwheat 
Flour, 5c; Pearl Barley, i%(<i,'i%,c -<^. lb. 

BRAN— Quotable at $12(S)13 50 ton. 

HAY— The rain stops business. Daily receipts 
are quite light. Wire-bound Hay sells at $1 
^* ton less than rope-bound Hay. Following 
are the wholesale city prices for rope-lxjund Hay : 
Wheat, S9®$11 .50: Wheat and Oat, $8 50@11; Oat, 
$10@11; Alfalfa, $8(39; Barley, 88 50® 10; Clover, 
*8 50@9 50; compressed, $8 oO@ll; Stock, J6@7. 

STRAW— Quotable at 70@80o ^ bale. 

HOPS — Quiet and unchanged. Quotable at 4@8o 

RYE— Quotable at 87'/4@92^o ^ otl. 
BUCKWHEAT— No market. Prices nominal. 
Quotable at 85@95c ¥ ctl. 
GROUND BARLEY— Quotable at $18@18 50 

POTATOES — Domestic arrivals are light, on ac- 
count of rain. Over 4000 sks received from Oregon 
yesterday. We quote: Volunteer New Pota- 
toes, lH@2c ¥ B); Early Rose, 35@45c; River Reds, 
30@35c; Burbanks, 30@50c: Oregon Burbanks, 50® 
85o; Salinas Burbanks, 75c@$l; Sweets, $l@l 25 
for Rivers and $1 50®2 ctl for choice stock. 

ONIONS— Light receipts cause higher prices. 
Quotable at 5t)(aSoc 1^ ctl. 

DRIED PEAS— We quote: Green, $1 25®1 50; 
Niles, $1 15®1 25 ctl. 

-BEANS— Trade not brisk. Prices keep fairly 
steady. We quote: Bayos, $1 75® 1 90; Butter, 
II 75@1 80 tor small and $1 85@1 90 tor large; 
Pink, *1 10®1 35; Red, $1 60®1 65; Lima, $4 10® 
4 25:' Pea, $2 25<&2 50; Small White, $2 25® 2 55; 
Large White. *2 W(ai2 30: Blackeye. $2 7o@3; Red 
Kidney, $2 7.5®3; Horse, $1 60®1 70^ ctl. 

VEGETABLES— Business is light and slow, as 
arrivals are small. Only five boxes of Asparagus 
came in yesterday morning with five sacks of 
Green Peas. We quote: Asparagus, 15®20c ^ lb. ; 
Mushrooms, 6®10c lb for common and 12!4(3,20c 
for good to choice; Los Angeles Tomatoes, 7oc@ 
il2b'9 box; String Beans, 12i4@l5c ¥ ft; Green 
Peas. 8® 10c t* lb; Marrowfat Squash, $5@7 ~^ ton: 
Hubbard Squash, $10 ton; Turnips, 50o ^ ctl; 
Beets, 60®75c ^. sack; Carrots, 30@50c; Cabbage, 
30®40c * ctl; Garlic. 3®4c ^ ft: Cauliflower, 
30@40c¥ dozen; Dry Peppers, lo@I7Hc ft; Dry 
Okra, 12^®t5c lb. 

FRESH FRUIT— Receipts of Apples come along 
with freedom, and dealers have large stocks from 
which to make selection. Trade, however, is very 
quiet. We quote: Persimmons, 30®5f)c ^ box; 
Apples, 30o®$l box; Pears, 25® 75c 'j' box. 

CITRUS FRUIT— Mexican Limes are a little 
firmer in price. We quote: Mandarin Oranges, 
$1 50®2 '5* box; California Navels, $1 75®j2 75; 
Seedlings. $1@1 50 box; Sonora Oranges, $1 50® 
1 75 f> box; Mexican Limes, $4 o0®5 1^ box; Cali- 
fornia Limes, in small boxes, 50®75c ^ box; 
Lemons, Sicily, ji4®5; California Lemons, $1 .50®2 
for common and $2 50^3 for good to choice; 
»ananas,|l@2 bunch; Pineapples »3®5 1» dozen. 

DRIED FRUIT— The filling of a few orders 
gives a little activity to the market. Peaches are 
in light stock, with more or less demand. Apri- 
cots are dull and neglected. Pears and sun-dried 
Apples are meeting with some inquiry. The crop 
of Prunes for 1894 is estimated at between 35,oa).0««) 
and 37,000,000 lbs. 

Following are the prices furnished by the Fruit 
Exchange. The figures presented represent car- 
load lots, small parcels occasionally selling at 
slightly lower rates: 

Apricots— Kaucy Moorpark, 8Hc ; choice, do. 8b; 
fancy, "i^c: choice, 7c; standard, 6Hc : prime. 6c, 

Apples— Evaporated, SH®7o; sun-dried. 4^^. 

Peaches— Fancy, 6Mc; choice, 6c; standard, 
S^c; priroe, 5^c; peeled, in boxes, I¥@13c. 

Pears— Fancy , halves, 5V4 c ; quarters,4V4c ; choice, 
4Mc; standard, 3V4c; prime, 3c. 

Plums— Pitted, 4®5c;unpitted, l%@2c. 

Prunes — Four sizes, 4Vi®43ic. 

Nectarines — Fancy, 7c; choice, 6'/4c; standard. 
6c: prime. 5i4c. 

Figs— White, choice, 5@5Hc; Black, choice, IH 

Raisins— In sacks (.50-lb. boxes selling at ]4c ? 
lb. higher) : 4-crown, loose, 4c f. lb. in .Vlb. boxes; 
3-crown, 2'/4c : 2-crown, 2c; seedless Sultanas. 3c; 
seedless Muscatels, 2c f* ft: 3-crown London 
Layers, $1 25 ?>, box in 20-lb. boxes : clus'ers. $1 50: 
Dehesa clusters, $2: Imperial clusters. $3; 4-crown, 
loose, $1 15: 4-crown, loose, faced, $1 25 ^ box. 

Dried Grapes— 1V4C 'f. lb. 

NUTS— Trade remains of jobbing character. We 
quote: Chestnuts, 9(S lie; Walnuts. .5(a 7c for hard 
shell, 8(6 9c for soft shell and 8ffi 9c for paper shell; 
California Almonds, 7(5 7'/5c for soft shell, 4'/4®5c 
for hard shell and 8(«8yjc for paper shell: Pea- 
nuts. 4i/i®6c: Hickory Nuts, 5®6c: Filberts. 
814®9c; Pecans. 6c for rough and 8c for polished; 
Brazil Nuts, 7®7!4c ^« ft; Cocoanuts, $4®5 ^ 100. 

HONEY— Receipts are small, while the de- 
mand is light, and values show no particular 
firmness. We quote: Comb. l0@ll'Ac; water 
white extracted, 7®1U,c\ light amber extracted, 
5'/2®6c; dark amber, 5(S5i4c V( lb. 

BEESWAX— Quotable at 24@26c 'f. lb. 

BUTTER— Strictly choice creamery is rather 
steady at the moment, receipts from ship- 
ping points having been quite light for the 
past few days. Other kinds are in ample 
supply for all demands. W'e quote; Fancy 
crramery. 22®24c; fancy dairy. 17®18c; good to 
choice, 15@16c: fair, 13(8 14c; store lots. 10® 12c; 
pickled roll, 13'/2®1.5c; firkin, 14® 1.5c ¥ ft. 

CHEESE — Custom continues of regular char- 
acter at steady prices. W^e quote: Choice 
to fancy, 8® 10c; fair to good. 6@7c; Eastern, 
ordinary to fine. ll@14c ^ ft. 

EGGS— The market is in unsettled condition. 
Fair weather would almost surely bring in liberal 
consignments, causing prices to weaken, while a 
continuance of the present rain would likely have 
the opposite effect. We quote: California Ranch, 
2H(g .3fjc. with occasional sales of fancy at a small 
advance; store lots. 22@2.5c; Eastern Eggs. 2l®22c 
-f, dozen tor cold storage and Q3<S,2oc for fresh. 

POULTRY— Prices show steadier tone, re- 
ceipts not being large. One or two carloads of 
Eastern poultry are due, but washouts may de- 
tain their arrival. We quote as follows: Live 
Turkeys— Gobblers. 9®I0c; Hens, 9@I0c * ft: 
dressed Turkeys. 10® 1.3c lb; Roosters, $4@4 50 
for old, and $5((i5 .50 for young; Broilers. $3@-4 for 
small and $4®5 for large; Fryers, $4@4 50; Hens, 
$4 .5f)®5 50; Ducks. $.5®6; Geese, $1 .50®2 'f» pair; 
Pigeons, $l@l 50 tor old and $1 75®2 25 dozen for 

GAME— Better prices obtained yesterday. We 
quote: Robins, 50c; Quail, $1 25; Canvasback, 
$3®6; Mallard, $4®4 50; Sprig, $2 50®3; Teal, 
$1 75^2; Widgeon. $1 50(g;l 75; small Ducks. $1 ; 
English Snipe, $2 50@3; common Snipe. $1 25<ai 50; 
Brant, $1 50; Gray Geese, $2 .50(53: White Geese, 
$1 25@1 50; Rabbits, $1 25®1 50; Hare $1 per dozen. 

PROVISIONS— Supplies liberal. Demand not 
active. We quote as follows: Eastern Sugar-cured 
Hamc, Uc ft; California Hams. lO^lOHc; 
Bacon. Eastern, extra light, sugar-cured, 13; 
medium. 8!4®nc; do. light, 9® 10c; extra light, 
ll®12Wc ft; Pork, extra clear, bbls, $19; half 
bbls, $10; Pig Pork, bbls, $21; hf bbls, $11; Pigs' 
feet, hf bbls, $4 50; dry salted Pork, 8'/,®9c ^ lb; 
Beef, mess, bbls, $7 50; do, extra mess, bbls, 
$8 30; do, family, $10; extra, do. $10 50®11 
bbl; do, smoked, 9@10c; Pickled Tongues, hf 
bbls, $7; Eastern Lard, compound, tierces.6i4®6%c; 
do, prime, steam, 8'/4c: Eastern, pure, 10-ft pails, 
9yjc; .5-ft pails. 9%c: 3-ft pails, 9^ic; California, 
lO-ft tins, 7H®8c; do, 5-ft, 8®8Hc; California pure. 
In tierces. 75a@8c; do. compound. 6Hc tor tierce. 

W'OOL— Movement continues slow, without any 
disturbance in values. Stocks are light, consist- 
ing almost entirely of fall kinds. The recent 
London Wool sales were well attended and liberal 
transactions were effected. Business opened 
slowly, but activity and strength were gained as 
the sales progressed. American buyers pur- 
chased with moderate freedom of stock suited to 
their requirements. We quote Fall: 

Free Northern 7 @ 8V4c 

Northern, defective 5 ®7 

Southern & San Joaquin, light and free 5 @ 6 
Do, defective 3 ®4 

HIDES AND SKINS — Only select stock will 
bring full figures. Culls are slow of sale, most 
transactions being at inside figures. Quotable as 
follows : 

Sound. Culls. 
Heavy Steers, 54 lbs up, lb. . . .6'/»®7 c 5H®8 

Medium Steers. 48 to 56 lbs 5H@6 5 @— 

Light, 42 to 47 pounds 4 ®— 3H®— 

Cows, over 50 lbs 5 ®— 4 @— 

Light Cows, 30 to 50 lbs 4 @— 3 faSM 

Stags 3 @— 2 @— 

Kips, 17 to 30 lbs 3 @3^ 

Veal Skins, 10 to 17 lbs 5'4®— 4 ®4V^ 

Calf skins, 5 to 10 lbs 7 @— 6 @— 

Dry Hides, usual selection. 9c; Dry Kips, 
7®7Vic; Calf Skins do. 12® 13c; Cull Hides. Kip and 
Calf, 6(3 8c; Pelts. Shearlings. 10®20c each; do, 
short, 2.T®30c each; do, medium, 30®40c each; do, 
long wool. 40(g>70c each; Deer Skins, summer, 
2.5® 30c; do, good medium, 15(ai22'/5c; do. winter, .5c 
¥ lb; Goat Skins, 20®35c apiece for prime to per- 
fect, 10@20c for damaged, and 5c each for Kids. 


Prices remain steady. Supplies are quite equal 
to all demands. Following are the rates for whole 
carcasses from slaughterers to dealers: 

BEEF— First quality. .5®5'/4c; second quality, 
4!4c; third quality, 3i4@4c lb. 

CALVES--Quotable at 4i/j@5i/4c for large and 
5H®7Hc ft. for small. 

MUTTON- Quotable at 5®6c lb. 

LAMB— Yearlings, fiw7c "ti lb. 

PORK— Live Hogs, on foot, grain fed, heavy and 
medium. 3yc; small Hogs, 4c; dressed Hogs, 
5M®6Kc lb. 

Fruit Exchange Bulletin. 

FoUowinfT i.s Bulletin No. 25 of the 
California Fruit Exchange in its full 
official form: 

Sax Fkascisco, Jan. 23, 189.5. 
Dried fruits to customers in Eastern mar- 
kets may be quoted at the following rates f. o. 
b. California, subject to commission : 



Prim*:. >iUin<)<ir<i. f'hoice. Fancy. 
Apricots . 5 6 6H 8 to 8H 

Peaches.... 4^ f>Vi 5?i 6!4to8 

Pears 2 2% 3Hto4 4Hto.5V4 

Prunes— Four sizes, iV% to 4Ji: 40-50.9: .50-60. 6-'i ; 

100-120, 21/2 ; 120 and over. IV,. 
Apples — San Francisco market. 5c. 

While the above are the only prices which 
we are able to quote from information here, it 
must be understood that they mean very lit- 
tle. In the first place the volume of actual 
business is not sufficient to base any quota- 
tions upon ; and secondly, the confusion in 
grading is such that the terms used mean 
nothing. There are apricots in the market fa 
very few) that will bring 14 cents. The pur- 
chasing power at the East seems very small, 
and the trade has had exaggerated notions 
of stocks remaining in California. Since New 
Years there has been a decided increase in in- 
quiry from the East, which indicates the ap- 
proaching exhaustion of consigned stocks : and 
while the result of the inquiry has been very 
few actual shipments, it has created consider- 
able interest in this market, where the trade 
has been picking up a good many lots, es- 
pecially peaches, and swopping them about 
among themselves, evidently looking to an 
active movement in the near future. 

The above being conditions as we learn 
them from the trade of this city, we add a let- 
ter, just received from Col. Hersey, which 
represents actual sales by the Santa Clara 
Exchanges. It indicates sales of small prunes 
at decidedly higher rates than the quotations 
given above : 

'•San Jose, Jan. 22, 1895. 

The market is more active on peaches, 'cots 
and small prunes. Standard peaches (Craw- 
ford), briffht, hy^ cents: choice, 7. 'Cot.s, 7^^ 
to S for choice ; 5^4 to 6% for standard. Small 
prunes we have closed out at 2 cents for 120 
and over (an advance of ?4 cent) ; 100 to 120 at 
2]/^ cents. No movement in the four sizes. 
The above represents actual sales. 

(Signed) Philo Herset. " 

It is to be understood that the Santa Clara 
'cots and peaches are graded to size and repre- 
sent a class of goods which do not reach this 
market. The terms "choice," "standard," 
etc., do not mean the same thing in San Jose 
that they mean on the street in this city. 

One result of the meeting of the late con- 
vention of Fruit Exchanges will be a clear un- 
derstanding of the grading business after 
this year. 

California Fruit Exchange, 
By Edward F. Adams, Mgr. 

The Oriental Gas Engine 

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The Oriental Launch is Perfection. 

Inventor and Manufacturer. 
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List of U. S. Patents for Pacific 
Coast Inventors. 



Reported by Dewey & Co., Pioneer Patent 
.Solicitors for Pacific Coast. 


MandPOmp Combined. 


. Thousands In Use. • 







532.315. — Car Coupling — Downey & Hummer, 
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Note — Copies of U. S. and Foreign patents fur- 
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The Pacific Rural Press 

January 26, 1895. 

Patrons of Husbandry. 

A Dull Orange Week. 

There have been no public develop- 
ments iu the grange field this past 
week. If there has been a meetinjr of 
the newly-chosen district deputies, no 
report of it has reached the Ri r.vl 
office; and, as a matter of fact, we 
think there has been no such meeting. 
Neither have we had any word from 
the committee deputed 1" arranj^e for 
_'range correspondence. These move- 
ments do not, vve fancy, need to be re- 
minded that the sooner they get into 
working order, the better it will be for 
the order. The difficulty with the 
grange just now is. that it has nothing 
to offer in the way of new attractions 
— and that is wherein lies the oppor- 
tunity for revival work. We shall 
watch eagerly and shall not fail to 
chronicle the first movements in the 
promised grange agitation. 

Agricultural Experiment Stations. 

Following is a report on Agricultural 
Experiment Stations made by Hon. 
.\mos Adams of San Jose to the State 
Orange at its Stockton meeting, but 
through some accident omitted in the 
published official record: 

Fourteen years ago, by invitation of 
President Reid of the University at 
Berkeley and Prof. Hilgard of the Ag- 
ricultural College, the chairman of this 
committee, together with Bros. H. M. 
Larue, Thomas McConnell, 1. C. Steele 
and Seneca Ewer, visited the Univer- 
sity of California to consult with the 
officers thereof with a view of enlarging 
the sphere of usefulness of the then in- 
fantile experiment garden connected 
with the Agricultui-al College. 

On reaching the University, we were 
taken in charge by President Reid, 
Prof. Hilgard, Secretary J. H. C. 
Bonte and our late Bro. Klee, gardener. 
After a thorough examination of the 
grounds set apart for experiment work, 
consisting of an arboritum, grasses, 
fruits, flowers, shrubbery, etc., we re- 
turned to the lecture-room, where a 
free and full discussion was had in re- 
gard to the advisability and necessity 
of not only enlarging the present plant, 
but, owing to the great diversity of 
soil, climate, etc., of establishing other 
experiment stations in this State. 

At the conclusion of this informal 
discussion. Amos Adams presented a 
resolution which was unanimously 
adopted, asking for an appi'opriation 
of $15,000 to aid in enlarging the pres- 
ent agricultural experiment station, 
and to estalilish others in California. 

Our elTorts on this coast soon at- 
tracted the attention and hearty co- 
operation of that stalwart champion of 
farmers' interests. Representative 
Platch of Missouri, since whom no more 
able or willing friend has the farmer 
ever had in the halls of Congress. 

When the present Secretary of Agri- 
' ulture omitted to provide by appro- 
priation for the continuance of our ex- 
periment station, it was Representa- 
tive Hatch who came to the rescue and i 
had the usual appropriation inserted in i 
the pending bill, thus saving our sta- 
tions from ruin and decay, and at the 
present writing the Califoimia experi- i 
ment stations rank among the leading 
ones in the United States. And vet 
they are not in this State of the mag- 
nitude and usefulness they will ulti- 
mately attain as their beneficial effects 
are more fully recognized by the 
farmer, for we are inclined to the 
opinion that there arc a large number 
of farmers who are not fully aware that 
these stations are public institutions, 
supported by taxes, established pri- 
marily for the benefit of the working 
farmers who have not the facilities or 
time to make tests of soil or of plant 
life suitable to the infinite variety of 
soils and climates existing in California. 
These stations are doing an immense 
amount of good in experiments carried 
on by the latest and most improved 

methods, solving for the farmer what 

he cannot do for himself, and the re- 
sults of these experiments are free to 
all farmers in the State. Seeds, plants, 
cuttings, etc.. are also free and are 
cheerfully given out by the foreman of 
each station to applicants; and if there 
is a fai'mer in the State who does not 
receive some benefit from them, it is 
caused by a failure to apply for inform- 
ation or for seed and plants they may 
t have for distribution. 

At present there are five agricul- 
tural experiment stations under the 
supervision of Prof. Hilgard and a 
corps of able assistants, composed of 
Prof. E. J. Wickson. Prof. E. L. 
Greene, and two assistants, Professors 
Loughridge and Woodworth, two in- 
structors in chemistry, an assistant 
devoted to viticulture and olive culture, 
and an inspector. C. H. Shinn, of 
the four outlaying stations, including 
the two forestry stations. 

The duties of all of those named 
above, except those of the inspector, 
are confined to the central station at 
Berkeley, the most important station 
of all because of the better facilities at 
hand. There are from thirty-five to 
forty persons constantly employed at 
the central and outlaving stations, and 
from .S20,000 to i«25,0b0 is received an- 
nually for their support. 

The central or home station, located 
at Berkeley, occupies about twenty- 
five acres. Here are the nurseries, 
the orchards, the garden of economic 
plants, the wild garden and the propa- 
gating houses. Here also are plats of 
grasses, clovers and many other plats 
of plant life. 

When the large propagating houses 
and conservatory, now in contempla- 
tion, are built, the list of plants will be 
greatly extended. 

It is from the central station that 
all correspondence is conducted. 

Persons can send samples of water 
there to be analyzed to ascertain if it 
is fit for domestic purposes or for irri- 
gation. They can also send samples of 
soil to ascertain what crops can best 
be grown on it at most profit, and to 
learn how best to treat the soil to 
make it produce better crops. The 
value of this information cannot be 
overestimated by the farmers, as a 
connect knowledge of the soil he culti- 
vates and the water used for irrigation 
often determines his success or failure 
through life. 

Do the farmers of California gener- 
ally avail themselves of the informa- 
tion given out so freely at the centi-al 
station ? If a farmer constantly has 
poor crops, he is either cultivating his 
land to crops unsuited, or irrigating 
them with water that is poisonous to 
plant life. These points he can be set 
right on by sending samples of soil and 
water to Prof. Hilgard. But before 
doing so send to the professor for 
directions of how to send. etc. 

There are four other stations. One 
is located near Jackson, Amador Co., 
at an altitude of about 2000 feet above 
the ocean, too high for citus but well 
adapted to hardy deciduous fruits. 

The .second of the outlying stations 
is situated near Tulare City, in the 
San Joaquin valley. 

The third of these stations is located 
on some of the poorest land in San Luis 
Obispo county, about three miles east 
of Paso Robles, on the east side of the 
Salinas river. 

The fourth is situated about equi- 
distant from Chino, Pomona and On- 
tario, in the San Gabriel valley. Its 
specialty is the propagation of semi- 
tropical fruits and plants. 

Then thei-e are the two forestry sta- 
tions, one at Santa Monica and the 
other near Chico, Butte Co. 

By a special act of Congress still an- 
other station has been established, on 
Union island in the San Joaquin river. 
Its specialty is the cultivation of rice, 
the sugar cane and sugar beets on tide 

Prof. Wickson, under whose imme- 
diate supervision these tests are being 
conducted, informs us that the plants ' 
are all growing well, and the only ques- i 
tion undetermined is whether the frosts [ 
will cut the sugar cane and rice off be- I 
fore maturity. j 

Tn coJiclwsion. what more can vour ' 

committee add that will awaken the 
farmers of California to a greater ap- 
preciation of the advantages they may 
derive from our Experiment Stations, 
where experiments are constantly be- 
ing made by experienced men, and suc- 
cesses and failures properly noted ? 
For be it known that to the observant 
farmer the knowledge of the failure of 
fruits, cereals or vegetables on similar 
soil to his own is of far greater value 
to him than the knowledge of success. 

It is time the average farmer should 
call a halt on the too common belief 
that the free use of muscle alone leads 
to success in farming, for in these later 
days science is coming to the aid of 
poor tired muscle and demands that 
the farmer should use more brains- 
more science and less muscle — if he ex- 
pects to prosper in his calling, and no 
better way can be devised than to avail 
himself of the information freely given 
at the Agricultural Stations. Respect- 
fully submitted. Amos Adams, 

Sonoma Pomona Orange. 

Petalu-Ma, Jan. 21st. 
The Pomona Grange of Sonoma 
county held its regular quarterly meet- 
ing in Petaluma Wednesday, and its 
members from all over the county were 
present in large numbers. 

The meeting was called to order at 
10 o'clock in the morning, and the elec- 
tion of officers was taken up, with the 
following result : S. T, Coulter of 
I Santa Rosa, Master; J. M. Winans of 
I Petaluma, Overseer; A. P. Martin of 
1 Two Rock, Lecturer: C. H. W. Bruning 
: of Glen Ellen, Steward; Don Mills of 
Santa Rosa, Ass't Steward; Mrs. E. 
W. Davis of Santa Rosa. Chaplain; G. 
N. Whittaker of Bennett Valley, Treas- 
] urer; Rollin Andrews of Two Rock, 
Secretary; Miss Mamie Kelsey of 
Petaluma, Pomona; Mrs. David Walls 
of Petaluma, Flora; Mrs. A. P. Martin 
of Two Rock, Ceres; Mrs. Flora An- 
drews, Lady Ass't Steward: J. C. Pur- 
vine, Gatekeeper. 

A resolution relating to the securing 
of dairying and farming legislation was 
passed and referred to the legislative 
committee of the State Grange in 
Sacramento. The meeting adjourned 
at 12:30 p. m., and all the grangers and 
a few invited guests took possession of 
the entertainment room of the Presby- 
terian Church, where the lady members 
had fairly outdone themselves in pro- 
viding a tasty dinner of chicken pie, 
baked beans, salad and good things in- 
numerable. Those lady grj^ngers are 
not apprentices at making happy the 
inner man. 

At 2 o'clock an open meeting was 


so rRONOU>C FI> 

By the Physicians 



At Night 

Spitting Blood 

Given Over by the Doctors ! 



"Seven years ago. my wife had a 
.seviTP attack of Iinur troul)le winch 

the |i|iysil i MIS IH iMI'MI M Cil iMIIlMimpti"!!. 

The cimgli was (•vtrciiich distrcssin'.-. 
(•s|)ci'iiilly at iiiuht. ami \vai freqiiciill> 
attended willi ih'' spitiing of hlooil. 
The doctors hi-iu;! uiiahle to help lior. 
I iii'liiceil liiT til try AyiT's riierry Pci - 
tnrril. and was siirpiis'-d at tlf Rrcat 
ri'Ii f it jravc. Before iisiii;; imr whole 
I' itilc. she was cured, so thai now she is 
iiniti' strong and healthy. That this 
medicine saved iny wife's life. 1 havcni't 
llic least doidit."-K. Muimcis. Mom- 
phis. Tenn. 

Ayer's Ghorin Pectoral 

Received Highest Awards 


f||WiU*BHiiiini*nvniMiBiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiaiiiiiia ~ ~ 







j held, when Past Master J. C. Purvine. 
assisted by M. T). Hopkins, installed 
the newly-elected officers. Don Mills, 
secretary of the State (Grange, was 
present at both sessions. 

The next quarterly meeting of Po- 
mona Grange will be held at Two Rook 
on the third Wednesday in April. 

From Selma. 

Seljia. Cal.. Jan. 21. 1895 
To THE Editor: — The regular meet- 
ing of Selma Grange was held on Satur- 
day, .Ian. 19. 1895. The following offi- 
cers were elected for the ensuing year: 
Master, Paris Allen; Overseer, S. B. 
Holton; Lecturer. Mrs. C. K. Road- 
house: Steward, Mrs. E. Holton; As- 
sistant Steward, H. R. Shaw; Chap- 
lain. C. C. Scott; Treasurer, J. J. Road- 
house; Secretary, T. B. Smith; Gate 
Keeper, D. N. Rankins; Pomona, Mrs. 
Allen; Flora, Miss Jessie Ross; Ceres, 
Miss Edith Scott: Ladv Assistant 
Steward, Mrs. T. B. Smilh. Regular 
time of meeting first and third Satur- 
days of each month, at 2 p. .m. We 
hope that the future will be brighter 
Two candidates for degrees were bal- 
loted for and elected. Initiation of offi- 
cers will take place on February 2nd. 

T. B. Smith, Sec' v. 

Pure pood pxposition. 


January 28 to February 16. 1895. 

Mrs. .Mary J. Lincoln, author of the Bo«tnn 
Cook Book, will lecture daily on cooking 

Concerts Afternoon and Evening. 

Persons attending the Exposition will be able 
to secure excursion rates by rail 

^"^For particulars apply to 


123 California St.. Room «. 

F. L. MAGUIKE, Manager 


For one or two years, or for sale 

Fruit Ranch of 50 Acres, 

In Lagoon Valley, near Vacaville, Solano County, 
Cal. French Prunes, Bartlett Pears and Cherries 
in full bearing. House with modern improve 


VHf-HvlUe California 

Or 126 Kearny Street, San Francisco. 

Krogh Mfg. Co. 

Manufacturers of 

Triple Acting Pomps. Centrifugal Pumps. 
Steam Pnmps, Deep-WeU Pumps. 
TV hid mills. Horse Powers, Wine Machinery. 

Link-Belt Elevators and Conveyors, 

Link-Chain and Sprocket Wheels. 

51 Beale Street, San Francisco. 




)stpuid for 50c. BICURA CO., 310 California St., 
an Francisco. 


All kliiils of tool^. l-'orniiit' for ilii- .1i ilU-r h.v URing our 
Adani'»nllneproCfKi»;cun takeacor.-. I'crfrrted E<*"noni. 
leal Artesian l"umplnK Ril'" to wrk h\ Mfanv Air. etc. 
Let unhplpvcui. THK AMEHICAN WELLWOBK8, 
Aurora, III: t'hliairo. III.: I>al1e>. Tvx. 




January 2G, 1895. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 



Sacaline was discovered by the Kus- 
!^ian explorer, Maximowicz, in the Isle 
of Saghalin, situated in the Sea of 
Okhotsk, between Japan and Siberia. 
Although known for some years in the 
botanical gardens of the old world as 
a desirable ornamental foliage plant for 
lawns, etc., and to a limited extent in 
the Agricultural Experiment Stations 
of the United States, it is only recently 
that its great value as a drought-re- 
sisting forage plant has been discussed 
and finally recognized by the leading 
authorities of advanced agriculture. 

It grows to the height of eight to 
twelve feet, with an abundance of large 
leaves eight to ten inches in length and 
half as broad, which are devoured with 
avidity by stock. Though it has the 
appearance of a shrub, its stem is 
herbaceous and its perennial root with- 
stands the greatest drouth; and al- 
though the plant is liable to lose its top 
growth by severe frost, the roots will 
endure the hardest freezing. The 
young shoots are sometimes eaten like 
asparagus and the young leaves are 
boiled like spinach. As a forage plant, 
it has been proved that during the 
summer it will yield four cuttings, each 
three feet high, or at the rate of 
twenty-tlve tons per acre of green 
fodder at each cutting. 

If seeds are used in planting sacaline 
they should be stai-ted as is usual with 
tomato or cabbage .'^eed, and the plants 
set out three feet apart each way. 
Thus planted, the foliage should com- 
pletely cover the ground when the 
plants are well established. The roots 
branch on all sides, and pass horizon- 
tally from the rhizomes, penetrating 
the hardest soils and giving origin to 
new shoots which further increase the 
size of the clump. The first cutting 
should be made when the stems are 
three to four and a half feet in height, 
and should be cut even with the ground. 
If the second growth is strong enough, 
a second cutting may be had; but when 
well established, three or four annual 
cuttings can be very safely made. 


Special attention is called to the ad- 
vertisement, on another page, of Cat- 
ton, Bell & Co.. who are the sole Pacific 
coast agents for ' Little's Chemical 
Fluid Sheep Dip. The reputation and 
sale of Little s Dip have reached such 
proportions that it is found necessary 
to caution those who want the genuine 
dip. from • purchasing inferior imita- 

They are again compelled to warn 
sheepmen and the trade in general 
from purchasing cheap and worthless 
dips that are now sold in this market 
under the name of "■ Little's Australian 
Dip," and which is put up in square 
coal-oil cans and .sold at prices ranging 
from 80 cents to 95 cents per gallon, as 
also against buying any dips that may 
be .sold under the name of Little's that 
are not put up in the regulation iron 

The genuine -Little's Chemical Fluid 
Sheep Dip " is put up in round, iron 
drums, painted red. and each drum 
bears an orange-colored label giving 
the trade mark of Little's Dip. and 
showing the signatures of the manu- 
facturei-s. and also of Catton. Bell & 
Co. as sole agents. The dip i.-, also put 
up in tins containing a large English 
gallon, packed ten cans to the case. 
The dip is sold by them to the trade by 
the English gallon only. 

The imitation is also put up in .small 
American gallon tins, without labels. 

See that each drum and gallon can is 
labeled with •■Littles Dip." without 
which none is genuine. 

Back Files of the Pacific Rdkai- (un- 
bound) can be had for $2,50 per volume of six 
months. Per year (two \ olumes). $4 Inserted in 
Upwe.v's paieni binder, 5u cents additional per 

Gravity and Pump Irrigation 


Individual and colony tracts. Early semitrop- 
ical land, Invf^tmcnt and development 

D. IN. DILL/\, 

Sfcoii*! t-'luor, Koulu 3, Mills BuiUliii^, N. t'. 




- AN D— 



The New $5300 Crossbred 

limiting Wood now for Sale, 
Send tor circular 

Luther Burbank, 

Santa Ko-ia. Cal. 

I fosltion an .Manager on a Large Farm. 

ThorouBb acquaintance with Stock Raising, Dairy 
Business, General Farming. Experience In foreirn 
countries: French, Eng-llsh, German correspond- 
ence: Bookkeeping: Graduate of Agricultural 
: Academy in Germany, P, O, box ISiio, Bakersfleld, 
Kern County. Cal, 


A Manual of Metliuils which have Vlelded 
Greatest Success; with Lists of Varieties 
Best Adapted to the Dinereut 
Districts of the State. 

Practical, Explicit, Comprehensive, Embodying 
h e experience and methods of hundreds of success- 
ful growers, and coustltL,:<ng a trustworthy guide 
by which the inexperienced may successfully pro- 
duce the Iruits for which California is famous. 
Second edition, revised and enlartri d. By Edwaud 
J. WlCKSOX, A. M., Assoc. Prof, Horticulture and 
Entomology, University of California; Horticultural 
Editor Paciiic Rural Press, San Francisco; Sec y Cali- 
fornia State Horticultural Society; Pres. California 
State Floral Society, etc. 

Large Octavo. 599 pages, fully illustrated, price. S3.00. 
r stpaid. 


Publishers Pacific Rural Press, 

220 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

SAMPLE American Bee Journal. 

(EstabUshed 1861). 
Weekly. 32 pages. Jl a year. 
ItiO-page *«-r=!^R; 


All about Bees and Honey 

G.W. YORK & CO. 

50 Fifth Ave. 

B KEEPERS Sample con,y oi 
Blagazino and Cat/dog. of OCC dUrrLlllOr 
FREE. THE A. I. ROOT CO., .>Iedina.O. 

Is the Largest Illustrated and Leading Agrl- 
I cultural and Horticultural Weekly of the 

I West. EstabUshed 1670. Trial Subacriptlons. oOc 
I lor 3 mos. or $2.40 a year In advance (till further 
I notice) . The PaclUc Rural Press, 230 Market. San 

Breeders' Directory. 

Six lines or less In this directory at aOc per line per 

Morses and Cattle. 

F. H. I-.LItKE, rBi; Market St.. S. F. Al Prize Hoi- 
.Hteiti- ■,r:icle Milch Cows. Fine Pigs. 

JKIt^KV.s— The best A. .J. C. C. registered prize herd 
is owned by Henry Fierce. S, F, Animals for sale, 

P. H. .AIUKl'UY, Perkins, Sac, Co,, Cal, Breederof 
Shorthorn Cattle, Poland-China &. Berkshire Hogs. 

.H. L>. HKI'KI.NS, Petaiuiua, Kegistered Sliurthoru 
Cattle, Both sexes for sale. 

PKTKK SAXK & SOX, Lick House, S P„ Cal, Im- 
porters and Breeders, for past 31 years, of every 
variety of Rattle, Horses. Sheep and Hogs. 

•JKK.SEYS AXD HOLSTKIXS, from the best But- 
ter ;ind Milk Stock; also Thoroughbred Hogs and 
Poultry. WUIiam N'Ues & Co., Los Angeles. Cal. 
Breeders and Exporters. Established in ISTB. 


J. W. FORGEVS, Santa Cruz. Cal.. has the best 
stocked and equipped poultry ranch on the 
Pacific coast, and makes a specialty of Barred P. 
Rocks. Brown Leghorns. Black Minorcas. Pekin 
Ducks. Sevent.v acres to Leghoras. sl.x acres to 
Minorcas. and my home ranch to Barred P. Rocks 
and Pekin Ducks. I guarantee satisfaction In 
every order. Exhibition birds and breeding stock. 
Eggs for sale. Reference, People s Bank, 

IJUFF LE<iH«)KNS.- Thoroughbred young Stock 
for sale. Eggs $1, ¥1 and f:i per C, W, Hansen. 
San Mateo. Cal. 

In These Dull Times 

\ <>ii ('Mil Largely Increase 

Yuur income by buying an Incu- 
bator and engaging in the chicken 
business. Send stamp for our 
c:italogiii> of Incubators. Wire 
Netting. Blooded Fowl.-, and Poul- 
try Appli;inees generall.v. liemevi- 
ber th^ Rail is the Cheapest. PACIFIC 
INCUBATOR CO.. 1317 Castro St , 
Oakland, Cal, 



cr.o /v\ r • NY, 

Myrtle street, Oakland, Cal. 
Send Stamp for Circular, 

provements on the Jubilee Hatcher 
make it head the list. It is a perfect self-regulating 
hot water macliine, with copper boilers and an 
entirely new svstem of operation, — Tlie sizes made 
now are 100. AW. ;HO0 and 500-egg capa»itv. For sale 
by H. F, WHITMAN, Agent, 204,t Alanied:i Ave,, Ala- 
meda. C;ii, Send for circular. 


SANTA ROSA. CAL. (Care Santa Rosa National 
Bank. J Importer, Breeder, Exporter. 

S.C\A/hIte Leghorns, 
S. C Bro\A/ri Leghorns, 
Barred F=*lymouith Rocks, 
Blaclc /V\ In orca s.~^^ 

Eggs, 83 per 13.-ai» ^Send for Circular 

I llADooeas d I BEAR &- 60N. v/eiT R ,Ea5'0e, O.fqpn 

A. Bl'SCHKE. Tracy, Cal,, breeder of thorough- 
bred White Leghorns B, P, Rocks. Pekin Ducks. 
Eggs, ?1 .jO per la 

\VII,LIA,>I XILES«(,'0.. Los Angeles, Cal, Nearly 
all varieties of Poultry, Dairy Cattle and Hogs, 

CALIF OKM.l POI I.TKV F.VK.n, Stockton, Cal. 
Send for Illustrated and dt-scrlptivecatalogtie, free. 

K. G. HKAU, Napa. Cal, breeds all kinds pure 
bred fowls: 40u choice birds to seleci from. 

\vf:li,ixg TON-s i.MPKovEO E<i<; fooo 

for poultry. Evfi';, grocer and merchant keefs it. 

Sheep and Goats. 

K. H. C14A.NE, Peialuuia. Cal, Breeder Jt Importer, 
Souiiidown Sheep, also Fo.K Houndu from Missouri. 


In large or small lots, from Barred Plymouth Rock, 
S. C. Brown Leghorn and Black .Minorcas. at 50c 
per do/., MRS, .l,n. FREDERICKS Madison, Cal, 


F. H. HI ltKl-;.rii,, Markt-l St.. S. F.— BERKSHIKES. 

CII.A.S. A. STOAVE, Stockton. Berkshire and 
Polantl-Clilna Hotrs. 

KEGISTEKEO Poland-China Hogs for sale. Cor- 
wlnTecumseh strain. Sulphur Spring Farm. Nilea. 

.■»!. .MILLER, Ellsio. Cal. Registered Berkshlres. 

J. P. ASHLEV, Linden, San Joaquin Co.. Cal. 
Breeds Poland-China. Essex and Yorkshire Swine. 


Best Stock; also Dairy Strains of Jerseys and Hol- 
steins. Wm. Nlles & Co., Los Angeles. Est; 187B. 

TVLEK BEACH, San Jose. Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs, 

Faith, Hope and Charity 

are the essentials tnr a model (.'hristian, and 

TV, for a model wire fence. In the first case, 
Charity is the greatest of the three, and In 
the other. Elasticity, ljut it must be the gen- 
uine article in botli If reformers 
could establish a great mill where ordinary 
mortals could be run through and as 
thoroughly fitted for good honest work as 
the product of our looms, what a Paradise 
this world would be. For further particulars 
In regard to fence, see small bills. 

I^OilLTl^YlipllgTOCtt feook. 

NILES' niaiiLiai and reference book on subjects 
connected with successful Poultry and Stock Rais^ 
Ing on the Pacific Coast, over luO pages, profusely 
lUusirated with handsome lifelike Illustrations of 
the different varieties of Poultry and Livestock. 
Price, postpaid, 50 cents. Address PACIFIC RURAL 
PRESS Office, San Francisco. Cal. 


We received many compliments for our herd from \ is 
Itors al the State Fair, We competed for 13 ribbons 
and won II, as follows: Especial; 2 sweepstakes : 3 
firsts ; 4 seconds. 

We have a few Choice Pigs for sale. 


p. O Box 686, Los .Vugeljjs. ('al 

Feed our Poultry Food and you will have healthy chickens and lots of eggs. 

Genuine only with RED 
BALL brand. 
Recommended by Gold 
smith, Marvin, Gamble, 
Wells. Fargo & Co.. etc, 
etc. It keeps Horses and 
Cattle healthy. Formilcb 
cows; it increases and 
enriches their milk. 
Manhattan Food Co., 

San IVTiiteo, Cal. 
Ask your dealer for It 

Compound Engines and Centrifugal Pumps 

For Every Duty and Any Capacity 


625 Sixth Street, San Francisco. 

WRITE FOR 1 No. 14. devoted to Agricultural Machinery. 
CATALOGUES ) No. 15, devoted to Steam Engines and Pumplag Machinery 


January 2G, 1895. 


Because they are brlgLt enough to know a good thing when thej- see it. 


Is a welcome addition to any creamery where the patrons want to get the most money for their dairy 
products. It does superior work: it does it more cheaply ; it does It more easily. 


The cost of oil and repairs Is ridiculously small. Think of three gallons of oil running an Imperial 
Russian Separator every day for a year, when the average separator of other make requires five 
gallons a week. But that is exactly the size of It. 


Is winning golden opinions wherever used and there is a'very 'active sale for this make. It does not 
come Into competition with other makes because it is so much better than anything else in this line on 
the market. <3ne will last a lifetime. 

Send for circulars and please mention this paper 

Baker & Hamilton, 

Sole Pacific Coast Agents, 


Complete Fertilizers 

for potatoes, fruits, and all vegetables require (to secure the larj^est 
yield and best quality) 

At Least 10% Actual Potash. 

Results of experiments prove this conclusively. How and 
why, is told in our pamphlets. 

fhty .ire -ient free. It will cost you nothing to rf>-id them, and will save you 
dollars. GERMAN KALI WORKS, 93 .Nassau Street, New York. 

9IE\ER, WILSON & CO., 810 Battery Street, San Francisco. Sole Agents for the Pacific Coast 

Co\/er Your Barns, 




F». & B. F»/\IINT. 



Highest Awards at Chicago, 1893, San Francisco, 1894. 


221 South Broadway, 116 BATTERY STREET, No. 49 First Street, 

Little's Cliemical Fluid Non-Poisonous 


Ueware of I'lionp linltatlon.H. One frallon. mixed wlili CU i^allons of 
cold water. wlU dip thorouKhly 1*) sheep, at a cost of oue cent each. 
Easily applied; a noiii lsher of wool: a certain cure for Mcab. Little s Dip 
Is put tip In red, Iron drums, conlalnlns 6 English or 6)4 American gallons, 
and Is sold to the trade by the Engilsb gallon. For the convenience of our 
many customers It Is also put up In one-gallon packages, fur which we 
make no extra charge. Each drum and package bears the oriiiige label ot 
•• Llttle'8 Dip." _ 


(Succcesors to Falkner. Bell St Co.) 400 Cnllfornla St., San FranrUco. 

llioroughly tested In all condi- 
tions and Is acknoivledged to 
have more desirable features 
than any other Orchard Culti- 

R/vciFic sr/\de:r. 




The Best Iuiplem<*nt of Its class ever produced. All of our /ieterei'ite Spaders have adjustable 
beads so arranged that the wings may be extended and thus run uuder vines and trees. 


SaK Jose, April 27th, 189.3. 
HOOKEK & Co.— Dear Sirs :— I want to add my testimony to those who have tried your Pacific 
Spader and ("ri-xiVATOR. it is by far the bes.t cultivator, pulverizer and weed destroyer I have ever 
seen, and I can hardly see how it can be improved. Breaking all lumps over 314 Inches thick, and 
workinff up the ground to the depth of 6 to 8 inches, It is just what orchardists and vineyardists have 
long needed. I tinO no objection in your Spader because it takes power to work it. These cue and two- 
horse cultivators are ' not in It alongside of the Pacific Spader. .■Ml orchardists who wish to work 
up their ground thoroughly and properly should be in possession of one O. M. HOYLK. 

Combliied Hand, i=^oot and Power L.irt. 

THE REAR FRAME, to which the legs or shanks are attached, l8 made from two pieces extra thick 
sciuare gas pipe. This produces the very strongest form of frame. They are clamped together with 
thick wrought steel clamps and heavy bolts. Two wrought steel straps also clamp these gas pipes and 
project forward and encircle the axle, and are attached to the axle so as to raise and lower, which gives a 
low or high hitch lo the gangs, and also gives more or less pitch to the shovels. 

THE SH.\NKS OR LEGS, to which the shovels are attached, are made from steel with iheir front 
edge made sharp. These Shanks or Legs have a series of holes so they can be raised or lowered to meet 
any requirements. 

RAISING LKVER.— We have a combined hand and foot Lever, and have also put on a strong spring to 
assist the operator in raising the gangs. This Improved construction makes this the easicet Cultivator 
to operate now on the market. 

SIZES —No. 6, five feet, 11 shovels; No S. six feet. 13 shovels; 


No. 7, seven feet, 16 nbovels. Write (or 


We are Agents for the UNION BICYCLE 

The best Bicycle manufactured in 

CRACKAJACKS HIDE I'NIONS. Write lininrdlntcly iind secure (he agreuey. 

the United States. 




Vol. XLIX. No. S. 



Office, 220 Market Street. 

The California Violet. 

California violets are famous wherever California 
is known. Traveling Californians and tourist visitors 
who have wintered here have can-ied the fame of 
these winter blooms wherever listeners could be 
found. The great profusion of our open air violet 
bloom in midwinter is indeed one of the floral feat- 
ures of the State. It is fitting then that the name 
California should be given to a new variety which 
promises to be in seven senses the greatest of the 
violets. We have alluded to this violet before. It 
was first heralded about three years ago and the 
statements of its size and other characters were 
almost incredible. Distant hearers put them down 
a1 (ince as California story-telling applied to the 
violet. Soon afterward a few blossoms appeared at 
our flower shows us a great curiosity and then those 
who saw them had to admit their claims. At first 
it was proposed to give the plant the name of a 
prominent flower lover now deceased, Tiburcio 
Parrot, but the variety has been rechristened with 
a fitting patronymic: California. 

We are not clear as to the origin of this variety, 
nor are accounts furnished fully satisfactory. 
Rumor has it that the variety originated in a 
florist's garden in South San Francisco, but exact 
times and names are not given, so far as we have 
seen. At present names only are giv(Mi of those 
commercially interested in its introduction. We 
hope that later, when considerations at present 
ruling have passed away, we shall have the origin of 
the variety clearly and definitely worked out, if it 
be possible to do so. 

For the engravings on this page, which give photo- 
graphic record of the size of the bloom and the vigor 
and prolificacy ol the plant, we are indebted to Cox 
& Co., the San Francisco seedsmen. Prof. Emory E. 
Smith, who was I'ecently chief of the horticultural 
department of the Midwinter Fair, has done much to 
promote the variety, and furnishes this description; 
"It has been in course of propa- 
gation for three years, and has now 
attained its most perfect form, 
color, fi-agrance and size. It is a 
vigorous plant, absolutely free from 
disease of any kind, and so unlike 
many other violets. Its flowers :ifo 
of immense size, sufficiently large to 
more than cover a silver dollar. 

> color is a clear %'iolot purple, 
ind does not fade. The fragrance 
IS intense, and the stems vai-y in 
length fron ten to fourteen inches. ' 

The record of the growth ami 
blooming characters of the Califor- 
nia are given by Joseph Carbone. 
who has had the variety from tlie 
first and is the largest gi-ower for 
; San Francisco market. The 
ii rst sales were made in 1894 at a 
I'ciee said to be ten times as great 
as that commanded by the old 
irieties, and this winter, under 
much greater supply, the price 
still much in advance. Mr. 
' arbone gives these notes of the 

•havior of the variety: "The California violet 
;j rows best in the open air, and thrives least well in 
n flower pot in the house. It is a sturdy plant 
and needs no coddling. The flowers commence 
blooming in October and are at their best in 
the months of February, March and April. 
The flowering season may be said to extend 
from October to June, though the plants do flower 

earlier in the fall and later in the summer. It grows 
best in sunny weather, and after such heavy rain- 
storms as we have lately had will revive in an in- 
credibly short space of time. It grows fast and 

Flowers Fashionable. 


strong. In the summer but Uttle watering is neces- 
sary — in fact, if kept rather dry, it flowers so much 
the better in the fall, I do not wet them more than 
twice a week in the summer, no matter how dry they 

Flowers have become almost a passion with society 
and they are probably the most charming gods that 
speiety ever crushed with devotion. Of course 
flowers have always won heart tributes from hu- 
manity and have accomplished inestimable service in 
the elevation of the race from its earliest upward 
steps. This loyalty to floral beauty, which has al- 
ways appealed lo tender, poetic temperaments, is 
still a moving force, but it is now supplemented by 
new forces and new motives which pertain to the 
smile of the goddess fashion. It is a grand thing for 
the commercial interest of floriculture and it will 
also result in a great advancement of floral taste and 
cultural achievement. We do not know of a more 
innocent and charming direction in which society's 
gold could flow. 

While this course of floral affairs has been fre- 
quently mentioned in our columns, the extent to 
which the rich are carrying their patronage of 
flowers is not generally appreciated. It is reported 
by telegraph this week that one of the New York 
Astors has given a Broadwaj' florist an order for a 
cover of lilies of the valley and violets to be put over 
his wife's grave, fresh every day. This is said to be 
the largest single order for flowers ever given in 
New York, It means over $100 worth of flowers for 
the grave every day. It means the experienced and 
laborious forcing of lilies of the valley during eight 
months that they do not grow in nature. Mr. 
Astor's instructions are that this cover shall be re- 
moved every day, no matter what its condition, and 
all the flowers in it be destroyed. It takes about 
4000 lilies to make the cover and about the same 
number of violets. 

To the ordinary mind this would seem to be an os- 
tentatious arrangement and beyond good taste, but 
one has no right to criticize a mourner's manifesta- 
tion. The result will be, of course, an emulation of 
Ml". A.stor's cover, and no one can foresee to what 
ends of display the disposition will 
attain. Still there might be worse 
uses for money; and if Mr, Astor 
will arrange that the flowers, after 
their single day's service, shall be 
taken to the Flower Missions for 
their distribution to the sick and 
destitute, the arrangement will have 
a brighter side. 


In a test of steel-clad aluminum 
horseshoes, made in Arizona by 
Lieut. Wallace of the Second Cav- 
alry, U. S. A., it was found that the 
front shoes wore 306 miles, or 
twenty-eight days, and the hind 
shoes 260 miles, or twenty-three 
days. This was over very rough 
country covered with rock. It is 
though 1 that steel-clad aluminum 
shoes, which have particles of tem- 
pered steel pressed into the wear- 
ing surface of the shoe under great 
pressure, will meet all the require- 
ments of ordinary cavalry service. 

may look. The leaves are large, regular, well 
formed and of a bright green color. A peculiarity 
of the flower is that it not infrequently bears two 
flowers on one stem," 

Such, then, is the violet which is to carry the 
name of the State to the uttermost parts of the 
world. It is to be hoped that it may prove as notable 
under other skies as it has in the land of its birth. 

The Ohio Wool Growers' Associa- 
tion held its annual meeting last week at Columbus, 
Strong resolutions on the tariff question were en- 
thusiastically adopted. 

The average value per head of cattle exported 
from America last year was $90; hogs, $7; sheep, 
$6.50. For 1893 the valuation was higher except for 
sheep, viz,, $92, $22.60 and 13.86 respectively. 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

February 2, 1806. 


OJice, Xo.220 Market A't.; Elevator, Ao. Vi Front St.. San Francisco, Cat. 

All subscribers paying $3 In advance will receive 16 months' (one 
year and 13 wieks) credit. For 12 In advance, 10 niontl.H. For tl lu 

advance, live months. 

Advertising rates made known on application. 

Anv subscriber sending an Inquiry on any subject to the RI'kal 
Phes.s with a postage stamp, will receive a reply, either through the 
columns of the paper or by personal letter. The answer will be given 
as promptly as practicable. 

Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening. 

Chicago Office .CHAS. D. SPALDING, 320, 189 La Salle St. 

Registered at S. F. Postofflce as second-elasa mall matter. 


K. J. WICK.SON Special Contributor. 

San Francisco, February 2, 1895. 


ILLUSTRATIONS— The New Violet— "The California: ' Field or 

"Califomta" Violet near Sau Francisco, 
KDITORIALS.— The California Violet: Flowers Fashionable; Mis 

cellaneous, 65. The VVeelj, fifi. From an Independent Siand- 


HORTICULTURE.— State Horticultural Society: Thi- Si. Am 
broise .\pricot : Irrigated Nursery Trees Again. B9. 

THE (jJARDEN.— Culture and Fertilization of the Onion Crop, Bi>. 

THE POULTRY YARD.— A Larfje Poultry Enterprise; Treulmeul 
of Swelled Head. 70. 

TRACK AND FARM.— Better Tone in the Horse Market, 7<». 

THE HOME CIRCLE.— My Sweetheart; Chased by Fire: Dyspepsia 
and Ualdness, 72. A True (Ihosl Story; Ten .Miles the 
Earth; Fasliion Notes; Gems, 73. 

DO.MESTIC ECONO.MY— Mothers Cooking: Hints to House- 
keepers; For the Kitchen, 7,S. 

FLORIST AND G.\RDENER.— Questions for Southern Readers; 
Los Gatos Floral Society, 74. 

P.\TRONS OF HUSHA.XURY.— San Joaquin Pomona Grange: In 
the Right Direction : From Grass Valley, 78. 

CORRKSPONDENCE.— Removing Warts from Cow's Teals: The 
VVeatlicr, Fiirmtug and Other Topics from the Upper Valley, tW. 

MARKETS.— 77. 

MISCELLANEOUS.— Gleanings, t'ltl. Rainfall and Temperature; 
Future of the Horse Industry; Tlic Proposition for an Export 
Bounty, 68. Farming as It Has Been and as It Ought to Be; Na- 
tional Dairy Congress, 70. Fruit E.xchange Bulletin: Recent 
Patents, 78." Northern California lu Midwinter: To Build a Tunnel 
for Moving a Ijibrary ; Gold and Silver of the World. 79. 


i-V'f f/fi-'i tss'ir.t /'age. 

Agricultural Implements - Hooker & Co 80 

Bicycles— Deere Implement Co 80 

Plow,s— Oliver Chilled Plow Co 77 

•■ Clalrac Mammoth " D'Ente Prune Trees— Felix GtUet, Nevada 

City, Cal 74 

New Violet— "The California "—Sunset Seed and Plant Co 7ft 

-■Vcme Pulverizing Harrow— Duane H. Nash, Millington, N. J 71 

California Red Plum— James T. Bogue. Tudor, Cal 7» 

Olive Trees— Wm. Slckert, Redwood City, Cal .. 71) 

Orange Trees—I. B. Lacy, East Oakland, Cal 74 

Tree Tomato, etc.— May & Co., St. Paul, Minn 74 

Seeds and Plants— The Good it Reese Co., Springfield, Ohio 74 

Perry Davis Pain Killer 78 

Spra'v Pumps— Woodin & Little 77 

Farnis for Sale— S. C. Trayner, MarysvlUe, Cal 78 

Stump Puller— Milne M f'g Co., Monmouth, 111 78 

BulLs— OakwfK)d Park Stock Farm, Danville, Cal 78 

Jacks and Jennies— V. Gianclla, Honcut, Cal 78 

"Hartmau " Wire Fence— Hartmau M f'g Co., New York and 

Chicago 77 

Weather and 

The Week. 

The cool clear days which are now 
on are of immense value to the 
State. The northerly wintls are 
removintf the surplus moisture ami hrinylnf^ much 
land into shape for the plow and the seeder. Work- 
should be done as iiuickly as possible, for it will take 
very little time to put a hard crust on the surface 
which has been beaten down by the heavy rains or pud- 
dled by the standing water. The days are full of busi- 
ness in the country while this sunshine lasts. The pre- 
vailing low temperature is also very favorable to 
fruit interests by retarding bloom until the season 
really turns to continual warmth. Orchard work 
must now be rushed. I'runing, spraying and plant- 
ing of new orchard should not be delayed. What we 
may expect in February is a matter of much in- 
terest. The monthly statement of the Weather 
Bureau is that during the last twenty-three years 
the warmest February was that of isstl, with an 
average temperature of 57^, while the coldest was 
that of 1887, with an average of 48". The highest 
point on the thermometer touched in February was 
on the 2'2(\ of that month, 1888, when 7(i were regis- 
tered. The coldest February day was the fjth, in 
the year 1887, when above zero was recorded. 
The average number of clear days in the month has 
been ten, cloudy days eight, and partly cloudy days 
ten. The prevailing l-'ebruary winds at San Fran- 
cisco have been from the west. February is usually 
a good working month and it will be tletightful to 
find it so this year. 

Eagle »■■<! ''"■^l*' ^'•'■^ ^'»' coyote- a 

very friendly turn, which in these 


ilegenerat" days is much to be 
wondered at, for certainly talamity to the coyote 
signifies more juicy squirrels and rabbits to the eagle. 
The first bill made a law by Gov. Budd is that re- 
pealing the coyote bounty, whicli has cost the Slate 
hundreds of thousands of dollars for coyotes slaugh- 
tered all over the Pacific coast. How the eagle fig- 
ures in the reform was in this wise. (Jaleiitlark, 
Warden of the Yosemite. had sent the Governor two 
enormous eagle pinions, each two feet in length. A 
point was made on one of these, and an eagle quill 

wiped out the coyote bounty with a few bold strokes. 
Haste was made in affixing the Governor's signature, 
because, after the passage of the act, word came in 
that special promoters were rushing in their scalps 
from all directions, in the hope of getting them in 
ahead of the time the act should go into effect. But 
the Governor brushed away their hopes, and ilid it 
with an eagle feather. 

Sau .Joaquin 

The honey interest of the upper 
San Joaquin valley seems to be 
Honey. growing apacc. At a meeting of 
beekeepers held in Hanford last week those present 
reported that they had produced in the aggregate 
about sixty tons of extracted and seven tons-of-eomi* 
honey. Tfiis was believed to be not more than two- 
thirds of the whole product of the region, so that 
we have a surplus of say 10(1 tons of honey from a 
region which is comparatively new to the bee busi- 
ness on a commercial scale. Ten carloads of honey 
is quite an item in a hard year, and this is probably 
not over one per cent of what could be jiroduced if 
the interest "of the people should incline that way 
and the market favor the product. 

.j,^^^ S. A. liorough of Grant s Pass, 

Oregon, writes us that he has 


been very successful in killing the 
green aphis on apple and other trees by using a tent 
in which he burns tobacco stems and refuse, making 
a dense smoke which kills all the aphides. He rigs a 
pole to his wagon frame so it can extend oblitjuely 
from the wagon, and from the top of it liangs a cone- 
shaped tent which is dropped over the tree. There 
is nothing new in the use of tobacco smoke for aphis 
nor in rigging a cover for a plant while fumigating, 
and yet the method of .Mr. Borough may be suggest- 
ive to others who desire to clean small trees of 
apliis and other small pests. It would not do so well 
for scale insects, except perhaps just at the time 
that the young are rmining about before putting on 
their shells. 

„ , The Eastern people who delight to 

roiiielo r- I e» 

tone up their interior with the 
agreeable acid of the pomelo or .so- 
called " grape fruit " are apparently in danger of 
having to resort to grocery vinegar and other more 
energetic sourness. The Florida freeze has of course 
taken the pomelo with the rest of the citrus tribe 
and how is the Eastern market to be supplied ? A 
correspondent tif the I^edlands F<ir/.<, writing from 
Florida, says that now is the time for California to 
go in with the pomelo, and he adds: " Jn my opinion 
California can raise finer grape fruit than Florida, 
as your grape fruit would be clean. The Florida 
grape fruit is apt to run largely to russets and that 
is not as salable as the bright.- Very little of the 
grape fruit had been marketed, as it was all bought 
up by speculators and held for higii prices. Probably 
about 25,000 boxes were frozen. 1 have just seen a 
wire from Boston saying that grape fruit that was 
picked before the frost was bringing $8 per box 
there. It will no doubt bring $10 in a few days, as 
there is not a box left in the State unfroz( n." It is 
too bad we have no considerable numbei-- of Ijettring 
pomelo trees, and those we have are not of the best 
varieties. It might not be a bad scheme to graft in 
good varieties at once and get fruit as soon as jiossi- 
ble. l^robablv many will do this. 

County Game 

visors tl) ])ass 
local needs of 

.ludge Dougherty of .Sonoma has 
just rendered a decision which 
affirms the right of county super 
game ordinances according to the 
their areas. The Sonoma Super- 
visors passed an ordinance making it unlawful to 
catch or kill any (ish in Russian river or its tribu- 
taries except between .'\])i-il '.Wth and November 1st, 
Ft was contended that the T^'gislat ure had no ])ower 
to delegate its legislative powers to boards of super- 
visors to enable them to pass such ordinances, and 
that, accordingly, it was unconstitutional. Numer- 
ous authorities were quoted to sustain that view of 
the .Judge Dougherty, however, held that the 
Act is constitutional. The jjowcr of the county to 
pass such laws is clear, he says. It is a police 
power and not in conflict with the general laws of 
the State. This is the first time this question has 
been decided in the State, and it is of great interest 
to sportsmen. 


the late rain. Not a jjarticle of frost has as yet oc- 
curred in the cit rus belt, und it is now regaideil as 
too late for danger from that source. The Co-o|jer- 
ative Fruit Exchanges claim to have control of four 
fifths of the crop, which is estimated at tJOOO to 7000 
carloads, or about 2,000,000 boxes. The Exchanges 
established prices early in January, which have not 
been changed to date. The quotations furnished are 
$l.;)0(rt2,25 per box for Navels, according to quality, 
and $1.20C<}1.75 for Seedlings, delivered for cars. 
Mr. P. E. Piatt, who is now Eastern agent for the 
California Exchanges, and is stationed at Chicago, 
informs the Eastern consumers that the Exchange- 
has not made any material advance in the price of 
California oranges. It would endeavor to hold prices 
on such a basis as to insure the widest possible «lis- 
tribution. This is good jioFicy, and it will have a 
good effect in other years than this. California or 
anges never had so good a-t44»nce to make them 
selves widely known at the East. 

cuttip '^'^ lis California has no State 
veterinary system such as is pro 
vided in almost all the Eastern 
.States, it is very important that the counties should 
act in the protection of their own interests. What 
can be done is shown by the county of Fresno. T..ast 
week County V^eterinary Inspector Graham sub 
mitted to the supervisors a full report on the conta- 
gious diseases prevalent among cattle and other ani- 
mals in his section of the San Joa(|uin valley. Dr. 
firaham has condemned anti destroyed from .lanuary 
1, 1894, to .January 1. 18!t,'>, twenty-six mules and 
twenty-eight horses affected with glanders. Several 
cases of lumpy jaw have come to his notice within 
the past year. Stringent measures are recom 
mended against the sale of meat or milk from ani 
mals atHictetl with this disease and with consumj) 
tion. Splenic fever, or anthrax, is another disease 
mentioned. Dairymen and cattlemen lose a large 
number of cattle every year by this plague. He esti 
mates that 1800 head of cattle have died of this 
disease during the season of 1894. Seven miles 
southwest of l"'resno nineteen dairy cows died of the 
disease in August last. He found dead cattle and 
horses lying all over the affected district, polluting 
the air and .scattering the germs of disease. No 
measures have been taken to prevent the spread. 
There are several well-authenticated cases in this 
County, the doctor adds, of people becoming inocu- 
lated. He concludes: When the heavy hand of the 
law is invoked to compel owners to destroy at onoe 
the carcasses of the animals that have died of the 
disease and make it a penal offense to sell infected 
meat and dairy products, then one step will have 
been taken in the right direction." 

Cure Ki>oil 


The most activity now 
rules in the orange districts of the 
South. The recent heavy rains 
almost entirely suspended shipments, as the ground 
was too wet, to ullow teams to go into the orchards, 
fiut the delay was all the liet ter for the fruit, as it 
gave moro. time to ripen. Orange jjicking has been 
resumed all over southern Califoi'iiia within the past 
few days, and many carloads of fruit will be moving 
by the end of the week. Reliable reports from all 
districts say the crop was never in better coadition, 
none of the fruit being ripe enough to be injured by 

The I'ure Food Show opened at 
the Pavilion in this city on Mon- 
day of this week and already its 
success is assured. The cxhil>its. which include a 
wide range of food articles, are higli-class and are 
beautifully displayed. A consjjicuous feature of the 
show is the exhibit of the State Horticultural So- 
ciety, from which dried fruits properly cooked are 
given free t<i all who will partake. Mrs. Lincoln's 
lectures on cooking, given in connection with the 
Show, are attracting crowds of women and iiromise 
Ut bo a prime attraction throughout the fair. Her 
discourses are of a practical sort and arc illustrated 
by actual cooking o))erations carried on upon the 
stage. The .Show will continue until the middle of 


Tiii iii; Is u i-aiiiic iy airitation on just now ut Aiihuni. the (^'olusa " No man should plant an oivharit of 

any kind unless ho intenils to ^'wo it proper <-ai'e. An oi'chiird 
of Ill-kept, scrubby trees is not only iinproli table in Itself, bul 
an eyesore to a thrifty i-omniunity, as well as a sluinlliifr men- 
ace to other and better orchards. It does not take loofj for 
the pests of Olio iiejrleeted ori'tiard to seed the whole neifrh- 

TiiK towns in the noifjhborhood of Saeratuento into which 
have jxiuri'd Die vagrants who were i-eeently driven from llie 
tirst-naiiu-d, ai-e eoiuplaiiiiiif; bitterly. A Dixon corres|)i)mlenl 
says: •• llubos are now nuniernus here, sini'e the e.xixlus from 
Saeraiiieiito. C)f course we are poorly preimred to feed them 
and [jowerless to resist their intrusion, and thus the opulent 
city has .sliifted its biii'deii to the shouliiers of our alivady 
overtaxed country." 

Sa vs the Kern Co. Kilnt: It has lieen diseovereil that the 
jumping bean, which has i-eceiitly become such a fad and is 
lieing imported into the United States from Mexico in large 
iiuantilies, iiuiy become a source of .serious trouble to our 
faranws. The '• jumping" i.s the work of the larva> of a small 
moth eonfined in the bean. When this moth becomes liber- 
ated, it rapiilly increjises ami is e^speeially destructive to 
frtiit trees. 

H.WFOnn .liiiinial: The Horlli-ultural Commissioner of this 
county, Mr. Motheral, last week requested the Board of 
Supervi.soi-s to jMss an onllnaiice making the destruction of 
linnets compulsory on the agricult urists of Kings county. He 
infoniis us that, u|X)n exaiuining liis orchard recently, he 
found Uie ground beneath liis apricot trees lall except the 
Uoyali and white nectai'ine ti-ees, strewn thickly with buds, 
peeked off by a Hock of linnets. The reasim the bird.s do noi 
do the same with the buds of the Koyal 'cot is because Ibejr 
are more bitter to the taste. 

February 2, 1896. 

-The Pacific Rural Press, 


From an Independent Standpoint. 

'I'Ihm-c has roiru: a suddrii .sliiTiiif? of the; l)l()u(l of Sail Fi'aii- 
cisfo in I'omiecl ion with the in'oject for an independent railroad 
IhrnuBh the San .loa(iuin valley. Mr. CUuis Spreckel.s has 
.subscribed half a million dollars toward the enterprise; two of 
his .SOILS have snbscribcd one hundred thonsand dollars oaeh ; 
others have snhscribed enough to bring the total up to a mil- 
lion dillars ; and other .subseriptions already pledged will in- 
crease the fund to two millions or more. Such a display 
of spirit has not hitherto been seen here; and it is a<-cepted 
by everybody as the beginning of a new era in tin; career of 
San [•"'rancisco and of California. 

An independent railroad through the San .)oa(iuin valley 
has been talked about in a vague way time out of mind, but it 
was first given the character of a definite project something 
less than two years ago by the local organization of merchants 
known as the Traftic. Association. They estimated that it 
would cost six millions of dollars to build a road from this 
city to Bakers tield and properly eijuip it; and undertook to 
raise three hundred and fifty tliousand dollars by sub.scription 
as » basis for afi i.ssue of bonds, from the sale of which they 
proposed to build the road. Evidently, the people had small 
confidence in the scheme of the Traffic Asso'-iation, for a can- 
vass of the city yielded pledges aggregating barel.v one hun- 
di-ed and twenty thousand dollars, t'orcseeing the collapse of 
the project unless it coulil find stronger leadership, the presi- 
dent of tlieTraflfic Association ten days ag j called a meeting of 
large holders of real estate and ]>ut the facts of the case before 
t hem. The resttl t -was- t;ti-e-;t ppr) i n tt n en-tr-frf a committee of 
I welve, with Mr. Spreokels as chairman, to take the project 
i|f the hands of the Traftic As.sociation, to consider its merits 
j.s related to the interests of the city and State and (in case 
of its adoption) to devise ways and means for carrying it into 
i:\ecution. It did not require much study of the situation to 
(•orivince all the members of the committee tliat tiie projected 
road was a vital necessity. Mr, Spreckels iu particidar was 
impressed profoundly with the fact that the future of San 
I'Vancisco re'iuired this road; and with characteristic prompt- 
ness he announi^ed tluit for liimsolf and his sons he would 
subscribe seven hundred thousand dollars. 

'I'll is act gave the projci-t what it has all along wanted, 
a (h'linilc and strong leadership. There was iinnn-dialc 
cut li iisiasni foi- i t ; and it was resol ved to raise two inillious 
a 111 put the work through with the least possible delay. 
.\t torneys were instructed to draw u|i the necessary papers at 
once, and when these were submitted to the committee on 
Monday afternoon ol this wiiek those |ii'i'sent— sixteen pei'- 
sons |) subsi ribed Ihi' am IU II t siil cij above— $1,0:^0,- 
iioi), 'I'hus more than half flic niiiicy rci|nired has been 
raised before I he list s have bi'i'ii cir.-ul it I'd, ami there is no 
manncror d mht thai the balance; will proiu|illy be forth- 
<'oniing, Mr, Spreckels -whost' ent husiasm for the project has 
I'eached a white heat— declares that not two milliohs but four 
nnllions will be raised; that the eiuntry will bs asked to 
give rights of wa.v and station "grounds ; that the road will be 
built at once and for cash without any b ithcr about bonds. 
Since Mr. Spreckels is known as a m in wli > nuans what he 
sa.vs, and since he is quite able to build the road alone three 
times over if it suited his purp)ses, his assertions are ac- 
cepted as of absolute authority. Nobody doubts, in fact, that 
t he thing will be done acording to program ne; and alrcad.v 
the elfcct up )n the spirit of the city is mmife'St. The people 
and the newspapers are talking about a "New San Francisco,'' 
iu which the old timidity and lethargy are to be succeeded by 
business coui-agc and energy and a new sense of responsibility 
in the relationship of the city to the State. 

We shall 11)1 attempt to state the arguments iu suiiport of 
this railroad projei-t, lor all the pages of the Rukai, would not 
affiu'd spai-e en )ugh for their spreading forth. It is enough to 
say that the t raftic of t he great valley has been absolutely 
dominated by a single railroad company whose effort has 
been to get rnmi the country every possible dollar. There 
has been no large-minded co-operation with the r)eople, but, 
on the other hand, the persistent operation of an exacting 
policy looking to the maximum immediate gain. By an arbi- 
trarv arrangement of rates, the trallic of the country has 
largely been forced into artilicial channels that the railroad 
might have the "long-haul" from Chicago instead of the 
"short-haul" from San Krancisi-o. C)ther exactions in the 
same spii'it have made such a burden for the people that it 
has become intolerable. Naturally, the country has 
languished. In spite of its incomparable! advantages of cli- 
mate, soil and i)roximity to the sea, it has made relatively 
small progress, tinder the recent hard conditions, a large 
p 'oixjrtion of the peo|)le are growing actually poorer. 

These facts have, of (bourse, been reflected in the dullness 
of trade and in general stagnation at San Francisco; 
but the city has been slow to conceive the situation and still 
slower to act. Her business methods, formed in other times, 
have not been adapted to aggressive courses. Her wealth, 
achieved largely in speculative fields, has lai'ked the guidance 
of trained business intelligence. Her most potent men have 
been in alliane-e with the transportation monopoly. Circum- 
stances, not very credital)le it must be confessed, have hin- 
dered the up growth here of anything like a .system of public- 
spirited leadership. 

For twenty-Jive years there has been nobody iu whom has 
been combined the will and the strength to connnand the re- 
sources of San Framnsco in the cause of her emancipation, and 
to use them for the re-establishment of the natural relation- 
ship between her and the productive regions im- 
mediately about her. It appears now as if the great 
need had at last found the man in Mr. Spreckels. 
lie has magniticent capacities trained in large afl'airs; 

he has the prestige of great business success ; he has 
vast personal wealth ; and- apparently he has that which is 
needed to give to those resources great potentiality, namely, a 
high spirit of resolution. Talking with a reporter on Satur- 
day, he said : " / Kin ivrtl ntimtjli nil hi i/n in /Cin u/i" (iml lioi. (If 
well (IX llir hUiniiriir W'illiniii. Iiiil imi Inniii ixiii S in /■'riliiciiici) 
(lllll ( '(llifiilll ill . Iliir I iiirilll III II lllilill. I irillll In sir llic cil II 
(iiiilSliili iiruspiriinil iiiii icilliim In iln iiiij juirl In llinl end." 
Great things may reasonably be expected from the leadership 
of a man who can thus speak, it will be a leadership not of 
sentimental and open-hand benefii-ence, but a sort which 
will quicken the courage, inspire the resolution ami stimulate 
the energies of the city. It is not what- Mr. Spreckels will do 
f ir San Francisco, but what he will help San Franci.sco do for 
hei'self, that will count. His leadership will mean the throw- 
ing off of conservatism; it will mean a union and an 
energy of forces wholly unprecedented in California; it will 
niean a new spirit ami an unexampled progress. The move- 
ment will not stop with the San .foaquin valley road. To the 
north, to the east, to the .south there are other fields equally 
inviting and to them in turn must be directed the energies 
which just now are centered in the San .loaquin. 

A significant advantage of the San Fran(;isco-Bakerstield 
road will be in the circ-umstances of its construction. It will, 
Mr. Spreckels declares, bo built for cash; it will be built at a 
t;imc when all the elements of cost— rails, ties, teams, labor, 
equipment —are at low-water nuirk ; it will be the property of 
San Francisco and for use as a weapon of defense. It is de- 
clared that, when finished, it will represent an investment of 
about *l.\Oi)0 per mile, or a total of *ii,0l)l),01)l). A fair profit on 
this investment will be six per cent per annum; and it is 
planned to operate the road on that basis. Thi.s, so it is said, 
will call for gross annual earnings of $1000 per mile, or 
f 1,(11)1), 01)0 for the whole line. Now, the Southern Pacittc line 
through the San .)oa((viiii valley is, it is declared, capitalized 
at upwards of ninety tliousand liollai's per mile, while its 
annual gross earnings are approximately 1i;S,500,000. These are 
the Hgiires given by the Traftic Association, and we quote 
them without vei'ilication. 

The policy of the S iuthcrii I'.icitic in tin; San .loaiiuiii is 
easily understood. The company has a vast mileage, much of 
which is through unproductive country. Its construction was 
in times when the cost was vastly greater than now. Injoc- 
I i nns of water and fraud and blunders have vastly expanded 
the capitalization upon which it must earn dividends; its man- 
agement is absurdl.v expensive: itssystemof political domina- 
tion is another item of large cost. To find the funds to support 
this system has called for severe exactiems in every depart- 
ment and the screws have been turned on hard, especially in 
rich sections like the San Joaquin, wherein the absence of 
competition, the people have been helpless. It is easy to see 
how a road like that now projected, built in economical times 
for cash and operated upon business principles, can serve the 
country and still find a rcasonaole profit under a system of 
charges am»zingly small as compared with those the people 
are now rc(iuired to pa.v. 

Another fact which gives inspiration to the talk of a "New 
San Francisco" is that the United States Senate has just 
passed the Nicaragua Canal bill by a vote of .31 to 21. The 
measure now goes to the House of Representatives, where 
the canal project is presumpti vel.v in greater favor than in the 
Senate. The obstacles which the bill is likely to meet are not 
those of oiiposition to the project itself, but of objection to the 
particular scheme of Senator Morgan, which has been many 
times outlined in the Ruh.^i., This scheme provides for the 
organization of a canal company to succeed to all the rights, 
interests, eti;., of the existing Maritime Canal Co. The capi- 
tal stock is fixed at $100,000,000. Of this amount $70,000,000 is 
to go to the United States as paid-up stock. To the Govern- 
ment of Nicaragua, :St>,000,000 of the stock must be given for 
the concessions, and i!l,. 500,000 to the Government of Costa 
Rica. To extinguish all issues of stock or bonds heretofore 
made by the Maritime Canal Company, new stock is to be is- 
sued to the compan.v to an amount not exceeding .?7,000,000 ; 
and as the new stock shall be issued, the old stock of the com- 
pany is to be canceled. The seventy millions of stock to the 
United States is to be issued in consideration for its guaranty 
of the bonds of the company. Ten of the fifteen directors of 
the company are to be ap^winted by the United States, 
through nomination by the President and confirmation by 
the Senate. Objection in the House is likely to 
be based upon unwillingness to any plan which— as this 
does — would involve the Government in a i)artnership arrange- 

Upon considerations whiili it has numy times stated, 
the lii'HA 1. .sympathizes with tin; objection, believing that it 
would be a grave blunder to involve the (Joverninent in a 
bargain which in itself would negative many of the more im- 
portant advantages of the projected work. We would like to 
see the canal put through as a national work, and, when 
finished, operated by the (iovernment for the national ad- 
vantage. This, we believe, (;annot be done under the plan 
proposed in the Morgan bill. Furthermore, a partnership 
arrangement would, in the nature of things, be a fruitful 
source of Congressional jobbei-y, just as in the case of the 
Union Pacific railroad. From what we can learn of the senti- 
ment prevailing in the House of Uepi-esentatives, we do not 
believe that the Morgan bill will be a(;cepted, but that an- 
other and better measure will be substituted for it. The 
danger is iu the shortness of the time between now and the 
death of the present Congress. There is, we fear, hardly 
time enough befoi'c March 4th for the House to amend 
and pass the Canal bill and for its I'econsideration by 
the Senate — especially since the Administration will throw 
every iwssible obstacle iu its way. That Mr. Cleveland 
sliould be so dead-set against the canal project is only compre- 
hensible ujxin the theory that the financial powers of New 

York — whose judgments he persistently reflects — do not 
want it. 

The breakdown of the financial plan suggested by Secri;tary 
Carlisle, and approved by Mr. Cleveland in his Annual Mes- 
sage to Congress, is complete, and all efforts to revive it have 
been abandoned. In a special message to Congress on Mon- 
day of this week, Mr. Cleveland calls fresh attention to the 
condition of the Treasury, confesses the failure of the policy 
by which he has within the past twelve months added one 
hundred millions of dollars to the interest-bearing debt, and 
calls upon Congress to provide some way to maintain the 
ability of the (iovernment to meet its obligations in gold. To 
meet the immediate necessities of the situation, he recom- 
mends that Congress authorize a gold loan at ;i per cent 
running fifty years — sufficient in amount to retire the Treas- 
ury notes, of which there are t!.5()0,000,000 outstanding. 
He says : 

Tliese l)ouds uniicr cxistiDK laws coukl he deposited b.v natiouai 
banks as security for circulation, and such t)anks sliould be allowed 
to issue circulation up to Ihc face value of these or any other bonds 
so deposited, except bonds outstanding lieariug two per cent inter- 
est and which will sell in the market at less than par, Natiouai 
banks should not be allowed to take out circulating notes of less 
denomination than $10, and when such as are now outstandiuK reach 
the treasury, except for redemption and rctiremout, they should be 
cancelled and notes of the denomination of $10 and upward issued in 
their stead. Silver certificates of the denomination of $10 and up- 
ward should be replaced by certificates of denominations under $10, 
As a constant means tor the maintenance of a reasonable supply of 
^'otd in the Treasury our duties on imports should be paid in ^'old. 
allowing all other dues of the (iovernment to be paid in iiiiy oflu'r 
form (if money. 

The Rrii.vL must confess its inability to comprehend just 
what the President means. We gather, however, that he 
proposes to exchange a Government obligation which bears no 
interest to one which bears three per cent— which would no 
doubt be entirely satisfactory to the money-dealing 
interests which speak through Wall street. If by such 
a change, even at such manifest cost, our Government 
might sto)) the ruinous course of the silver discount, it would 
l)erhaps he wise ; but this is not Mr. Cleveland's idea. He 
goes no further than to urge the maintenance of gold pay- 
ments, api>arcntly blind to the fact that this does not touch 
the vital part of the great financial question. The persisten(;e 
with whi<'h he ignores the central and vital point in this 
matter is irritating to the last degree. The Ruu.vt. has all 
along, in spite of his blunders and his failure to meet his 
promises, declared its faith in Mr. Cleveland's good inten- 
tions; we still believe him to be an honest man, but it is im- 
possible to repress the judgment that in .some things he is a 
densely stupid man. Evidently no help is to be had from him 
in the" financial problems which confront the country. 

However, because Mr. Cleveland persistently ignores 
the most significant fact in the whole financial question does 
not prevent its recognition by other persons. More and more 
it is becoming evident that tiie country at large has a true 
conception of the principle of the silver discount — a conception 
not only true, but so profound that no such device as Mr. 
Cleveland proiwses will be satisfactory. Even those who do 
not profess to any detailed knowledge of the subject are com- 
ing to understand that the decline in the value of silver means 
an advance in the value of gold, and that the direct conse- 
quence of this fact is the reduced value of everything else in 
comparison with gold. They are beginning to .see also the in- 
justice involved in the single gold standard under the steady 
accretion in the value of gold. And wherever those facts are 
perceived they profoundly stimulate the sentiment for bi- 
metallism. Ml'. Albert Shaw, the widely-known writer, as- 
serted recently, after a visit to Washington, that there was 
manifest in that great political center a marked advaiuie in 
the V)i-metallist movement. There is now on in the neighl)oring 
State of Oregon a bitter Senatorial contest, opposition to the 
candidate; presumptive being based upon his record as a gold 
monometallist. In our own State it is plainl.y to be seen that 
the bi-metallic idea steadily gains ground. If in the Presi- 
dential office there were a man capable of seeing the subject 
in all its relations, there would be reasonable hope of getting 
out of the mire within the next year or two, but, as it is, we 
have small hopes of relief for a long time to come. The danger 
is that, under the irritation of delay, political prudence will 
be thrown to the winds and that silver monometallism -which 
is even worse than gold monometallism — will be forced upon 
the country. 

The Frrc Press of last week publishes a list of the principal 
products and the amounts thereof that were raised in Ventura 
county during the past year, from which the following is 
taken: "Only a small acreage planted to beans returned 
anything like a full crop. Barley was comparatively a failure. 
In view of the fact, however, that the list does not include 
many products that were shipped in small quantities, the 
showing is quite creditable for a dry year. Total amount of 
beans shipped, 21,487,020 pounds; total amount of dried ruit, 
944, IIS.S pounds ; total amount of green fruit shipped, 81!),(i4,5 
pounds; total amount of nuts shipped, 440,8.52 pounds; oranges 
and lemons shipped, 2ii,02H boxes ; cm-n, barley and honey 
shipped. 7,08(),417 pounds. 

OuANUK GKowKKs of .southcrn California have decided to 
hold a citrus fair at Los Angeles in the latter part of Febru- 
ary. Noting this fact, the Riverside I'rens says: " With Mr. 
Naftzger as president, Mr. Wiggins as superintendent, and 
Mr. Backus as chairman of the committee to prepare a pre- 
mium list and to select judges, there would seem to be little 
more that could be done to make the project popular and win 
success. The feeling of those present at a meeting held re- 
cently seemed to be that it would be practically an exhibition 
of the Fruit Exchanges of southern Califoi'iiia, and that it 
would help to advertise and strengthen the co-operative move- 
ment of the growers." 

Tun largest apricot tree in the orchard of the (ilovernment 
Experiment Station at Paso Robles is a five-year-old "Smith's 
Triumph," a Vacaville seedling, whose branches spread over 
a circle nine or ten feet across. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 

February 2, 189.1. 

Rainfall and Temperature. 

The following data for the week ending 5 a. m., 
January 30, 1895. are from official sources, and are 
furnished by the U. S. Weather Bureau expres.sly 
for the Pacific Rural Press: 


lal Rainfall for the 

Total Seasonal Rain- 
fall to Date 

Total Seasonal Rain- 
fall Last Year to 


Maximum Temperature 
for the Week 

Minimum Temperature 
for the Week 








Red Bluff 

22. SO 











San Francisco 







3 66 




Los Angoles 







San Diego 








2 97 





Removing Warts from Cows' Teats. 

To THE Editor:— We have a maiden heifer Just due to 
calve, and on the " near" hiud teal there is a large wart, or 
what looks like a wart, which I am afraid will give us trouble 
when wo have to milk her. I believe it is very likely to bleed 
and also imike her kick, and should like your advice on the 
subject as to the policy of trying to remove it, and if so, how. 

Penryu, Cal. " Frank Bcdoett. 


Get the best horseman in the vicinity to use a i^ood 
sharp knife, and have an iron red hot. Cut off the 
growili deep onouyh to get all the roots. If it bleeds 
much apply the hot iron. 

Another way is to rub once daily over the growth 
nitrate of silver; in about one week the wart will 
dry up and drop off. 

Ano herwuyis to g(>t a rubber band, stretch it 
and placi; it ti;/htly around the base of the growth. 
Ill three days it will drop off without losing one drop 
of blood. 

Another way is to powder on the following: Sul- 
phate iron, one-half ounce; sulphate copper, one-half 
ounce; Monsfll's iron salt, one ounce. 

I ijrofcr the knife and hot iron, but advise to let 
the wart entirely alone until after calving, as any 
undue excitement is bound to cause abortion. 

Dr. E. J. Creeley, D. V. S. 

510 Golden Gate Ave. 

Future of the Horse Industry. 

A special report pn^pan-d and issued in Massa- 
chusetts declares that the future of the horse trade 
contains more of promise than it has at any time 
during the past two years, and that there are reas- 
ons for the belief that 18!)4 will see the beginning of 
a decided improvement and a material appreciation 
in values. The report continues in tliis wise: 
" Breeding has been largely overdone, and throuijh- 
out the United States generally it has been largely 
abandoned during the hist year and a half. Depreci- 
ation in Slime States amounts to twenty-five or fifty 
per Cent compared with two years ago, so far as the 
cheaper class of horses is concerned. Compared 
with a year ago the census of horses is a full one. 
Quality ha- sharply deteriorated during the last 
tliree years, leaving a surplus of poor horseflesh and 
a dearth of good ones. While markets are glutted 
with cheap horses, there is a ready outlet for first- 
class animals at prices ainrnt as high as at any time 
in years. In many States there is an absolute 
scarcity of heavy draft animals and choice drivers. 
Abandonment of the horse industry in hundreds of 
communities may mean a shortened supply to fill a 
demand which will spring up with the revival of 
business activity. To a great extent the way out 
may be found in breeding better horses. The im- 
provement in the foreign demand is encouraging, 
but this is confined to the best grades." It is alleged 
that the report above referred to has been carefully 
compiled, and therefore the findings quoted may be 
relied on by breeders generally. 

TnEOroville /?f(/f»ff,r says : G. B. Springer has seven olive 
trees in bearing; of these one is twelve years old and the 
others younger trees which bore this season about a gallon 
apiece. His family consumed and gave away several gallons 
of the olives and then he sold enough to come to $23.25 at 85 
cents a gallon. Estimating four gallons consumed and given 
away would leave about t .venty-eight gallons for the largo 
Mission. He will plant this season fifty additional trees, in- 
cluding some of the best budded varieties. His first olives 
were picked on November 1st and the first ones .sold on 
November 14th. The profit from the twelve-year-old tree 
was about $28. * ♦ « Geo. LaRose has been experimenting 
In pickling olives for the last four years and says the great 
mistake that most growers make is in putting the olives into 
brine too strong after taking them out of the lye. They 
nhould be placed at first in a weak brine and then a week 
Im^T m n still «t. L'l-i Ily.|..ill^. jlijs K,,. ,,|ivcs will 

IfPt-p ill trovil ciHiililinu fyr many nioutUii. 

The Proposition for an Export Bounty. 

For some time past the project of an export 
bounty has been energetically agitated in this State 
and elsewhere by Mr. David Lut)in, a well-known 
merchant of Sacramento. Although frequently in- 
vited to do so, the Rural Pres8 has never taken up 
this subject because its discussion in detail would in- 
volve an amount of labor and of space which we have 
thought might better be devoted to other things. 
The practical answ(>r to the plan as offered by Mr. 
Lubin is that it has been tried in other countries and 
discarded. Again, it is by no means a new idea in 
this country, having been proposed and discussed 
elaborately so long as ten years ago hy Mr. W. H. 
Mills. A letter written by Mr. Mills "^to Mr. Stan- 
ford, when the latter had just entered upon his 
office of United States Senator, remains at once the 
clearest and briefest exposition of this idea from the 
affirmative side; and since the subject is now freshly 
before the public, we give the letter in full: 

Sax Francisco, July 22, 1885. 

Hon. Leland Stanford, San Francinco. Cal. — Dear Sir : 
The policy of protection is only partial in its operation and 
divides industry into two classes, to wit: protected and un- 
protected products. 

The industry engaged in producing unprotected commodities 
pays protected price for all it purchases to the protected side. 
It sells its product in an unprotected market. To illustrate: 
The farmer buys a plow, his clothes, his sugar and other 
articles at protected prices. He .sells his wheat at a market 
rate determined by the consumption of breadstufls through- 
out the world, and therefore receives an unprotected price. 
Your familiarity with this fundamental principle absolves me 
from further presentation. 

Now to the second step: The tariff produces a surplus rev- 
enue, and the problem relating to its distribution is before 
the nation. Because of this surplus bad schemesare projected, 
such as the River Improvement Bill, which appropriKted 
?18,000,000 to be wasted and squandered in the improvement 
of the levees along the Mississippi. 

To distribute this, I propose an export premium on cotton, 
wheat and corn, the three staples of export. Suppose the Gov- 
ernment should give an export premium of two dollars per ton 
on wheat out of this surplus revenue. California exports 
about one million of tons per annum. This would give to the 
California exporter two millions of dollars. Mr. Flood is en- 
gaged in exportation. Suppose he desires to export two 
hundred thousand tons. At $2 per ton the Government would 
owe him -5400,000— a handsome profit on a year's transaction. 
He could therefore afford to pay the producer the full rate 
obtained for the sale of the wheat and depend upon the export 
premium for his profit. This would stimulate export, because 
exporters would find foreign marke's and by their enterprise 
introduce American broadstuffs among the rice-consuming 
populations of the world, the export premium acting as a 
subsidy to induce the broadest- enterprise. I would propose a 
further export premium of $2 per bale on cotton. The State 
of Texas produces about one million of bales per annum. This 
would give to the exporter two millions of dollars, and by the 
process already noted would distribute that 82,000,000 as a 
subsidy to the cotton growers of the State of Texas. Like- 
wise, T would give one dollar per ton export premium on corn. 
In this way the unprotected industries of America would 
derive a pecuniary benefit from the tariff established to pro- 
tect the manufacturing industries. The effect Would be to 
balance up the benefits, produce a perfect repose of the sys- 
tem, reinforce the protection side of the question, satisfy the 
unprotected interests and affect an equitable distribution of 
the surplus revenue. It would be popular with the agri- 
cultural interests, especially the cotton interests, and would 
not be unpopular with the manufacturing sections of the 
country, because it would produce an allianco between the 
protected and unprotected industries of the country. 

In 1883 there were exported from the United States three 
million tons of wheat and one million tons of corn. My propo- 
sition would require but seven million dollars to meet the ex- 
port premium on wheat and say ten million dollars to satisfy 
the export premium on cotton, the annual export of cotton 
reaching about five million bales. To be accurate, the export 
for 1893 was 3, 723,0(X) bales, but the crop for that year was 
light. The plan, then, would distribute about twenty mil- 
liims of surplus revenue per annum. This does not sound like 
a large sum, but there is a view of this case which you will so 
readily comprehend that its bare suggestion will become ap- 
parent. Wheat land in California in a good season produces 
about one ton per acre; you are therefore adding ?3 per acre 
to the product. Good land in the South will produce one bale 
of cotton per acre, and you will therefore add ?2 per acre to 
the product. These $2 are ten per cent on 820, or five percent 
on *40, per acre. I do not maintain that this export premium 
would add this value to the land, but I do maintain that it 
would add a value of $10 to every acre capable of producing 
one ton of wheat or one bale of cotton per annum. The agri- 
cultural Interests would therefore be strongly in favor of the 

Arising out of this by logical transition is the question of 
the perpetuity of the tariff. To have its legitimate effect 
upon the industries of the country, the tariff must be per- 
manent in its operations. The liability of Congressional modi- 
fications is a standing menace on the deterative side in re- 
spect of establishing manufacturing enterprise. To secure for 
the agricultural interests in the manner proposed a share in 
the benefits of protection, I would propose by constitutional 
amendment the permanent establishment of the tariff of the 
country, after the following principle : 

First.— To establish by constitutional amendment the exist- 
ing tariff with the provision that time shall work an ad 
valorem reduction of live per cent for each two years, only 
providing that Congress shall have the right to make such ad 
valorem modification of the tariff or increase during any Con- 
gress, the object being to limit the effects of Congressional 
legislation to five per cent in each two years. 

Second. — I would further provide that the ad valorem reduc- 
tion of five per cent for every two years might be arrested or 
suspended by Congressional' enactment for a period of two 
years only, without renewed action ; that is. Congress could in 
any session suspend the operation of the constitutional reduc- 
tion of the tariff for two years, or during the continuance of 
that Congress, but such 'suspension would not oi)erate during 
the tenure of a new Congress. By these devices you would 
give constitutional to the existing tariff, a measure of high 
value in the estimation of protectionists; and, secondly, you 
would establish a gradual elimination of the tariff. The pro- 
ixjsed reduction of five per cent for ea' h two years, if per- 
mitted to operate, would eliminate the tariff in forty years. 

Third.— You would limit the power of Congress to" disturb 
the prices of manufactured commodities by restricting the in- 
fluence of Congressional action within five per cent of the 
tariff rate. 

Fourth.— You would secure at once a treatment of the ques- 
tion on the ad valorem system, and protect the country 
nguiiiqf tiiiMiai-c of a huri/'>iilal iiiterferciice. 

,\1| ^ht'^^■ in^flMUrea >voultl be popuiup with I'le protectiop ' 

side. It would reconcile the low tariff and free trade side of 
the question. You have the compensation of the unprotected 
product in the export premium, and to the gradual reduction 
which the constitutional provision would effect. Here, then, 
is a great compromise ground between the extremes of high 
protection and free trade, one which I am fully persuaded 
would be readily accepted by the country. 

These suggestions arose in my mind during the solitude of 
a voyage from New York to Liverpool. I have made no pub- 
licity whatever of the suggestion, reserving its publication to 
maturity in all its branches. I have reviewed it from every 
standpoint with the utmost care and have ceased to regard it 
as chimerical, but rather to regard It as entirely practical, 
and possessing a high economic value. I submit it to you for 
your considerate reflection, and if those suggestions shall ap- 
pear to be Justified by your judgment and you deem it worth 
while, I shall be glad to furnish further elaboration of them. 
Very respectfully yours, Wm. H. Mills. 

This letter was written ten years ago and refers 
to some conditions — notably the surplus in the U. S. 
treasury —which time has significantly changed. We 
understand that further observation and maturer 
reflection have convinced Mr. Mills that the project 
is not a practicable one. The letter is given, there- 
fore, not as representing Mr. Mills' views — for it no 
longer represents his views — but as a complete argu- 
ment in support of the scheme for an export bounty, 
since rejected by its author. While the Rural can- 
not go into a general discussion of the question, it 
may be said in passing that the fatal fact in the 
export bounty scheme is that it would make Gov- 
ernment more expensive and therefore make heavier 
taxes for the people to pay. 

The Weather, Farming and Other Topics 
from the Upper Valley. 

To THE Editor:— The month of January, 189.5, will long be 
remembered by the people of northern California as one of the 
most boisterous on record. Signs of the coming programme 
wore not wanting in December, as the weather had become 
fickle between rain and sunshine; but the last day of the old 
year was as warm and agreeable as a June morning, justify- 
ing the prediction that the winter was well over and that 
the planting and growing season had already begun. But it 
soon became evident th it the new year declined to hare its 
weather dictated to by the old administration, and began to 
assert its own prerogative in a manner not soon to be for- 
gotten. It began by blowing and raining; then the wind and 
the rain got mixed up; then both set in and howled and 
howled and howled until the weather clerk was called to the 
scene. Ho issued his proclamation for a modification of the 
storm, reducing it to showers, with an ultimate cessation of 
hostilities, but every sprinkle was a cloudburst, so to speak, 
and every shower was a twenty-four-hours' battle, and every 
breeze was a blast. Then the clerk took a vacation and we 
were left to the tender mercies of the uncontrollable weather 
Calm, warm sunshine, unheralded and unsung, followed on the 
2.M of January — one of the worst storms of the season prevail- 
ing the day before — and at this writing seems to have as- 
sumed control of the situation. The effect of a precipitation of 
nearly or quite twenty-five Inches of rain in three weeks on 
valley lands seems almost disastrous. Our lands, though 
open and friable, were unable to swallow the more than 
double dose. The top drainage being intercepted by inter- 
vening swells in the fields has reservoired mueh of the water 
on top of the soil ; hence the country is very wet just now and 
may remain .so, which will make cultivation and seeding late 
and hazardous. Very few farmers had begun seeding, though 
all were plowing and a few had finished. 

All grain sown and not now under water looks well and is 
growing. Pastures are ample but too wet to be utilized, 
hence all fanning animals have to be housed and fed until 
the fields h:irden sufficiently to bear them up. No prediction 
cun be made with safety with respect to the acreage to be 
seeded. In D'cetnber a very large area seemed probable. It 
cannot be as large as expected, l)ut may still be an average 
or over if the season is favorable hereafter— that is, if the 
water disappears. In all such seasono late-sown grain does 
well as a rule, and prosperous times have generally succeeded 
a superabundance of moisture. 

Nevertheless, my dear sir. during a programme such as we 
have just passed through, the "oldest inhabitant " feels like 
entering a c.ive or hollow log until the storm has gone by. 
Still, these idle spells give time for reflection and a study of 
" where we are at." 

I notice thit the Rur^l suggests swine growing and im- 
proving as a diversion, which is timely and interestinir and is 
practiced to a considerable extent in our own and surrounding 
counties. Swine, to be profitable, must be grown on cheap 
feed. The present season all manner of feed has been cheap, 
hence the hog crop was large and will be large the oiminir 
season. But grain at a cent a pound and over does not mak^- 
profitable pork unless prices are high, which, it seems, is not 
regulated by the price of the feed. 

It is well known that the State does not produce its require- 
ment of swine product, and that enormous quantities come to 
us from east of the Rockies: yet at killing time our markets 
descend to a lower level than they do anywhere beyond the 
Sierras, from whence comes the surplus of ether States. Thus 
do our consumers pay the Eastern prices, freight added, while 
the producer here gets less than Chicago, St. Louis or Omaha 
quotations. The situation demands a remedy, or remedies, 
and I hold lies within reach of the California swine grower 
First, let us trrow the small and always fat pig that requires 
but little feed. Next, let the farmers co-operate in neighbor- 
hoods, towns and available points in converting their hogs into 
hams, bacon and lard. This would require very little capital, 
and seems to me perfectly feasible. 

Having already overreached permissible space, I must desist 
further trespass on your columns and patience. But this 
swine question is a live one, even if the crop of '94 is out cf 
the way, and will keep for future discussion as to how best i- 
grow and market this product of the farm. 

Yuba City, Jan. 25, 1805. George OnLETER. 

Cniso Champion: Mr. Gird is at present feeding beet pulp 
to hogs with such pood results as to bo somewhat of a surprise 
to those who have read in Eastern and European publications 
that hogs would not thrive on this feed. Mr. Watkin Shone, 
who has charge of Mr. Gird's dairy and stock about it. tells 
us that he is feeding between 90 and 100 head of hogs on pulp, 
and he says he doesn't believe a better feed can be found 
than this. To the young pigs he feeds milk and squash with 
the pulp, but to the older hogs he feeds scarcely anything but 
beet pulp. They are taking on flesh rapidly, and are par 
ticularly healthy and thrifty. While some of the hogs on 
other parts of the ranch are not doing as well as they should, 
thesp Hbvp not beep iinhe«Uh,v {i dn.v since helni? fed on pulp. . 

February 2, 1895. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


state Horticultural Society. 

An Informal Reception to Visiting Members of the Ameri- 
can Fomological Society. 

The January meeting of the State Horticultural 
Society, held last Friday afternoon at the usual 
place, was devoted almost wholly to an interchange 
of greetings between the members and visiting mem- 
bers of the American Pomological Society. Presi- 
dent Lelong opened the meeting with a pleasant ex- 
pression of satisfaction at the presence of so many 
visitors, and called upon President Berckman of the 
Pomological Society to respond. Mr. Berckman re- 
plied briefly but most graciously. He said that him- 
self and his associates have been so generously re- 
ceived and so royally entertained and so variously 
instructed that he had not words enough to ade- 
quately give thanks. They should, he declared, 
bear away with them the most agreeable memories 
and only wished they might have the chance some 
day to return the compliment. 

Dr. Hexamer, of New York, widely known as the 
editor of - the Agrt'culturist, next spoke. His chief 
surprise, he declared, was at the vast area of the 
best land and the ease with which it can be tilled and 
watered. He could but wonder what was to be done 
with the output of this vast area when it should all 
be brought into production. Already there was 
overproduction; and as he read the situation, the 
California problem was one of marketing. Its solu- 
tion, he thought, lay in the co-operative principle 
and California would soon be forced into its applica- 
tion. Agencies for the sale of California fruits, 
dii'ectly representing the producers, would, he de- 
clared, open up wide fields in every line. As it is 
now, few persons have any real comprehension of the 
value of California fruit products. In a way the 
State was robbed of her dues. The greater part of 
our products, especially our wines, are sold under 
false labels; and our people would have to find ways 
of protecting their interests and of gaining for Cali- 
fornia the credit properly due her. Dr. Hexamer 
closed with the most generous expressions concern- 
ing his personal experiences as a visitor in California. 

On behalf of the members of the State Horticul- 
tural Society Mr. A. T. Hatch next spoke. He said 
that Dr. Hexamer was right; that the time had come 
when united action was essential to the prosperity 
of the California fruit industry. He had, however, 
small fears of overproduction. The great considera- 
tion was to get our products to market cheap and in 
good condition. People would take California fruit 
fast enough, he declared, if it could be gotten to 
them in good condition and at reasonable prices. 
The past year was a bad year because people were 
poor; it was a better year for beans and potatoes 
than for fruits, olives, almonds and raisins. He had, 
he said, been making some figures upon prune pro- 
duction, and he had found that if his prune orchard 
only yielded half its annual crop, he could still make 
a profit of $100 per acre at three cents per pound — 
that was allowing $37.50 per acre for the expense of 
cultivating, picking, drying, etc. Mr. Hatch next 
spoke of the vast improvement made in the dried- 
fruit product. His first dried apricots were about 
as attractive in appearance as almond hulls; now 
apricots as commonly prepared for market are al- 
most a confection. Mr. Hatch assured the visitors 
that California did not claim to know it all; that 
she was ready to learn and was constantly learning 
from other regions, and he gracefully acknowledged 
our indebtedness to the Eastern States and to the 
Pomological Society represented by the visitors. 

Prof. Allen of San Jose followed, telling the vis- 
itors how he destroyed his reputation for veracity 
some years ago in his native town by telling only half 
of the truth about California. He advised the 
Pomologists to be on their guard when they reached 
home, and that a small fraction of the truth would 
probably be all their friends would accept. 

Others of the visitors — Mr. Miller of Georgia, Mr. 
Ware of Massachusetts, Mr. Harrison of Ohio, and 
others — spoke in terms of highest praise of Califor- 
nia, and of deep appreciation of the civiUties they 
have experienced at the hands of our people. 

When the speech-making was done with, several 
of the visitors asked questions relative to Californian 
methods of cultivation, pruning, packing, etc., and 
were answered in a general talk, in which Messrs. 
Allen, Ramsey, Lelong, Bancroft and others took 

Mr. Bancroft displayed a form of tag by which he 
permanently marked his ti-ees as to variety, age, 
time of planting, etc., etc. It was of sheet copper, 
marked with a bodkin and attached to a branch by a 
wire embedding it in the branch. The method of in- 
troducing it, he said, was to bore a small hole in the 
branch and run the wire into it. 

Somebody having asked a question as to what had 
been done in connection with the Pure Food Show 
soon to be held in San Francisco, Mr. Lelong replied 
that there would be a repetition of the cooked-fruit 
feature of the late convention at Sacramento, The 
. State Board of Horticulture, he said, would pay the 
' bill', and Prot Allen had consented to superintend 
the work. ' ' " - .■ • • • 

Dr. Hexamer hereupon said that a meeting of the 

Farmers' Club (of which he is president) is to be held 
at New York next month, the subject being Cali- 
fornia. He generously volunteered to receive and 
provide in cooked form during the whole of the meet- 
ing any fruits which our people would send him. 
Messrs. Ramsey, Holman and Rixford were ap- 
pointed a committee to collect and forward fruits to 
Dr. Hexamer. 

President Berckman of the Pomological Society 
then spoke of the Atlanta (Ga.) Exposition to be 
opened next September; and volunteered to see to 
it that a proper display of California fruits be made 
if the materials were forwarded to him. His invita- 
tion was warmly accepted, and at the next meeting 
arrangements will be made for supplying the fruit. 

After some further talk, chiefly of a personal and 
social character, the meeting adjourned. 

The St. Ambroise Apricot. 

To THE Editor: — In relation to the St. Ambroise 
apricot, inquired about by Mr. Burgess in your last 
issue, we would say that as far as we have noticed 
this variety, the whiteness around the pit is always 
present and sulphuring does not obviate it. We 
have also heard many complaints (in addition to our 
own experience) of the fruit dropping before ma- 
turity. In our opinion, however, one of the worst 
faults of the St. Ambroise is that the drying ratio is 
exceedingly heavy; with us it has given the poorest 
results of any variety we have dried. We do not 
think the age of the trees has much to do with the 
troubles mentioned. S. H. Shelley & Son. 

San Jose. 


To THE Editor : — I have had two trees of the 
St. Ambroise variety of apricot on my ranch for nine 
years. I dug one out this winter. The white around 
the pit is characteristic of the St. Ambroise. I do 
not like it, and, as to fruiting, it bears now and then. 
It is not as reliable as the Moorpark, which we have 
discarded in this vicinity. It also drops more than 
the Moorpark. It grows immensely large, and to 
eat out of hand is fine. I would suggest grafting on 
Blenheim as a first choice and Royal as a second 
choice, if these varieties do well in your vicinity. 
I hope others will write about it. E. A. Bonine. 
Lamanda Park, Los Angeles Co. 

Irrigated Nursery Trees Again. 

To THE Editor:— -When I wrote the article pub- 
lished in the Rural Press of Dec. 29th, I did not 
expect to have another word to say on the subject 
of irrigated fruit trees. I simply expressed my 
views as others had done, without accusing any one 
of lack of knowledge or veracity who chose to "differ 
from me. Mr. Coates falls into the error of mis- 
quoting me in order to impeach a statement made in 
regard to the roots of the unirrigated tree. He 
says: " The statement of Mr. K. that the roots of 
the unirrigated tree are not found within a foot or 
more of dry top soil." Instead of "roots" I said 
feeders, which makes this mean quite a different 

His comparison of the irrigated tree to a green- 
house plant is erroneous. The tree that is enabled to 
grow and hold its foliage until the cool weather of 
autumn, protecting its buds from sunburn and main- 
taining an active root system that can be taken up 
with the tree, is certainly not less prepared for 
transplanting to the orchard than the one that was 
partially starved during the middle and latter part 
of summer. 

Another objection of Mr. C.'s is the large size of 
the irrigated tree. Here I beg to differ from him 
again. As a rule, we find the largest trees grown 
on the rich, damp bottom lands which he describes, 
without irrigation. The extraordinary large size of 
these trees on some of the alluvial soils is unavoid- 
able, except by densely crowding them, which makes 
a very poor, spindling and almost worthless tree. 
Notwithstanding this enormous growth, it is princi- 
pally made in the early part of summer. But, on 
the other hand, the irrigator docs not have to resort 
to these rich bottom lands, but grows his stock gen- 
erally on the thinner uplands. The growth is slower 
and can be regulated somewhat by more or less irri- 
gation and cultivation. Now, it is geniM'ally con- 
ceded that a tree is better for having been grown 
in a nursery not richer in soil than that to which it 
is planted in the orchard. There are good grounds 
for this belief. 

I was somewhat surprised at Mr. C.'s objection to 
the tree with numerous fibrous roots, on the ground 
that he could not preserve these fibers in the process 
of transplanting. I know that it is difficult to prop- 
erly care for the roots of these trees in the drying 
north wind and sun, but in justice to the planter it 
should be done. 'The tree with fibrous roots de- 
stroyed by drying has still an even chance with the 
one without any. But this drying should not be 
tolerated. Some trees cannot bear it and survive. 
All are injured by it. Trees should be properly 
cared for in taking up, even at the expense of pud- 
dling the roots (here the irrigation ditch comes in 
handy), and covered with a tarpaulin when hauling 
■from' the nursery. ■ - ■■ ■ • 

When I see a nurseryman ? (tree butcher) who will 

tak(> out and leave to the drying winds a lot of tree, 
load them on a wagon like a load of hay, roots all 
out in the sun and the wind whistling through them 
as they journey to a distant tree yard, I feel as 
though there ought to be some society that would 
take the matter in hand and punish him for cruelty 
to plant life and for his defrauding the planter. 

In conclusion, let me say to Mr. Coates: In your 
further discussion of this subject give us the reason, 
and the proof, if you have any, and do not expect all 
to be taken for granted because you say it " from a 
practical standpoint." W. T. Kirkman. 

Merced, Cal. 


Culture and Fertilization of the Onion Crop. 

To the Editor:— According to Prof. C. A. Goess- 
mau, the leading constituents of the onion are 
potash, nitrogen, sulphuric acid and phosphoric 
acid. A crop of 442 bushels contained: Potassium 
oxide, 38.51 lbs.; phosphoric acid, 15.80 lbs.; sul- 
phuric acid, 29.81 lbs., and nitrogen, 48.63 lbs., with 
smaller quantities of other substances. It is easy to 
see from this the- matters which the plant needs most 
in the soil. It was formerly supposed to be imprac- 
ticable to grow this crop in the South the same sea- 
son from the seed, and hence to this day many people 
in the South think it is necessary to use the small 
sets to grow a crop of onions. The fact is that in 
any section in the United States a better crop can 
be grown from the seed than from the sets. The 
points to be observed are to sow at the right time to 
suit the latitude and climate. In the extreme South 
this time is in the early fall, or last of September; in 
the upper South, from central Georgia to Virginia, 
in January or February; in the Middle and Northern 
States, as early as the soil can be had in good work- 
ing condition ; and on the Pacific coast, at the begin- 
ning of the rainy season. The onion is such a hardy 
bulb that its needs require a cool season to grow in. 

The main cause of the failure to grow onions from 
the black seed in the South in former years, was that 
the growers did not realize this and followed the 
practices of cooler regions, and the hot weather 
caught the crop ic a half-grown state and ripened it 
off in sets instead of large onions as would have been 
the case had the seed been sown earlier. Another 
cause of failure was the use of one-sided fertilizers. 
The constitution of the onion shows that it uses a 
large percentage of nitrogen, but it also shows that 
it needs a large supply of phosphoric acid in the 
shape of a superphosphate, and an equally liberal 
su])ply of potash in a soluble form. Hence the old 
popularity of hard-wood ashes for this crop in all the 
large onion-growing sections North, while the South- 
ern growers, generally growing for home use, relied 
on the nitrogenous manures of the barnyard and got 
a big growth of tops without a corresponding devel- 
opment of bulbs. Now that the onion crop has got- 
ten to be of such great commercial importance in all 
sections of the country, a few notes as to its culture 
arid fertilization may not be amiss: 

-The onion prefers a mellow sandy soil for its best 
development, and it is just such soils that are most 
commonly deficient in the food elements it most re- 
quires. The onion is peculiar in another respect; 
the maximum crop is seldom, if ever, grown the 
year the land is planted in onions, no matter how 
fertile it may be. It is one of those crops that may 
be grown year after year on the same land, provided 
the needs of the plant in the way of fertilizers are 
well supplied. And as the soils most favorable to 
the crop have a lower absorptive power than clay 
soils, the need for heavy annual applications is 
greater. The analysis we have given shows that no 
one-sided fertilizer material will fill the bill, but it is 
evident that the three most generally lacking food 
elements— nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potassium — 
must all be present in suitable proportions. 

Onions thrive wonderfully on the black, sandy, 
peaty soil of reclaimed swamps, when the deficien- 
cies of such soils are supplied. Their greatest defi- 
ciency is usually potash. They are usually rich in 
mineral matters. Inexperienced people are often 
surprised to see that great quantities of fertilizers 
are used on some of these black lands that look to 
them so rich, by skilled onion growers. But the 
skilled growers know that the difference between 200 
j bushels and 1000 bushels will pay for a liberal use of 
the fertilizers. A commonly advised dressing is 100 
j bushels of hard-wood ashes per acre, but there are 
few growers who can get these. Those growers 
who are not favored with the large vegetable accu- 
mulations in their soil that the black sandy swamp 
soils have, can increase the supply by plowing under 
some crop that can be grown after the onion is off. 
In the South the cow pea is admirably suited for 
this purpose. These buried crops lessen the neces- 
sity for purchased nitrogen. The phosphoric acid 
needed by the onion crop can best be supplied by a 
superphosphate made from raw bones dissolved in 
sulphuric. acid. The potash which the analysis shows 
to be so important to the crop can best be supplied 
in the concentrated form of the sulphate of potash. 
The low-priced Kainit or other crude potash salt will 
give too great a percentage of chloride sodium, 
harmful to the plant, which contains a very minute 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

Febi uaiy 2, 1896, 

percentajr*' of sodium, and this rather accidental 
than neeflcd, there briii;r only about onv pound uf 
sodium in 44i' bushels. The folio\vin<,' will be fuund a 
good formula for an onion fertilizer: Fish scrap, 700 
lbs. ; nitrate soda, 300 lbs.; dissolved bone, (500 lbs.; 
sul phate potash, 400 lbs. 

This makes one ton, and applied at the rate of 
half a ton annually will, with the necessary clean cul- 
ture, ^ive maximum crops on suitable land. The 
fertilizer should be applied in a furrow, and the fur- 
row then covered by lapping two furrows over the 
first. The ridge tlius made i.s then roiled nearly flat 
and the seed sown on the flattened ridge. This puts 
them right over the fertilizer, and the slight eleva- 
tion makes the first weeding easier. The subsequent 
culture must be shallow but frequent, and when the 
bulijs begin to swell, the soil must bo scraped a-way 
so as to let the bulb form on the surface. 

W. F. Massey. 


A Large Poultry Enterprise. 

Poultry and eggs to the value of §2.500,000 are 
consumed by the people of San Francisco each year. 
Strange as it may seem, two-thirds of this consump- 
tion, as to quantity, is supplied frtim the Kast. 
chiv'fly from Kansas, Nebraska and Mis.souri. 

Think of it! A million dollars gohig out of the 
State annually for what might and should be profit- 
ably produced at home I And San Francisco ii by 
no means the only place in California consuming 
Eastern eggs and poultry. Every city and large 
town in the State contributes to the revenues of 
Eastern producers of the same commodities. 

It is safe to say that the extent of this ridiculous i 
contribution of California to Eastern producers: is ' 
not less than 82,000,000 a year. This, at least, is the 
estimate of an Eastern expert who has carefully in- | 
vestigated the subject, with a keen ej'e to the possi- | 
bilities of the situation. He has spent six weeks in 
this part of the State, has looked over the field thor- : 
oughly, and has decided to establish in California 
tiie largest and best equipped poultry plant to be 
found west of Chicago. He will invest from 115,000 
to $20,000 in the business, and expects to realize a I 
handsome profit from his enterprise. He is no vis- ' 
ionary amateur, but one of the most practical and 
successful of Eastern poultry men. with five 3'ears' j 
experience as a breeder. 

It is highly interesting and instructive to hear this \ 
gentleman talk of the poultry business as now con- 
ducted in many large establishments on the Atlantic I 
coast. His name is J. A. Finch, and he is proprietor 
of the "Terrace Lawn Poultry Plant" at Tacoma 
Park, Washington, D. C. He has been pursuing his 
inquiries very quietly in California, and it was by 
mere accident the other day that a newspaper man 
learned of his plans. But when hunted down, and 
asked for information. Mr. Finch obligingly commu- 
nicated his views on the subject of poultry raising in. 
California and gave some particulars of his own en- 
terprise, which will soon be under way in the neigh- 
borhood of Santa Rosa or elsewhere in Sonoma 

This Eastern poultry raiser dresses well and has- 
the appearance of a prosperous business or profes-- 
sional man. He is in fact a business man by train- 
ing, and is a member of the Common Council of Ta- 
coma Park, the suburb of Washington in which he 

" I sneaked into the poultry business," said he, 
with a smile, while chatting about his experience. 
"In traveling alxtut I noticed that some men who 
had studied it up thoroughly were making a profit- 
able business of it. on scientific principles, and so I 
set to work to learn it. My health was getting bad, 
and I needed a change of occupation. But I had an 
idea, as most people have, that raising chickens by 
incubators is rather a hobbj' than a business, and 
that it is seldom lucrative when engaged in on a 
large scale with elaborate appliances and much out- 
lay of money. That's all a mistake. No other oc- 
cupation needs more skill and more careful study; 
but for those who understand it, and are willing to 
{iive their entire time and attention to it, the busi- 
ness of supplying the markets with poultry' and eggs 
is one of the most profitable that can be followed. 

" In California, particularly, the inducements are 
exceptionally favorable. Do you know that the 
l)rices paid for eggs here this season are about twice 
what the Eastern producers obtain ? No wonder 
that Eastern men are shipping eggs in here at the 
rate of a carload a day and that two or three car- 
loads of Eastern poultry are received here each 
week. Even with high rates of freight, it pays to 
ship these products all the way from Ci'tv or 
Omaha. This citv alone consumes 2000 head of 
poultry a day and also about 14.000 dozen eggs daily. 
Eve ry eg<r and every chicken that your people eat 
ought to be produced in this neighborhood. But it 
will be years j'et before the local market can be sup- 
plied from the home production, and there is prac- 
tically no danger of overproduction. 

" Let me say right here that no one .should under- 
take the poultry business on a large scale until he 
's had experience in it in a small way. I thought 
. all about it when I started in at Washington, 

but I lost $8000 the first year. Since then I have ; And the chicks find themselves roosting before tlie\ 
made money at it eacii year. My plant there is one know it. by an ingenious system of progression from 
of the most pei feet of its kind, but is on a compara- j the crouching stage. As a beginner I lost hundreds 
tively modest scale. It is nothing to the great poul- | and thousands of chicks before°I learned to interpret 
try plant of Dr. Green, on Long Island, Lake Win- i their language. Their wants are easilv understood 
nepiseogee. New Hampshire. He has $120,000 in- j by the tone of 

vested in the business, and $115,000 of it represents 
the accumulated returns from an original investment 
of about $5000. He has 15,000 laying hens, 4000 lay- 
ing ducks and thirty incubators of 600-egg capacity 
each. The annual product of chickens and ducks is 
from $120,000 to $140,000, and the buildings and yards 
i are very extensive. 

" Governor Morton of New York has $00,000 in - 
j vested in the poultry business, and Havemeyer — the 
sugar king — is another large producer of poultry. 
1 They both find it a profitable as well as an interest- 
ing business. .XhcLtc-aceiloztiua of. other-large plants 
I scattered through the East. The. business has been 
I reduced to a fine syslem,_and has been rid of the un- 
pleasant features that characterize the ordinary 
' slipshod methods in vogue among farmers and others 
I who have not studied it up thoroughly. 
I " I have contributed a little to poultry journals, 
! and some of my articles brought me inquiries from 
California about roup and other troubles that your 
} chicken raisers complain of. These queries led me 
to wonder why it was that this State imported such 
large quantities of eggs and poultry, and I deter- 
1 mined to come out here and investigate. Many peo- 
ple here think the climate is at fault, but that is not 
the case. The California climate, on the whole, is 
favorable — more favorable than that of the Atlantic 
! States or the prairie States. Tte great trouble 
here is that the birds are not protected against fogs 
and other bad weather. In most cases they are 
I either not housed at all or else huddled together 
with no provision for proper ventilation, and with 
neglect of cleanliness. No wonder that chills and 
other sickness carry otf thousands of fowls, and that 
the producing capacity of the survivors is greatly 

" When I tell you that an annual production of 200 
eggs a year from each mature hen is practicable, 
you may think it an exaggeration, but such results 
are actually realized b}' the most expert poultrymen. 
I have one hen that has laid 250 eggs in a year, bul 
that of course is exceptional. To reach the highest 
laying capacity the most.skillful bceeiliug is neces- 
sary, as well as the best of care and the most scien- 
tific feeding. The expert pqultryman studies the 
chemistry of food, and ascertains the proportions of 
nitrogen and other elements to be fed, according to 
the object in view. It makes a difference whether 
eggs are desired, or merely rapid growth of the 
young birds for market. The season and the nature 
of the breed must also be carefully considered. 
There are some fine points of the business that each 
expert is disposed to keep to himself, , as in these lies 
his advantage over competitors in the same line. 
And yet one might tell all he knows to any beginner, 
and the new hand would make a mess of it at first. 
Many persons would never succeed in this sort of en- 
terprise; that is, in getting the best results, or even 
a fair profit on the investment, if considerable 
money were embarked. One must be ver}' ob- 
servant, and there are many things that nothing 
but actual experience can teach. Now 1 can safelj' 
branch out, as I have felt my way along carefully. 

" You often hear it said that poultry cannot safely 
be raised on a large scale in California or elsewhere; 
that some mysterious epidemic takes hold of a big 
flock and lays them all out cold in short order. No 
doubt many such failures are had, but that is the 
fault of the producer and not of the business. The 
risks are reduced to a small percentage under good 
management and requisite skill and experience. The 
capacity of my plant in California will be 30.000 
broilers and 2,000,000 eggs a year, but it will take 
three years to bring the stock up to the full 
capacitv. The annual product will be worth from 
$30,000'lo $40,000. 

" A well managed poultry plant is run with as 
much system and order as any factory. Everything 
is regulated on scientific principles. My new hatch- 
ing establishment will be a building within a building. 
The ti>mperature within the outer structure will l^e 
maintained at seventy-six to ninety degrees. This 
will greatly help the regulation of the temperature 
in the inner house, where the incubators will be 
placed. They will have a productive capacity of 200 
chickens a day. I expect to hatch ninety per cent 
of the eggs incubated, but fifty per cent is com- 
monly considered a fair average. The difference is 
due to the exercise of the highest care and skill, and 
the use of the most perfect apparatus. The tem- 
perature of the incubators is automatically adjusted, 
and a system of thermostats connects with an elec- 
tric annunciator in the office, so that any variation 
of the proper tempei'ature of 102'', to the extent of 
half a degree, is automatically signalled by the ring- 
ing of a bell. 

" From the time the chicks leave the shell until 
they are ready for market as broilers, or reach ma- 
turity as layers, they are most carefully watched 
and tended. E.ieli day in the life of the young chick 
finds it moved a stag^ farther from the temperature 
of the incubator There is no possibility of chill or 
of trouble.from vcriuin, under proper management. 

cold or 



It indicates either 
heat, as the case 

hunger, thirst, 
may be. 

"The laying hens are managed with like care. 
They are never allowed to leave the shelter of their 
pens for the open air when there is too much 
moisture or cold. They have covered runs for e.xer 
cise indoors, when the weather is unfavorable. My 
pens accommodate thirty birds each, with an ample 
allowance for air space. The egg production of each 
pen is daily registered in a book kept for the pur 
pose, and if it falls below the proper average 1 at 
once proceed to find the reason. I can tell in a mo 
ment by the appearance of a hen's comb and her 
actions whether she is laying or not, and on the first 
sign of sickness the ailing bird is promptly removed 
; to the hospital. In this way the development of anv 
[ epidemic is checked at the start. The floor of the 
I laying and roosting places is either of wood or 
cement, and is carefully swept every morning, and 
the whitewash brush is also used freely each dav. 
The feed is carefully regulated, and there is a con- 
stant supplv of fresh water." 

Mr. Finch has an elaborate set of drawings, show- 
ing the interior arrangements and devices, as well 
as the external appearance, of the plant he will 
shortly set up within a convenient distance from San 
Francisco, and yet sufficiently far away from our 
heavy fogs and chilly winds. 

Treatment of Swelled Head. 

To THE Eihtok: -Seeing Mr. H. F. Wliilmau s name in itie 
Pacific Rckal Press "signed to an article on the care of young 
chicks, which I think is good, I will take the liberty of asking 
if he knows how to cure the swelled head. It first comes in 
one eye. It is terriblv'hard to do anytliing with. Last spring 
I lost over a hundred. 1 use strong biuestone water, and some- 
times it helps a little. Thinking maybe Mr. Whitman knows 
something belter I ask his experience. E. F. S. 

Bradley, Monterey Co., Cal. 


If your houses are kept iln/ and chan, and there 
are no cmcks where a draft can blow on the birds, 
and if they are not exposed to the wind when out of 
doors, you will find the following about as effective as 
anything yuu can do for them: Dilute about fifteen 
drops of i)ure carbolic acid in one pint of water. 
Into this mixture dip their heads, once a day if taken 
in time; twice a day in severe cases. Clean out their 
nostrils and the roof of their mouth with this same 
mixture and a feather. You must squeeze the nos- 
trils and in that way get rid of some of the matter. 
With this treatment we also give a dose, to be taken 
internally, composed of the following ingredients: 
One lump of asafetida about the size of a hen s egg, 
dissolved in a quart of boiling water; into this stir a 
tablespoonful of black pepper, (iive one teaspoonful 
of this mixture every day. H. F Whitman. 



Better Tone in the Horse Market. 

Last week s receipts in Chicago, says the Fniirir 
/T//;/**/-. will more than double the arrivals of the 
week before, but the tone of the market has been 
generally firm and encouraging throughout. A 
number of foreign buyers are present, who stimulate 
the market for good chunks and general-purpc)se 
horses, and are sharp competitors for all good, big 
drivers and high-class coachers. The local demand 
for sucl) classes also shows some improvement. Good 
drafters sell readily at the late advance, and rugged 
workers are meeting with lietter demand. Small 
horses, badly blemished stock, and coarse plugs, 
with na claim to quality, alone sell with difficulty at 
low and unsatisfactory prices. One of the largest 
horse commission firms in the trade in review of the 
market says: " The strength injected into the 
market in consequence of the very light receipts 
last week was more than maintained this week, and 
that, too, in the face of liberal receipts. A consid- 
erable trade, both at auction and private sale, was 
done the first day of the new year, and the bidding 
at auction was much more prompt than of late. 
Prices were at least firm at recent advance. Draft 
houses were in good demand and stronger $10 to $15 
per head than late quotations. Chunks were lirm, 
while chancey actors were very strong and corre- 
spondingly scarce. Prospects for an improved gen- 
eral market are better than they iiave been for two 
years." Late sales indicate the following scale of 
prices in Chicago: Plugs and common workers and 
unbroken Western horses, $10 to $30; light chunks 
for the Southern trade, $35 to $55; streeters and 
light drivers, $45 to $70; good to choice chunks and 
drafters, $85 to $115: general-purpose horses, $65 to 
$100; express horses. $130 to $175; good to choice 
draft teams, $200 to $375; fail- to good single road- 
sters, $75 to $125; speedy actors and gentlemen's 
drivers and saddlers, $140 to $250: common to good 
driving teams, $175 to $325; and choice to extra 
carriage and coach teams, $350 to $750. 

February 2, 1895. 

Business College, 

84 Fost Street. - - . gan Francisco. 


This College instructs In Shorthand. Type-Wrltitjgr. 
Bookkeeping. Telegraphy. Penmanship. Drawing, 
ril! the English branches, and everything pertainiug 
to business, for full six months. We have sixteen 
teachers and give individual instruction to all our 

A Department of Electrical Engineering 

Has been established under a thoroughly qualified 
instructor. .The course is thoroughly practical. 
Send for Circular. C. S. HALRY, Sec. 

To Orange- Growers. 

The largest crop and best- grade of fruit can only be obtained 
by using fertilizers contaii iug 

Not Less than 120/0 Actual Potash. 


This is equally true of pine-apples and other tropical fruits. 

Oui books on Potash are sent tree. They wit! cost you nothing to read, and will save 
von dollars. GERMAN KALI WORKS, 93 Nassau Street, New York. 

MEYER, WILSON & CO., 310 Battery Street, San Francisco. Sole Agents for the Pacific C oast. 


Adapted to all soils and all work.— Flat cmtshing 
spurs pulverize lumps, level and smooth the ground, 
while at the same time curved coulters cultivate, cut, 
I lift and turn the entire surface of the soil. The back- 
ward slant of the coulters prevents tearing up rubbish 
^ and reduces the draft. 

Made entirely of cast steel and wrought iron — 
Practically Indestructible. 

Cheapest Riding Harrow on Earth. 

W Sells for about the same as an ordinary drag. 

An extensive fruit grower in Fresno County says:— "The "ACME" Harrow 

jtB-'^i;^^' has the past season in our orchard proved that it is tlie 'boss' of all. 
^= Candidly we are convinced that it saved our orchards in the past dry season by 
yiiS^ placing the surface in good order which answered as a mulch and retained what 
^jr moisture fell during the winter and spring of IStU. We can show a growth on 
~ apple trees this drj' season of 7 feet and over. We only had 2% inches of rain to 
" produce this growth. We did this, we believe, by the use of the " ^^.cme " Harrow, and 
cheerfully recommend it in preference to any tool made for a cultivator." 
B..— I deliver free on board at PORTLAND and SAN FRANCISCO. 

DUANE H. NASH, Sole Manufacturer, MILLINGTON, N. J. and 30 South Canal Street, CHICAGO, ILL. 

(3Ieutiou This Paper.) 

Pure pood pxposition. 


January 28 to February 16, 1895. 



Agricultural Implemerits. 

Mrs. Mary J. Lincoln, author ot the ItostoD 
Cook Book, will lecture daily on cooking. 

Concerts Afternoon and Evening;. 

Persons attending the Exposition will be able 
to secure excursion rates by rail. 

aaS" For particulars ai^ply to 


1?3 California St.. Koom 'i. 

F. L. MAGUIIiE, Manager 

Price's Traction 


^^—«ajaBZ2^^ Write for Clrcularc anrt Prices, Sent free. ■*>yw'i\Vnni. ^ 

We have one of these engines that was used 
about one month last season and was taken back 
by us by reason of illness ot purchaser. Engine is 
in perfect order, and in better working order than 
when Brst sent from the factory. A I3ARGAIN. 
Indicated power, SO-horsc; Cylinders, 8x8; Wheels, 
8 ft. high. 28 in. wide; weight, less than 10 tons. 
Price when new, $.i.T(i(). 


l<> and IS Drumni Street, Sun Francisro. 


Kntlrely of Steel No castings to break. 
Strongest and simplest Lever Arrangement on 
the market. Write for descriptive Circular. 


No. ,^ Park St., MANSFIELD, O. 

Co\/er Vouir Barns, 


R. & B. ROORIP^O. 


F». & B. F*/\HNX. 



Highest Awards at Chicago, 1893, San Francisco, 1894. 


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The Pacific Rural Press 

February- 2, 1896. 


My Sweetheart. 

As I walked along the highway— 
The highway of life, I mean, — 

I met one heart that was beating 
Ever pure and true and clean. 

'Twas the holy heart of a woman, 

Good and strong and brave, 
And from every care and trouble, 

I longed so this sou! to save. 

But somehow in trying to do It, 

I didn't succeed at all; 
'Twas she, all the time, who was helping 

And keeping me from a fall. 

But Just the way she succeeded, 

I never could quite tell. 
For her work was done in silence. 

And she did it, oh, so well.' 

Who do you think was this woman, 
That lias always loved so true, 

And kept me from banu and trouble; 
Why, mother dear ! it was you : 

K. D. 

Chased By Fire. 

It was a yloomy dav iu November. 
The wind rushed over a Dokola prairie, 
causing the tangled masses of long 
grass with which it was carpeted to 
wave to and fro like the coming in or 
going out of the ocean tide. Everthing 
was brown and withered, and the sod 
houses scattered at wide intervals 
fitted well in the somber picture. There 
were patches of bare ground here and 
there, with piles of dead "tumbling 
weeds" broken from their main stem 
and clinging together, rolling over 
miles of space, the playthings of the 
wind, and increasing in size as they 

A young girl stood in the doorway of 
a small dugout and looked at these with 
a troubl''d countenance. 

"It would be a terrible day for a 
fire," she said to the lad who was twist- 
ing the hay for their fuel a few yards 
away. "Everything is so dry, and 
those weeds are collecting in such 
quantities that there would be a moving 
wall of flames if lighted." 

"Well," said the boy, hopefully, 
"it's getting late in the season for 
fires, and Jack Williams plowed a half 
dozen o.xtra furrows around our house 
for a safety line. If the wind keeps on 
tearing like this, we'll get rain or snow 
soon, and that »'ill put an end to all 
anxiety. Ugh ! what's that ? " 

There was an echo of horse's hoofs 
from the rear of the house, and an In- 
dian came around the corner mounted 
on a while-faced pony, with a blanket 
dragging loosely from his shoulders. 
The girl stepped back, and the boy 
dropped his hay and came near her as 
if to offer her some protection. 

"White Bear comes ! " said the red 
man, with a pompous air, laying his 
hand upon his chest as he spoke. " Big 
Sioux — much big — wants flour, meal, 
salt pork ! " 

For a moment Alice Maxon was 
frightened, but a glance at her brother 
Elmer seemed to give her strength, and 
she answered, firmly: 

"We have no food for you, White 
Bear. The year has been a hard one 
for us. See our little farm, our one 
cow and horse, and our poor clothes. 
We are only children. I am eighteen 
and my brother is twelve. Our father 
and mother are dead, a long, cold win- 
ter lies before us, and we have not a 
mouthful to spare." 

The Indian frowned. 

"White Bear must have flour and 
meat from all the settlers of Ridge 
Prairie ! Do.'S the one cow jrive milk ? 
White Bear must have butter. Has 
the maiden chicken.s ? White Bear 
must have eggs. I have said it." 

" You will i^et nothing here," said 
Elmer Maxon, angrilv. " If you want 
these things, do as we have done; work 
for them like a good citizen of the 
United States ! " 

" Does the maiden say this, too ? " 

" I do not like to turn you away 
empty-handed," Alice returned, in a 
gentle voice, " but 1 cannot give you 
from our store of provisions. A great 
worrior will not be cruel, and if I offer 
to break bread with you, will not White 
Bear eat one slice and go in peace V " 

" No 1 " growled the savage. " White 
Bear will have what he asks or nothing ! 

And if I get nothing the bad children 
will be sorry; they will know what it is 
to be hungry and cold before spring ! " 

Alice turned away, unable to meet 
the stare of his revengeful eyes; but 
Elmer answered, dauntlessly: 

" We are not afraid of you. There 
are too many settlers about Ridge 
Prairie for any of your treacherous 
plots to succeed, and I don't believe 
you are even a big Sioux. Brave chiefs 
do not beg or try to scare boys and 
girls, either ! " 

"We shall see ! " said White Bear, in 
a guttural voice. 

He struck his pony with a piece of 
shingle that he held in his left hand, 
and rode awav without looking back; 
but Alice and Elmer watched him out 
of sight with some uneasiness. 

" I am sorry for this," said the girl, 
"but, indeed, I cannot help it. To 
give to one Indian is to open the door 
through which twenty more will file in- 
to your castle. And, Elmer, we cannot 
spare anythhig from our winter's allow- 
ance without putting ourselves in dang- 
er of starvation. " 

" Are you afraid of White Bear ? " 
the boy asked. 

" I am a little troubled by his 
threats," said his sister. 

"Well, I believe I had better go up 
to Jack - AVilliams' cabin and tell him 
about it — and see what he thinks we 
should do to protect ourselves." 

Alice blushed prettily. 

" We are always appealing to Jack 
Williams for help,'" she said, deprecat- 
ingly. " I am afraid he thinks we are 
very troublesome." 

"No, he doesn't, Alice ! Only yes- 
terday he charged me if anything hap- 
pened to you to let him know at once, 
and he is alwa^^s offering to help us, as 
if it was the pleasantest and most 
natural thing in the world." 

" He is very kind," and Alice Max- 
on's face grew still more rosy. " Per- 
haps it would be well to consult him, 
and you should lose no time in going, 
Elmer, for you must get back before 
it gets dark." 

Elmer did not wait for a second 
bidding, but mounted the only horse 
they possessed and rode away toward 
the Williams homestead. 

The two buildings were, in pioneer 
phrase, "handy to each other," being 
only a mile apart; and when the boy 
reached Jack's home he found that 
sturdy fellow on his knees in front of 
the cabin, oiling and polishing his 
bicycle with industrious care. 

"Helloa, Elmer!" he called out, 
cheerily, "I was just getting ready* 
for a flying trip to your house. I have 
been to Sherwood, and as to-morrow 
happens to be your sister's birthday, I 
bought her a little present which I was 
going to bring her over on my w'heel." 

Elmer was alive with interest now, 
and White Bear was forgotten till after 
Jack had brought from the kitchen 
table a handsome plush toilet case 
carefully wrapped in several papers. 

" Isn't that a daisy 1' the young man 
cried, warmly. " I can imagine how 
Alice's blue eyes will shine when she 
sees it." 

"Didn't it cost a mint of money ? " 
the boy asked, reaproachfully. 

" Only five dollars, Elmer. I will 
own that to be a good sum for a Dakota 
farmer to spend on a thing of beauty; 
but it is my first gift to your sister, 
and nothing seems too extravagant for 

Miss Williams, Jack's old maid sister 
and housekeeper, looked up from her 
sewing and smiled shrewdly at this 
tran8parent speech; but Elmer saw 
nothing significant in it, and went on 
with his errand in a rapid way. 

Jark's brow clouded in a moment. 

"The impudent beggar!" he ex- 
claimed, angrily. "That is the way 
of those cowardly redskins, to threaten 
women and children." 

Miss Williams shook her head gravel^'. 

" 1 am afraid he will carry out his 
threat. Indians are so vindictive. I 
wish Alice would break up housekeep- 
ing and spend the winter with us." 

A cry from Elmer brought the 
others quickly to the door. Beyond 
the dugout of the Maxons a puff of 
smoke was ascending, toward the sky,' 
and the wind was behind it. blowing a 

gale. Jack caught the situation in an 

" Sarah," he cried, excitedly. 
"White Bear's work has begun. We 
are all in the pathway of that fire, and 
it will strike Alice first ! " 

"But there is a plowed safety -line 
about the house," said Miss Williams. 

" Of no more value than a tow string 
when those masses of burning, tumbling 
weeds from Ogden's breaking are 
swept along by the wind ! Can you and 
Elmer set ahead fire beyond our house 
and meet this with wet brooms and 
blankets when it comes, while I go for 
Alice on my wheel ? " 

" Yes," replied the determined wo- 
man. "We can save this place, I 
think,, buu I do not think you can bring 
Alice on the bicycle." 

" Trust me for that ! " said Jack, 
mounting hurriedly. ' She is as light 
as a feather and brave enough to keep 
her balance. I can ride ahead of an 
ordinary prairie fire, and," he added, 
under his breath as he spun out over 
the trail, "if Icannot^ave her, we can 
die together ! " 

Sarah Williams lost no time in mak- 
ing those efficient preparations for a 
battle with fire that are so familiar 
to the Western pioneer, and as Jack 
looked back over his shoulder he saw 
the head line of a fiery flame rushing 
away from his house, and he knew that 
when the advancing forces came up they 
would find the cool-headed women and 
bov ready to meet them. 

ile could see the blaze rising above 
the smoke behind the Maxon buildings, 
and knew it was coming with awful 
speed. A few rods from the door of 
the house he met Alice, running in 
frantic haste. 

" Quick ! Quick ! " he shouted, as he 
circled about and turned toward his 
own claim. " Come with me and I can 
save you — the place must go ! " 

She grasped his strong hand, sprang 
up to the support of his arm, and, 
doubly freighted, thelighf, steel-forged 
vehicle started on its return. 

There have been many novel races 
in the world, but never another like 
this. Love and fear, life and death. 

courage and calmness were all in the 
balance, and a straw might determine 
the result. Crackling and hissing be- 
hind them was a wall of fire; clouds of 
thick smoke rushed about them, and 
sickening heat seemed to swallow up 
sight and hearing; but still Jack's feet 
steadily guided the pedals, still he held 
the precious burden against his breast, 
and on they flew before the wind. 
Once, when he felt his muscels quiver- 
ing under the strain, he whispered 
hoarsely in the girl's ear: 

" Alice, I love you ! Living or dead, 
we will never be separated I " And Alice 
whispered, ' ' Never ! " 

Then with new strength he pumped 
on and found himself on black soil. A 
few revolutions more and he was in the 
midst of his own safety furrows, with a 
huge mass of burning weeds closely 
pursuing him, which was shattered and 
thrown back by two pitchforks in the 
hands of Sarah and Elmer. Then they 
all rallied and assailed the fiery enemy 
as it came up in roaring lines, beating 
it down and giving exultant cheers at 
its sullen death. 

An hour afterward, a smoky, grimy 
faced couple with watery eyes and very 
dirty hands, stood before Miss Sarah 
Williams and confessed that they were 

" When did it happen ? " she asked, 
with a curious twinkle iu her red eyes, 
and Jack promptly answered: 

"Ask our bicycle I " — Waverly 

Dyspepsia and Baldness. 

Dyspepsia is one of most common 
causes of baldness. Nature is a great 
economizer, and when the nutrient ele- 
ments furnished by the blood are insuffi- 
cient to properly support the whole 
body, she cuts off the supply to pans 
the least vital, like the hair and nails, 
that the heart, lungs and other vital 
organs may be the better nourished. 
In cases of severe fevers this enonomy 
is particularly noticeable. A single 
hair is a sort of history of the physical 
condition of an individual during the 
time it has been growing, if one could 


High Government Authority. 

No authority of greater experience on food products ex- 
ists than Dr. Henry A. Molt, of New York. Dr. Mott's v^'ide 
experience as Government Chemist for the Indian Depart- 
ment, gave him exceptional opportunities to acquaint himself 
with the qualities and constituent parts of baking powders. 
He understands thoroughly the comparative value of every 
brand in the market, and has from time to time expressed 
his opinion thereof. Ou a recent careful re-examination and 
analysis he finds 

Dr. Price's Cream Baking Powder 

superior to all others in strength, purity, and ciliciency. Dr. 
Mott writes : — 

" New York, March aoth, 1894. 

I find Dr. Price's Cream Bakir.g Powder to be superior 
to all others, for the following reasons : — 

1st. It liberates the greatest amount of leavening gas 
and is consequently more efTicicnt. 

2nd. The ingredients used in its preparation are of the 
purest character. 

3rd. Its keeping qualities are excellent. 

4th. On account of the purity of the materials and their 
relative proportions, Dr. Price's Cream Baking Powder must 
be considered the acme of perfection as regards wholesomeness 
and efficiency, and I say this having in mind certificates I 
have given several years ago respecting two other baking 

The reasons for the change in my opinion are based on 
the above facts and the new method adopted to prevent yotir 
baking powder from caking and deteriorating in strength. 

Hrvnv .\ ^Tr TT. Ph. D., L. L. D.7 

February 2, 1895. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


read closely enough. Take a hair from 
the beard or from the head and scru- 
tinize it, and you will see that it shows 
some attenuated places, indicating that 
at some peroid of its growth the blood 
supply was deficient from overwork, 
anxiety or under feeding. 

The hair falls out when the strength 
of its roots is insufQcient to sustain its 
weight any longer, and a new hair will 
take its place unless the root is diseased. 
For this reason each person has a cer- 
tain definite length of hair. When the 
hair begins to split or fall out massage 
to the scalp is excellent. Place the 
tips of the fingers firmly upon the scalp 
and then vibrate or move the scalp while 
holding the pressure steadily. This 
will stimulate the blood vessels under- 
neath and bring about better nourish- 
ment of the hair. A brush of unevenly- 
tufted bristles is also excellent to use 
upon the scalp, not the hair.— Hall's 
Journal of Health. 

A True Qhost Story. 

About a mile beyond the Beech Hill 
stood Squire Macdonald's store, and 
one di'eary night in late autumn there 
came thither first Rory O'More, and 
then Sandy Big John, and finally Alec 
Gillies, all in a high state of excite- 
ment, and asserting with much posi- 
tiveness that they had seen the ghost 
on Beech Hill. Now, the squire was 
as shrewd, hard-hearted, and unsuper- 
stitous a Scotchman as ever traded tea 
for butter or sugar for eggs, and he 
had no more faith in the Beech Hill 
ghost than the man in the moon. 

But this time the testimony of the 
terrified witnesses happened to agree 
remarkably. The ghost had appeared 
to all in precisely the same form, name- 
ly, as a white, shapeless thing that 
rolled along the ground, uttering shrill 
and threatening shrieks. The matter 
was surely worth looking into. Hark 
ye, now," said the squire at last, "I 
believe you're nothing better than a 
parcel' of foolish boys; and to prove it, 
I'll go up to the Beech Hill myself and 
see what it is that has come so nigh 
scaring the life out of you." 

Thus speaking, he got his coat and 
hat, and calling them to follow, set off 
for the scene of the ghost's walk. 
Rory and Sandy and Alec would much 
rather have been excused, but pride 
overcame their timidity, and they fol- 
lowed in their leader's track. Hardly 
had they reached the foot of the hill 
than the shrieks they had heard before 
came to their ears. 

"There it is again ! " exclaimed Rory, 
with trembling lips, ' • Can ye hear it, 
squire? " 

"To be sure I can ! " responded the 
squire, stoutly; " and I'm going to see 
what it is. Come along." 

The distance between the doughty 
squire and his followers increased as he 
went on, while the shrieks grew 
stronger with each forward step. 

When about the middle of the ascent 
he saw the ghost. It was, as the men 
reported, a white shapeless thing roll- 
ing upon the ground; and from it un- 
doubtedly came the piercing cries which 
had proved so alarming. Going 
straight up to the thing, the squire 
touched it with his foot, then bent down 
to feel it with his hand, and then burst 
out into a roar of laughter that at first 
startled the three farmers almost as 
much as the ghost shrieks. 

"Come hear, you fools 1" he shouted. 
" Come and see what your ghost is." 

In a hesitating way they drew near, 
and examined the cause of their 
affright. It was a white meal bag con- 
taining two very lively young pigs, 
which had in some way fallen off a 
farmer's wagon into the middle of the 
road, there to prove a source of terror 
to the superstitious and perhaps not 
altogether sober passers by. — Harper's 
Young People. 

Ten Miles Above the Earth. 

The greatest height ever attained by 
balloonists who have returned alive to 
relate the story of their experience was 
37,000 feet — upward of seven miles; 
this by Glaisher and Coxwell. They 
left Wolverhampton, England, at 2:30 
r. M., September f), 1892, and during 

the afternoon reached the enormous 
altitude recorded above. Balloons 
have been sent to a greater height than 
that attained by the Glaisher-Coxwell 
airship, but they were not accompanied 
by aeronauts. In the experiments 
made by Hermite and Besancon at 
Paris they sent balloons to a height of 
ten miles. Each balloon was fitted 
with self-recording instruments. They 
showed that the temperature at seven 
and one-half miles was 60° below 
Fahrenheit's zero, and that the barom- 
eter marked only four inches. 

Fashion Notes. 

Some of the latest evening gowns are 
minus the sleeve entirely, having only a 
little strap affair to hold them on the 
shoulders. This is, indeed, a jump from 
the immense balloons. 

Chinchilla is one of the season's favor- 
ites and for the woman with a clear 
pink-and-white complexion there can 
be nothing prettier. A beautiful even- 
ing cloak is made of dark green ben - 
galine, with a lining and full cape of 

The bodice that fastens invisibly un- 
der the arm and on the left shoulder is 
a great favorite, and adds much to the 
bringing out of a good figure. It is 
impossible to fasten it one's self. But 
when once it is fastened, the wearer 
enjoys the proud distinction of looking 
as if she had been melted and poured 

In making over last year's evening 
dress a successful effect may be pro- 
duced by using the old sleeves for the 
waist and the old skirt for the sleeves, 
in which event the skirt will have to be 
of a different material altogether. For 
young girls white accordion-plaited 
crepe skirts are very useful, as they 
may be worn with any bodice, and for 
any small function are just the thing. 

" How to be pretty though cold" is 
a difficult problem for the unfortunate 
woman who cannot afford furs of some 
description in this season, when fur 
garment are made so fascinatingly be- 
coming, with their wide, soft collars, 
and so expensive in their exaggerated 
fulness. Sealskin is the one fur which 
is continually in fashion, and it is so dis- 
tinctly becoming to every face and com- 
plexion that it will never lose its popu- 
larity. It is not quite so aristocratic 
as the gray-haired Russian sable, but 
that is a matter of rarity and price, 
rather than a question of beauty. 


The secret of most men's misery is 
that they are trying to please them- 
selves. — Maurice. 

Happy men are full of the present, 
for its beauty sufQces them; and wise 
men also, for its duties engage them. — 

It is easy to live in the world after 
the world's opinion. It is easy to live 
in solitude after our own. But the 
great man is he who, in the midst of 
the crowd, keeps with perfect sweet- 
ness the independence of character. — 

Silence is strenght. Silence baffles, 
protects, protests. Silence unhouses 
hate, defeats malice, disarms wrong. 
Silence is tempered steel. Only the 
strong can use this weapon: few can 
draw the bow of Ulysses. — Francis 

Learn a wondrous secret — that pen- 
nilessness is not poverty, and owner- 
ship is not possession; that to be 
without is not always to lack, and to 
reach is not to attain; and the light is 
for all eyes that look up, and color foi* 
those who "choose." — Helen Hunt. 

It is the pure in heart who see God 
clearly. Trifle with the adjustment of 
a field glass, and the picture becomes 
blurred. And just so far as we trifle 
with the spiritual laws of life, just so 
far as we live lives of self-indulgence 
and have no higher ideal than self-dis- 
play, our eyes have become so blinded 
that we can no longer see clearly 
where to put our faith when the storms 
come. The greatest faith is always 
found with the highest living, — Minot 
Osgood Simons. 


Mother's Cooking. 

Your modern school of cookery, 

Where food is done by note. 
Don't hardly touch old "mother's food. 

Although she cooked by rote. 

She had a way of cooking things, 

So wholesome and .so sweet, 
That vlttles seemed to coax us boys 

To take right hold and eat. 

This sharlotte roosh is fraud in cake, 
And French a-clairs don't "stay," 

And lemon pie with lather on't It 
Is jest like medder hay. 

In spite of all your folderols, 

The old folks often sigh 
For mother's "dish" — she called it "b'ilpd' 

And mother's pumkin pie. 

But p'r'aps it warn't all cookery 

That made the vittles grand, 
Maybe the heft of sweetness lay 

In dear old mother's hand. 

Don't matter much what vittles is 

When love is served for sarce. 
Love turns old hens to chickens, br'iled. 

Nettles to sparrer grass. 

hair look glossy. A stray, wiry or 
gray hair may be removed with a 
tweezers, but should never be cut. On 
the other hand, eyelashes are cultivat- 
ed by clipping them once a year. Hair 
dressers call it " topping '' them, and 
the term is pertinent. Only the irreg- 
ular tip ends should be cut, and this 
can only be done by another. Cutting 
the lashes weakens the eves, remember 
that ! 

For the Kitchen 

Hints to Housekeepers. 

Love lightens labor, and quiet, loving 
tones make a happy home. 

Make pie crust with a little baking 
powder sifted in the flour, and use less 
shortening. You will find it much 
more diges-tible, and better for all fruit 

A child's bed should always be 
placed so that the light shall come from 
one side. If it be allowed to strike in 
front or behind the head it would have 
a tendency to make the child cross- 

All woolen dresses should be hung 
out in the air and sunshine at least 
once in a fortnight. This will not only 
render them fresh and sweet, but it 
will also take out creases as nothing 
else except a tailor's iron will. 

A woman noted for the frothy light- 
ness of the mashed potato served at 
her board confesses to no secret in its 
preparation, "except, perhaps, the 
pinch of baking powder, which I add 
along with the little milk and butter 
that everybody puts in." She has the 
mixture beaten hard and fast with a 
fork, and one or all of these things 
contributes to a most successful whole. 

Never cut or trim the eyebrows. 
Their beauty includes delicacy — delicacy 
in curve, width and texture. Trimming 
them destroys this by causing them to 
grow coarse, stiff and "wild." To 
get the well-defined, narrow arch many 
beauties pinch the eyebrows after 
anointing them with oil to make the 

Sour Cream Sauce. — Put together a 
cup of sugar and a cup and a half of 
thick, sour cream. Beat the mixture 
five or six minutes, then put it into a 
sauce tureen and grate nutmeg over it. 
This sauce is specially appropriate for 
Indian puddings, boiled or baked, and 
for boiled suet pudding. 

To Boil Eggs.— Put them in a sauce- 
pan, and pour boiling water over them, 
cover the dish tight and set back where 
the water will keep hot, but not boil. 
Let it stand ten minutes. The effect 
is quite different from that produced by 
boiling, both the flavor and texture of 
the egg being vastly superior to an egg 
boiled in the usual manner. 

RoxBURY Pancakes (Fok Break 
fast). — One pint of sour milk, one egg, 
three cups of rye meal, one of Indian, 
half a cup of molasses, one small tea- 
spoonful of soda and one of .salt. Fry 
like doughnuts. Take a tablespoonful 
of the mixture, and, holding it low over 
the fat, scrape it out with a knife in 
such a way as to give it a round shape. 
Stir and shake them about constantly. 

Minced Veal.— Put the bones of a 
cold fillet or loin of veal, or any other 
bones you may have, into a stewpan 
with the skin and trimmings of the 
meat. Dredge in a little flour, pour in 
more that a pint of water, a small onion, 
sliced, one-half teaspoonful of minced 
lemon peel, a little mace, if the flav- 
or is liked, a bouquet of sweet herbs, 
white pepper and salt to taste. Sim- 
mer these ingredients for more than 
an hour, then strain the gravy and 
thicken it with an ounce of butter roll- 
ed in flour; boil it up again and skim 
well. While the gravy is cooking, 
mince the veal, but not too fine. When 
the gravy is ready put it in and warm 
it gradually; add a teaspoonful of lemon 
juice and three tablespoonfuls of milk 
or cream if you can afford it. Do not 
let it boil. Pile the mince in the cen- 
ter of the dish, and garnish with sip- 
pets of toasted bread and points of 
lemon. Place three nicely-poached 
eggs on top, and you will have a very 
pretty as well as nice dish for the table. 

- _ ^ 

wise will not be persuaded in- 
to the purchase of the unre- 
liable baking powders which 
some dealers wish to sell for 
the sake of the additional profit derived there- 
from. Crudely mixed from low-grade, impure 
ingredients, such powders cost but half as 
much to make as the highly refined, abso- 
lutely pure Royal Baking Powder, although 
retailed at the same price. They are un- 
wholesome and lacking in leavening strength. 

Royal Baking Powder gives 

the greatest value for its cost, and there is 
no other powder or preparation that will 
give such satisfaction, or make such pure, 
wholesome and delicious food, or which in 
practical use will be found so economical. 



The^ Pacific Riirai' Press. 

February 2, 1895 


Que»tions for Southern Readers. 

To TiiK Edithi! : —Kindly asl< your 
.southern Califoi-nia readers to answer 
throuyli your pai)er the following ques- 
tions ; 

l8 the African box Ihorn (Lycium 
'l,„rrl<linii) a tfood fence for a dry climate 
(San Diego county, near the sea). If 
so. how should it be planted to turn 
cattle, distance apart of the seed, and 
width of hedge ? Is there danger of its 
spreading to arable pasture land 
through seeds or roots ? Tf not. what 
plant is there for hedges which will 
turn cattle, grow quickly in a dry cli- 
mate near the sea, can he planted 
from seed in place, along a fence or 
where a fence is needed, but where dis- 
tance to be covered and expense of 
posts forbid wire fence, and which will 
not spread from seed or root in a way 
to endanger fai-m or pasture adjacent 
to the hedge ? 

(2.) Is either the EtKuhjptva cnLra 
or Maff/iiiiitK suitable for a dry sea- 
coast ciimatc. if grown on side hills? 
Which is best ? In such a situation, 
which of the following would thrive 
best: E. liiiiiliir. Ciiryunidhj.r. Foxsilis. 
f.i u.rciKiyhni. Mil !i>il(iiti . I'll iihi iln. FoJy- 
iiiitli<')ii'i. Rimtnitii. or Si'l' iiijiIi/dhi ! Is 
there any variety less durable but bet- 
ter suited for such dry, exposed, wmd- 
swept land, where by trial the (llohnhis 
dies, and the Cin-yuornly.r. without cul- 
tivation, grows too slowly to be worth 
planting, and is, moreover, eaten by 
stock and deer ? 

(3.) Has the pecan been a commer- 
cial success in any climate similar to 
that of San Diego, where the soil is 
good but rainfall often delicient. and 
surface water from <!0 to 80 feet below 
the surface ? 

(4.) What grass or forage plant has 
experience proved to be best for San 
Diego county conditions near the sea ? 
Has it been proved that any imported 
grass or forage plant is superior to the 
native growth under such conditions ? 

Los Angeles. H.^ciend.v. 

Los Qatos Floral Society. 

To THK Editor: — The Lo.s (iatos 
Floral Society held their annual meet- 
ing last Thursday, and the following 
officers wei-e elected for the new 3'ear : 
President. Miss K. B. Holladay; vice- 
president, Mrs. L. Gr. Turner; secre- 
tary, Mrs. F. A. A, Belinge; treas- 
urer, Miss E. Cohen: accountant. Miss 
Mabel Rankin: directors, Messrs. J. R 
Ryland and T. E. Johns. 

The reports of the retiring ofticers 
were read, proving that the society 
was moving onward. The chairman of 
the Committee on Papers also gave a 
short report, stating that during the 
last year nine interesting and instruc- 
tive papers had been written and read 
by the members. 

The society proposes to hold their 
usnal rose fair in May, and it would be 
well worth the while of the lovers of the 
rose to pay ivos Gatos a visit at that 
season, for our lovely valley is God's 
chosen spot to perfect the queen of 
Flora's kingdom. K. C. B. 

Los Gatos, Santa Clara Co, 


,Trr...i<T;- •«.. IN ROSES and PLANTS, 

We want your tru'lB. li»iiu-« we on«r these cheap 
harKuiiiH well kiiowiiii; that oiire B rU!«toiiiHr 
of our*, nliv^ys one;. Please toil your n«i||h- 
ItorH Hb<iiit U. 
Set A— 11) Kver-hlonmirB Roses, 10 Colors. . iVIc 
B— !<) Prize \\ iiiniiic ChrysMnthenmms &*(.■ 

C— 111 ]^>VBly Furhsids, all difTereul ftttc 

" D-8 Frnurimt Ciirimlion I'inks Wc 

" E— 15 Choi Kiiinhow PiiiiHies 60c 

•■ r-12Sweei Sreiitcil ih.iili e TuI.e ROnee Hte 
•■ O— lor.lei-iiiii Gfi-MiiiuniH, till different SHc 
" H—H Flou-errii*: KfKonins, choice kinds 6Uc 
•• J— lu Vine* unci J'liinte, suituble for 

VilsBS Mli.l Unsket" Klc 

" K— 12MHKnitlr-vnl Coleu-. hrinhteolors TiOc 
•• I, — 4 Choice Deforntive I'alnis, eleKimt W»c 

M — 4 Dwarf F;vpr-l>looroinff Fr. C)tnnns 
" >'-20 I'lickets Flower Sends, all kinds GUc 
Any 3 sets for tl.2S, any S for 92. 

Tivmnil pos4T»nid. ssife nrrirnl »nd Rittis.fec- 
tioi'i miiiriinleed. Order liy llie leitrrs from 
Ihis uilverlifiement nOW nstliese iiitrodnciory 
sets not in catntouno. This t>ook cctatnins 
everythinix voii need for the garden nntl house. 
Weinnil it for IfV in stnmns. We are the liim- 
est rose prower.; in iJie unrltl. Over oiio and a 
half uillion ro-e- t-old eiirh ye;ir. 


Champion City Greenhouses, 

•' l*Iuiii^ — loll .your people t<i xroiv tin- best 
plums: thi'.v will iilwiiys Hud u iiiHxl mttrkci." 

So KBid several of Ihi- Ittrtiest h&ntllKrN of frolls 
in CliiciiKo wlion the i) nest ion was iiNktd I hem re- 
r.'Qtl.v. • Wliii-t is the iHost prolltnlde fruH to plauf 
iH>\v "r " ■ - 

(.:i.vmatk r-- Uurbao^ M-tltaao. Normaad 

.Sai.s-uiria. Tragedy. Kelsfey. Dianjond. 

■tlrand IRiUe. Stirinti. lottwbrth. Pond. 

Tlie>e arc llie best-. Write for prices, which will 
lie iiiwle very low. 

Also, t(/»<0«7 everS iliiuif ulSie "Jn tlie Fruit and 
Nut Tree line. Seeds. lUillis, PIhuLs, etc. 

Walnut Trees. 

A Perfect Woniler. Th© liestXomato 
|iiitli0 Woilcl an 1 jii-t what everyone wants. | 
VKxIrrrarly Karl>, be;irA .(l>uri<liiUtly of the linet>l 
|tlitTore<l, brltfht re<i fonialoeB auil is dMln([ni.h*il | 
Pfrtin all ulhero iU lr*f fi>rin, stRlitlind erecf iiiul re- . 
quiriuic uo HUppurt at all. one who hus u gur- j 
den should be withnu! it. _ _ i 

A >mt<T») ^ •ri<'i V, Kiioruioa>Ty prudut tive, CiroWRl 
about li» inches lon«. :tnd is un*?gu»n««l forHlicing-' 
It bpai4 ihrni ull. Very crisp and teuder. Stands, 
h lonK t ime before runnitis to need. 
2;if"\Ve will Bond i>o«i|>iii<T. a packet each of Ex 

MHtchlefte Cucumber, Cream 

Eurly Tree Tonifttn, 

Letuce. May's IJDc. C'eniticiit**. hnd our llluattatcd 
BarKHin CalaloKU* (worth dollant to every bujer] 
of Seeds, Fruits and 1 hints, containinR Colored 
plates, painted from n«liir«. unrl thousardfi of 
illustration^ bII for nnl 


j-^^-- ■.■ . .t*end 

Oont^rtiori ■.ii\<\ t^ivinK u-^ the miniHS and addrt^8j-e^ 
of three or more of their friends who purchoH« 
Seeds, PUntH or Fruits, we will add, free, on 
packet of Maramoih Tomato, a magnificent va 
of enorninsos size, often Wfi^'hnu 3 lbs. each. 

TliU !• Ihf muttl Itbfrftl offer ryrr nia<l» hr a rf..-.,. 
SerdiDian, and no unf ■hnnM full tn takr a<ltantKir<' nflt 

MAY & CO. ntru"* SI. Paul, Minn 

inn lUc. lor at»nve Tomato* 


jire i.eS^^^ft^S^^^^ 


Large Stock of Unirrigated Trees 

on whole SeedliuK Roots, warranted free 
rroin scale and root l<not. Prices low. 
ChcrHcs, Orapes, Nut end Shade Trees 
very low. AH I«»din»f varieties. 
Xormand. Abundance. Willard and Simoni 
I'lums; Itungoume Japan Apricots. Early 
Hearing Apples, and Karliest Yellow 

'New Prioe List Free. 

R. W. BELL, 




P^CI!!L!S!5?^KY. First-ciasslrnit Tree! 

Onice and Greenhouses : 
C nr. KHker and Lombard .StK.. .San FraiiclNeu, 

Nursery at Millbriie. San Mateo Co. 
rruiie Hu .Myrobolan. Flench. Geniiaii. Btilparlan. 

Kobe de Sariient, Clyman. TraKodv, FelleiihurB. 

St. CathcrlueB $8 and »I0 per IIX) 

.VppleH, 1( adlnt' sorts fS and »ltl per 11)0 

.Aorleots, the best varieties IflO per 100 

.VIinondH, the l)est soft-Bhell sons. W and »lll per IIW 

<"herrle». an Mazzaid flu and iV: per KK) 

I Va<'he», best tree and ellnif varletleH.*s & no per 100 
Pears, Dartleti and othi>r sorts. . . .$10 aii<l tK iwr 100 
Hoses, two-year-old, tieUl erown. newest and 

best old varieties Mc ea<rh. *ls per 1(10 

M<>iiterr.y Cypress. Blue and Hed Gum. In 

bo.xes. traiisplaiued . .f l.-.T. f 100. JIO to *12..Vl V 1000 
Palm California. .Tapaii and Australian Pan Palm 
I'bneidx (Date Palnii. Drae:eiias. and a laiue assort- 
menl of evertrreeii trees. deeuUioiis ti-ei-s ami shrul)- 
bcry. Azaleas ludlea and Mollis. Caiie llias Klioito- 
dendron.ruchslas. at low prices. F. H'UEM.WN. 



Apple. Peach, Cherry, Apricot and Almond 

First-Class Trees at very low prices, 

E. GILL, Nurseryman, Oakland, Cal. 


Napa A'alle.v Nurseries. 

.NAI'A. ( AL. 


No Irrigation. 

Crovuers or all tH^ Le-adlng; 
\/arietles of r="riilt Tr€»e.j5. 

('orres|Mindeiice solicit< <l. 

JAS. O'NEILL & SON, Haywards, 

Alamctla County. Cal 

James A. Anderson, 


Lodi, San Joaquin County, Cal. 

Has a Choici' .Stock of YEARLING NURSERY 
TREES for this seiison's plaiutini?. (iuarunteed 
free from disease and insect pests, and at prices 
to suit the times. 

Ulenhciiii. -Jtoyal and French Apricots 

Huugarian. TraKcd.v and French Prunes 

Hurbanli. Satsumsi and Kelse.v Plums. 

.\e Plus Ultra. I..a Prima. Texas Proline, I. X. L. , 
Nonpariel and Languedoc Almonds. 

Salwa.v. t^rawford. Muir and twenty other vari- 
eties of Veiiches. . 

Alsa Nexjlarines. .\pples, I'eais, Uberrles, Fig«, 
Oranges, Lemons, etc. 

Your prices are mine. l>on"t forfiel to write for 
particulars. Corre.spondence soUcit<vl and cheer- 
fully answered Address all communications, 
.1. A. ANDERSON, Lodi, Cal. 



French and Robe de Sar§:ent 


AT (> « TN. KAfll.OK »■■.<> I'I;K TI*OlSA>T>. 


Itox ry 

SaiitM Clarii, Cal. 

Ee J, Bo\A/^ri, 


Atfalfa, Grass, Clover, Vegetable 

and Flower Seeds.— Onion Sets. 

LMrgesi Stock and Most Complete Assortment. 


I Grower and Dealer in 

General INursery StocK* 

Salesyard, Cor. Third and Davis Sts. { 

Please send for Price Lists. '1 

223 Third St„ Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, Cai. 
I . 

rut riNKST STtH'K OF 

Citrus and Deciduous Trees, 

In the State, at the Home Nurseries, Pasadena, Cal. 

One and two-year-old Orange and Lemon Trees, 
the lUiest and thriftiest stock ever grown any- i 
where, and all the best varieties, also Pomok) 
I Crape Fruit), and the Japanese Red Dancy Tan- 
gerine Orange; also the best deciduous trees. 
Raspberries, IMackberrics and the Wonderful 
F.verbearing and other tine varieties of StrawbeN 

j ries. Nxjthlog J)ut the best of all varieties of. 

I Fruits »i)d Nuts. Don't faH to write fo^ prices to' 

I HEWITT ft <,OKSt»N. I'r« p», i'HBHlT^nH, Cal. 

Send for large'Ulustrated descriptive and priced 
CaWtlogue, mailed free. 

New crop Salt Lake Alfalla. Inquire for samples 
and prices. 


815, si7 and 819 Sansome St,, San Francisco, Cal. 

65 Front St., Portland, Or. 
Or 214 Commercial St., Seattle, Wash. 


Spark's Mammoth 


Prices to Meet the Times, 

Befote purchashing elsewhere write 

H. B, SMITH Ventnra, Ventura Co.. Cal. 

Orange Trees! 

LINGS, Florida Sour stock: must be sold, 
Strongl.v grown; warranted free from scale. No 
reasonable offer refused. Write for particulars. 

I. B. LACY, 

Kast Uukluiid P. U. Alameda cuuuty. Cal, 

ACRE APPLES, $i,493 S :;l<^^ll\fl 

IjOuIhI.iii;!, Mil., for Iree saiui>U' eui>,v lelllur about it. 
A practical l-'nilt and Farm pai>er. piilnlshed'by 
Stark Hroji., 40e » year; drculallou. 460,000 eoplas. 
The ■ Cream of the Creani "—five* the busy Fruit 
Grower or Parmer, who hasn't the time or the mousy ' 
to buy !inil read a mass of pnpers. what liliest 

Iroui llu'lii nil, w.hni he tvaritHtn knoH, 

Grenoble or Mayette Walnut. 

The inesl complete collectioo of Walnuts to be 
found anywhere:.''' 43 varieties, including the 
Mnyette or Orenohic,. Franqui^tte, Parlslenne, 
Clialierte, and Vourey, the leading market wal- 
nuts of France, all tir^t tfruitt, n-'rond r)«n(rnlinit 
seedling Iree.s, the only class of seedlings worth 
planting, of all the above-named varieties, beside^ 
PrH'p«rtnrl«n8 and Cl«i»ter. Also ifrii ftfil trees 

New Varieties of Prunes ! 

Mammoth " 

Or Improved French Prune. 

.\verage Size (C'arpd). 

The finest and largest prune ever introduced 
Into this State, grading (cured) from to 85 per 
pound; splendid to ship East as a pliun. This 
season Is the first one that this remarkable prune 
has been put on the market. 

Everything else in the nut and fruit tree Hue. 

(ieneral Catalogue, with essay on Grafting the 
Walnut, and how to redeem by grafting large, un 
productive and defective walnut trees, with cuts, 
10 cts. per copy. 

Supplement, with Price List for the season of 
lH)4-iia, sent free on application. This supplement 
contains a full description of the Tlairac Mam- 


Barreu UlU Nursery. Nexada flty, Cal. 

Can Qet 

ry's Seeds at your dealers ' 
;is frcsl; and fertile as tbougb 
you cot I hem direct from Ferry's 
Seed Ktirms. 

flRRY^ ^EEDSj 

are known and jil iiiled every- 
wliere, ,'Uid iiro. uKiays the 
l>«i«l. Kerry's Seed .\iitin»l 
lor 1^93 tells 1(11 ^iioul 
iheni, — Free. 
D. M. Ferry & Co. 
Detroit, fMlch. 


1 XV^ M—-' >- — ' t».»t varieties, free from 

AND peslB of any kind. Primus 

w-vw r% KIT^^Z. '•In'oul. BIng, Rostraver 
W"^ I — . t-\. 1^ I ^5 and Murdoch Clierrle*: 
Black CHllforutn Figs; KIce Soft Shell and 
other Alinon<lH; AnierlcHii Sweet Clinstnuts; 
Prseparturleiis Waluuts. Hardy uiountain grown 
Orange Trees. Our oranges have stood tl degrees 
this winter without injury. Dollar .Strawberry, 
the best berry for home use or market. Address 
C. M. SILVA Ik SON, LInooln, I>lHcer Coanty, 

yvionterey Cypress ! 

Write for Prices. 

Delivered on wharf In San Francisco 

Address W, A. T, STRATTON. 
Seedsman & FlurUt, • - Petaluma, Cal 

Februar>- 2, 1896, 



Mammoth New Violet 


Blooms cover a Silver Dollar. Stems 12 to 14 inches long. Color— clear Violet-Purple. 

We gave the Violet its glorious name-" THE CALIFORNIA." We alone have supplied the market with its blooms 

And we now offer the PLANTS for sale. 

PRICES— One, 20 cents; Six, 85 cents; Dozen, Si. 50; Hundred, S7.50 

Plants vigorous unil entirely frie from Disease. ■ Our n:w handsomely illustrated General Catalogue lor 1895, now ready, and mailed free 

SUNSET SEED AND PLANT COMPANY, 427-9 Sansome street, San Francisco. 

INCORPORATED XClf?>W . _^ _. . _ _. _^ _ m IT IW r\ T 

California Nursery Company. ALEXANDER & HAMMON. 

RIO BONITO NURSERIES, Biggs, Butte Co., Cal. 

NURSERY STOCK OF ALL KINDS, deciduous rru.x trees 

Fruit Trees, Nut Trees, Small Fruits, Ornamental Trees 
and Shrubs, Palms, Flowering Plants, Etc. 

SPECIALTY: — Ail the Italian, French and Spanish Varieties of Olives of 
Note — " True " Spanish Queen, Rubra, Regalis, Etc. 


The most Complete Assortmeol of General Nursery Stock grown on the Pacific Coast. 

Wrili' us lor ut-w ( 'atalo^tius iiiul Kslinialfs. I'jiues tii suil the limes, 

J OHN ROCK, ::::::: Hanager. 


1895 Floral Wonder. 


Immeiise in size; stem \2 inches Ion;;. Intensely trafjiaiii- 
Colur Pure Violet Purple. 

A^TPT)T TNr NHVPT TV ''^ ^^^^ captured ti^io san francisco 
<J 1 EI\L.lll vJ ilU V IZL, 1 1 • Last year a few thousamrilowers were offered iu S: 
Cisco, and they were sold tor TEN TIMES THE PRICE of Marie Louise and Russian. 

Plant vigorous and absolutely free from disease. Does not fade out. Last season seve 
dred flowers were picked from a single plant. 

Price of Plants on .Vpplieiitioii. Descriptive Catalogue of Seeds, Plant!> and Fni 
mailed free. 


1,000,000 Trees for the Season of 1894=95 in Stock. 

tS~ Acknowledged everywhere to be equal to the best. Guaranteed to he healthy and tree from 
cale or other pests. 

Send for Calalogue and Prices. Correspondence solicited. Address: 

Alexander & Hammon, 

Blgrss. Butte OountVt Cal. 

411-415 .SA>,S()ME STKEET. 




Get our Catalogue and Prices be- 
fore purchasing: your Trees or 
Any tiling in the Nursery Line. 

Clean, Thrifty, Healthy Stock at 
Prices to Suit the Times. 



Offers a Full and Complete Assortment of 




Send for Descriptive Catalogue and Prices. 


GEO. C. ROEDING, = = = = 

E. C do\A/e^s, 




60c Trial Sets Plants and Fruits. 

lly mull poNtpuid, «a«"e iirrlviil and Hu(li>ructloQ guaranteed. Order 
by the letters and the numbers from thi.s advertisement NOW, as these are Intro- 
ductory sets, not in caialoi-'ue. an Eleaaiit Animal of 16S paiceH, which will 
besent f ree with lljst order. It none of these sets suit you and you want auythint' 
Inourllue send for <'.\.TA1..0CilTE FKEE. About 60 uaiteH devoted to 
VKOKTABI.E and FLOWER SEEHS, 70 to PtAA'TS and the 
balance to the CREAM OF THE FRUITS. 




(S\u-cessor lo Van Gelder .i VVylic. 
\\ I'Ue I'or prices on lurg:e and Hiiiall or4ler8. ^^^^m^mm^ 

k. f\Cf\IV\t='0. CftL. 

Set B-l(i|)kts. choice Vegetable Seea«,M s ts..,'inc 

'• E— 211 pkts. choice Flower Seed-t, 20 sorts. ..•idc 

'• tr— 2 Kletiajit I>alm» 

" J— 10 Sorts Lovely Everblooralne RoHes. .'>llc 

" €1— lOPrlzo CliryxauthemiiniM, lOsorts .'lOo 

" H— 4 Superb French Cunnax, 4 sorts MJe 

" K-10 Showy tJeriiMlunin, 1(1 soils jUc 

•' I.— MFIno^HadloIi Flowerlni; RiilbN....,''il)c 

" N-10Tubero«i-», Douhlu Flowerinx Size.. 51)0 

" O— inFlowerlnirPlantN, lO sorts... MIC 

" P—<i llardy Ornamental .Slirubit, (! sorts. .50c 

" Q— 6Hardy Cllmlilnir Vlne«, tjsorts iiOe 

One-h:ilt each of anv two set< 



FRTTIT TREES. Etc.-Mall Size. 

Set 10«— 8 Peach, 4 sorts aOo 

•' 10 t-8Apple, 4 sorts... .500 

" XO't—> Peai-, 2 Cherry 50c 

" (1 Orapeti, H .sorts 50c 

" J OT— 8 GrapeM, all Concords 50c 

. " 1«»H^ Cioo«el.crrie>i, 4 sorts .50u, 

" 1OU-10 Cnrranlx, .(sorts 50c 

" 1 Ht-M R:ii<pbcrrleH, 5 sorts .50c 

" 111— .50 StrawberrleH, 5 sorts iiOc 

" 113-1 each ,lapan Cheiitnut.f2 Walnut. .50c 

■' H."»— 20 Klnc'kherrlea, 4 sort's 50c 

any :i .lots *1.2.5, 5 sets .*2.0O. 


at Rock Bottom Prices. 


To close out a special lot of three-year buds of .Vied. Ssvicis illvc year roidsi. Ilni;l> 
branched, 4.\B feet, we oiler them at l»8i> the hundred. 

Write us if you want Med. Sweets or Wash. Navels; we can i^ive you lower prices 
for good trees than any one. 

Cal. Fan and Cham. Excelsa Palms, Laurustinus, Dracaena Indivisa, Roses, 

Tuberoses, Etc., Etc. 

Ai^i iHs wanli-d in e\erv town in jNorthi'rn and Cenlral California where we an- 
ijol rt'iiresented. 


♦ ESTABLISHED 1861. -f-f 





I I'ge and Complete Slock of Fruit and Oruamc'nial Trees and I'lanis, iH pi ices Kj suil ih.' linies 

SEIJSX^S ! ^^^^^^^^^^^^ 


Catalogue uiailed free on application. Please -uiciniuu ihis phi»t 

HQS. MEHERIN, 516 Battery Street (P. 0, Box 2059), San Francisco, Cal. 

.VIHS. K. iM. Fhasbh, Propr. 
FlU-;i> (;. Mii.KS, Manager. 

I'icNKVN, i'i,.\< i;i{ cor.N'i'^. 

iiiuii iiii|iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiininiiiiii iiiiiiiuiiin. 

THE most successful farmers and gardeners ^ 
buy their seed directly from the growers ; for | 
this reason we raise largely the most riskj | 
kinds, especially Cabbage and Onion Seed. This | 
latter is e.xtra tine this season. No catalogue con- = 
tains more varieties of vegetable seed, and none more | 
of the new that are really good — see outside coyer | 
far an illustrated selection from our new special- = 
ties, which we will sell at half rates. Catalogue /r««, = 
J. J. H. GREIJORY & SON, Seed Growem, 3 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

February 2, 1895. 

Farming as It Has Been and as 
It Ought to Be. 

Colusa 4>'i/»i. 

In the last twenty-five years Colusa 
county has shipped over a hundred 
millions of dollars of products to other 
parts of the world. Several thousand 
people have put in their labor, and the 
land is mortgaged to-day for as much 
as it would bring at auction. The land 
is not worth intrinsically half as much 
as it was a quarter of a century ago. 
The people, then, have robbed the soil 
of its productive capacity — have 
skimmed the cream off the acres and 
have, so to speak, mortgaged the whey ! 
This is what speculative farming has 
done for this section. 

Is it not time that those who think 
they have some chance of remaining in 
the country should come to some basis 
upon which it is possible to get back 
to farming as nature intended farming 
to be ? Is it not time that the home 
idea should prevail against the specu- 
lative idea of a farm in Colusa and a 
home in some distant city ? How much 
better off the country would have been 
to-day had each farmer have said: 
"Upon this piece of land I will make a 
home; I can have my own bread, my 
own meat, my own poultry, my own 
dairy, my own fruit of infinite variety, 
my own vegetables of every kind, and 
hence I will sit me down, gather my 
family about me and live like a king." 
Had this been the idea a quarter of a 
century ago, would the country have | 
been to-day mortgaged for its auction I 
price ? I 

National Dairy Congress. 

D. P. Ashburn, secretary, of Gibbon, 
Nebraska, writes us that the Second ' 
Annual Meeting of the National Dairy 
Congress will be held in the building of 
the Department of Agriculture in 
Washington, D. C, on Feb. 2(j and 27, 
1895. Opening session at 10 o'clock 
A. M. Hon. .1. Sterling Morton, Secre- 
tary of Agricultui-e, will deliver an 
address of welcome. An interesting 
programme on practical dairy topics 
by men of national reputation has been 

The National Dairy Congress was or- 
ganized at a meeting held at Cleveland, 
Ohio, Feb. 7, 1894, for the purpose of 
combining in a national organization all 
State associations and dairy workers 
throughout the United States in a 
united and more efficient effort to ad- 
vance the interests of the dairy in- 
dustry throughout the whole country. 
Article 3 of the constitution provides 
that "The National Dairy Congress 
shall be composed of two delegates, 
from each State Dairy Association and 
one delegate from each experiment 
station that conducts dairy experi- 
mental work. Provided, that in those 
States where no State Dairy Associa- 
tion exists the Governor may appoint 
two delegates, who shall be practical 
dairymen. Thus the congress combines 
the efforts of the scientific with the 
practical. An enthusiastic meeting 
that will result in great benefit to the 
dairy industry is confidently antici- 
pated. Any Californians interested in 
dairying who may be in the East next 
month should make an effort to attend 
this meeting. 

Bob— " What did the lecturer say 
when you threw those cabbages at 
him?" Dick--" Oh, he said he had 
hoped the audience would be pleased, 
but he really hadn't expected they 
would entirely lose their heads."— 
Dallas (Texas) Herald. 

State of Ohio, City op Toledo i 
LncAs County. 

Frank J. Cheney makes oath that he Is the 
Hn?^''^'*'''"" «™ °f f . J. Cheney & Co . 

doing business in the City of Toledo, County and 
State aforesaid, and that sHld llrm win naV the 
sum of ONE IIUNUHED DOLLARS for each and 
every ease of Catarrh that cannot be cured by the 
use of Hall s Catarrh Cure. ^ 

Sworn to before me and subscribed in mv 
presence, thls;6th day of December, A. D. 1888. 


" ' Notary Public. 

Hairs Catarrh Cure is taken IntcrnaUy and acts 
directly upon the blood and mucous surfaces of the 
system. Send for testimonials, free. 

,^ V, r. ^/ CHENF.Y & CO.. Toledo. O. 
WSold by Druggists, 76c. 


Cough I Cough 1 ! It's the 
hacking cough that often ends 
in the^most serious trouble. 


stops the congh at once by 
removing the cause and thus 
prevents the trouble. Put two 
teaspoonfuls of this good old 
retaedy in a small cup of 
molasses, take }^ teaspoonful 
often, and your cough will 
quickly cease. Sold everj'- 
where. You now get double 
the quantity of Pain-Killer for 
the same old price. 
Perry Dayls & Son, Providence, R. I. 

You want to make a little more money this year than yuu did last. One way to accomplish it is tu 
save the small items of loss. The way to do Itin a creamerj" Is to use a 

Sharpies Russian Separator. 

U saves practically all of your oil bill 
It saves practically all of your repair bill 
It saves time. It saves wear and tear 
It saves all the butter 


R O R S M L E I 

Twenty or Fifty Acres of a 

Fruit Ranch 

In Lagoon Valley, near Vacavllle, Solano County, 
Cal. French Prunes, Bartlett Pears and Cherries 
In full bearing. House with modern improv»- 


Ta ca V lUe Call forn ta 

Or 136 Kearny Street, San Francisco. 

Gravity and Pump Irrigation 


Individual and colony, tracts. Early semltrop- 
ical laud. Investment ind d>'velopment. 


S<>ron<l Floor, Hooiii t<, .Mills ItiilldlnK. F. 

With a Russian there are no bells to wear out, no jack, no engine, uo sliaft, no countershaft to turn, 
no spare parts to renew. There Is nothing about a Russian separator for show. It is all for business, 
and the machine is always ready to do business. The public appreciate the Russian. They bought 
over twice as many separators from us In 1864 as during the year previous, and indications are that the 
sales will bo in lt«5 double mi. 

Send for circulars and please mention this paper 

Baker & Hamilton, 

Sole F>aclflc- Coast AQrants. 




Made In 'iSO Mtrlea. 
For either road or stable oaa. 
All shapes, siMa and quolltle*. 



The first cost and only Kost of ihQ Plnnel 
Jr. combined Drill, Wlieel Hoo, Cultivator 
Rake and Plow, a machine that does all thai 
its name Implies, is small. If you do your 
own work It will save at least half your time 
and labor. If vou hire It done, It will make 
an equal reduction lu your expenses. If you 
are figuring to Increase your crops and reduce i 
the cost of production, the Planet Jr. book for I 
1895, which we send free, will show you how to 
secure the right result. Even If you are satis- 
fied to plod, the knowledge will do you no 
harm. Send for the book to-da.v. 

S. L. ALLEN & CO., Phlladelphja. 

We manufacture the celebrated Asplnwall Potato Planter, Asplnwall Potato Cutter, 
Aspinwall Paris Green Sprinkler, etc. Every machine warranted. These machines 
greatly reduce the cost of raising potatoes. Send for Free Illuatrated Catalogue. 

ASPINWALL MANUFACTURING CO., 48 Sabin St., Jackson, Mich. 

IJOUKKK & CO., AKPUts, lU and 18 Druium Street, Sun Kranrlsco, CmI. 


Are Headquarters for Complete Spraying and 
W^hitew.ishing Outfits. 

The Best Spray Pump, Best Spray Nozzles 
and Best Spray Hose. 

Nozzles arranged to spray at any angle onlered. 

THE BEAN CYCLONE NOZZLE - a new invention this 
season — Is self-cleaDlng and throws a fine and pene- 
trating spray. 

The BEAN and NEW BEAN NOZZLES, so well known, 
are also our invention. 

Bean Spray Pump Co. 

Los Qatos, Cal. 

TREE - \A//\SI-I. 

"Greenbank" Powdered Caustic 
Soda and Pure Potash. 

T. \A/. JrtCK-SOlN dk CO. 
Sole Agents. - - No. ii'iO Market Street 




Dl I vioious HonsB. 

75,000 sold In I8O1. 
1 00,000 sold In 1892. 


Snmule inallcrl .X (' lor fill 
Nickel, SI. 50. *liUU 
Stallion Bits 50 eta. extra. 

RACINE MALLEABLE IRON CO. y i^.',]atr;,^i^ 


RIFLES tl.T&l 




fivfor* jou biij MO I 



'AT • FOLKS • 

^^■1 Vi\ng "AVTI-OnRPULKKR P ILLS" 1 r«« I S Ibf. 8 

month. C*n''enn»I~knPBe,'»nnt«ln no r*oi»oo "nfl r*TCr 
fWL SoM hT nrai?t«t« pT»r^'*h'T<> rr ">ol mslV Pht 
■ tloalui(ieftl*d)4c. WILCUX SPECIFIC CO. PbtlA. 




S}*tpald for fiLo. BIOUBA CO., HIO OelUornia St. 
an Prsnslsoo. 

February 2, 1895. 

The Pacific Rural Press 



Market Review. 

SAN Fhancisco, Jan. 30, 1895. 

FLOUR— We quote ; Nel cash prices for Family 
Extras, $!i 40fa.3 5() 'f bbl; BaUer.s' Kxtras, $3 30(2' 
$3 40; Superfine, $a(Sia 26 't* bbl. 

WHEAT— There Is no active movement in prog- 
ress. Of course there is enough doing all the time 
to prevent the spot market from getting into a rut 
of stagnation, but business generally is of unsat- 
isfactory character. Exporters take scarcely any 
interest in matters, thouf?h seemingly ready to 
buy when figures and ofl'ciings suit their ideas. 
Things will have tq change for the better at dis- 
tant centers before any local movement can be ex- 
pected. Shippers quote the market at 81 Mc ctl 
for standard Wheat, with 82'/4c for choice parcels. 
Possibly a round lot could be placed to better ad- 
vantage, as exporters would sooner buy large par- 
cels even at an advance. Milling grades sell at a 
range of STi/zfa'fS'/sc i?! ctl. Walla Walla Wheat, 
72H(o'"Sc for fair average quality, 75@.80c for blue- 
stem and 67'/4(g70c tor damp. 

BARLEY— Brisk trading Is not a feature of the 
sample market. On the contrary, trade is slow 
and dull, with prices soft. Some speculative busi- 
ness is developing in the CaU'Board, the favorite 
option being May delivery. We quote: Feed, fair 
to good, 75@78Jic; choice, 80c; Brewing, 85@92!4o 
» ctl. 

OATS— Offerings are rather too large at the pres- 
ent time for any effort to raise prices to be suc- 
cessful. At the present time there are indications 
that the market will do better in proper season. 
The demand has improved somewhat of late, and 
dealers are rather encouraged than otherwise 
at the outlook. We quote: Milling, $1 02@1 15; 
Surprise, $1 05@I 15: fancy feed, $1®1 05; 
good to choice, S),ic(ff'$l; fair to good, 90@95c; 
poor to fair, S2%6iHT-/>c: Black, $1 15@1 30; Red, 
$1 05(Si$l 171/2; Gray, 02H@07Hc 1?, ctl. 

CORN— There is next to nothing doing in this 
line. Steady holding, however, keeps prices in 
proportion. We quote: Large Yellow. $1 aO#.l 25; 
small Yellow,. $1 2-i%m\ 27'/,; Whice, $1 20@1 27is 
^ ctl. Damp lots sell below quotations. 

HAY— Trade is better now that the rain is over. 
Prices show steadiness. Wire-ljound Hay sells 
at $\ ^ ton less than rope-bound Hay. Following 
are the wholesale city prices for rope-bound Hay ; 
Wheat, $mm\ 50; Wheat and Oat, *8 50@U; Oat, 
SlOfell; Alfalfa, $8(g»; Rarley, $8 50(n>10; Clover, 
$8 .50(n9 50; compressed, $8 50(a»ll; Stock, $6®7. 

STRAW— Quotable at 70@80o 1 bale. 

FEED— Manhattan Horse Pood (Red Ball Brand) 
In 100-lb cabinets, $8; Manhattan Egg Pood, lOO Ih 
bags, »U 50. 

HOPS— Business is of small proportions at a 
wide range in prices, say 4@8c 1? lb., the latter an 
extreme figure for fancy stock. Stocks in the city 
are said to be light, and it is not believed that any 
very heavy quantity is stored away in the interior. 

ONIONS— Quotations are steady at a range of 
60(ai85c, with sales of fancy stock at 90c ^ ctl. 

POTATOES— Choice stock is not plentiful and 
full prices are obtainable for all such offer- 
ings. We quote as follows; Volunteer New Pota- 
toes, l'/2@2c ft; Early Rose, 3.5@'l5c; River Reds, 
30@35c; Burbanks, 40@50c; Oregon Burbanks, 60® 
85o; Salinas Burbanks, 75c@$l; Sweets, 50o@$l 
for Rivers and $1 Wig.l 75 |» ctl for choice stock. 
HUBEANS— Business in this line is quiet and slow. 
Choice Whites are steady in price, as such stock 
is none too plentiful. Offerings of Pea Beans show 
a good proportion of medium and poor quality. 
We quote as follows: Bayos, $1 75'a.l 90; Butter, 
$1 75@1 80 for small and $2®2 25 for large; 
Pink, $1 10@1 35; Red, $1 60(S1 65; Lima, $4 10® 
4 25; Pea, 12 25®2 50; Small White, $2 25@2 55; 
Large White. $2 10@$2 30; Blackeye, U 75(«3; Red 
Kidney, $2 7.5@3; Horse, $1 60@1 70 f, ctl. 

VEGETABLES— We quote: Hothouse Cucum- 
bers, 75c@$l 50%* dozen; Asparagus, 17i/s@25cf* lb. ; 
Rhubarb, $1 ^ box; Mushrooms, 8@l2c lb for 
common and I5@25c for good to choice ; Los An- 
geles Tomatoes, 75c(ff!Bl 25 box; String Beans, 
6@8c ^ lb; Green Peas, 3(aSc lb; Marrowfat 
Squash, $5@7 ton; Hubbard Squash, $10 ton; 
Green Peppers, 5®6c ^ ft; Turnips, 50c V ctl; 
Beets, 60® 75c i* sack; Carrots, 30@50c; Cabbage, 
30;ai40o 1^ ctl; Garlic. 3®.4c 1» ft; Cauliflower, 
30@40c1* dozen; Dry Peppers, 15@,17'/20 ft; Dry 
Okra, 12H@ 15c * ft. 

FRESH FRUIT- Pears have been dropped from 
the list and the market is now almost limited to 
the one variety of Apples, of which the supply is 
quite large, especially of poor grade's. We quote: 
Persimmons, 30®50c box; Apples, 40c(n $1 %( box, 

CITRUS FRUIT— California Navels, $1 50@2 50; 
Seedlings. SUoil 50 ^ box; Souora Oranges, $1 25® 
1 50 ^ box; Mexican Limes, $4 50®5 iB box; Cali- 
fornia Limes, in small boxes, 50®75ij ^ box; 
Lemons, Sicily, .$3(33 50; California Lemons, 75c@ 
$1 2.J for common and $1 50te2 50 for good to choice. 

DRIED FRUIT — The market shows healthy 
tone, tlmugh business continues of small volume. 
Peaches of strl'-tly choice quality are somewhat 
scarce and somewhat firm in price. Pears show 
steadiness, though not in active requ' st. Sun- 
dried Apples are in very limited olTering, but 
evaporated stock is in good supply.' Raisins are 
dull, with the situation against sellers. 

Following are the prices furnished by the Fruit 
Exchange. The figures presented represent car- 
load lots, small parcels occasionally selling at 
slightly lower rates: 

Apricots— Fancy Moorpark, 8'4c; choice, do, 8c; 
fancy. 7i4c: choice, 7c; standard, B'/jC; prime. 6c. 

Apples— Evaporated, 5!4®7c; sun-dried, 4@5c. 

Peaches— Fancy, 6'/4c; choice, 6c; standard, 
6%c.: prime. 5v<c; peeled. In boxes. I2®13c. 

Pears— Fancy , halves, 5'/4c : quarters, 4!4c ; choice, 
4Vic; standard, 3i^c; prime, Sc. 

Plums— Pitted, 4®5c;uupitted, l!4@2e. 

Prunes— Four sizes, 4'/4®4^c. 

Nectarines— Fancy, 7c; choice, 6'/4c; standard, 
6c; prime, 5^c. 

Figs— White, choice, 5@5Hc; Black, choice, IH 

Raisins— In sacks (50-lb. boxes selling at ac ^ 
lb. higher): 4-crown, loose, 4c; 3-crown, 2'/2c; 2- 
crown, 2c; seedless Sultanas, 3c; seedless Mus- 
catels, 2c lb; 3-crown London Layers, $1 25 
fi box in 20-1 b. boxes; clusters. $1 50; Dchesa clus- 
ters, $2; Imperial clusters. $3; 4-crown, loose, $1 15; 
4-crown, loose, faced, $1 25 ^ box. 

Dried Grapes — IKc ^ R>. 

NUTS— Business is small in volume, being con- 
fined almost wholly to jobbing demands. We 
quote: Chestnuts, 8® 10c; Walnuts, .5® 7c for hard 
shell, 7®9c for soft shell and 7®9c for paper shell; 
California xMmonds, 714(n:8!4c for soft shell, 5@5'/4o 
for hard shell and 8'4(59c tor paper shell; Pea- 
nuts. 4^®6c; Hickory Nuts. .5®Bc; Filberts, 
8'/5®9c; Pecans, 6c tor rough and 8c for polished; 
Brazil Nuts, 7®7!/2C %( ft; Cocoanuts, $5® 5 50 t* 100, 

CHEESE— The supply is enough for all market 
wants. We quote: Choice to fancy, 8®10o; fair 
to good, 6@7c; Eastern, ordinary to fine, lI®14o 
* th. 

BUTTER— For one or two special brands of 
fancy creamery full figures are realized, but other- 
wise the market is very weak, quotations Inclining 
in favor of buyers \Vp fluote as foljows: Pftijcy 

creamery, 21®22o, with .sales at 23o; fancy dairy, 
rolls, 16@17c; good to choice, 15®16c; fair, 13@14c; 
store lots, 10®12c; pickled roll, 13V!;®15c; firkin, 
14®15c * lb. 

EGGS— The situation is against sellers. The 
roads in the interior are drying up and shipments 
are coming in quite freely. There is desire to sell 
and dealers accept low figures sooner than allow 
stocks to accumulate. We quote: California 
Ranch, 21®23c; store lots, 17®20c Ti> dozen. 

POULTRY— Trade is slow and the advantage is 
on the side of buyer.s, as offerings are somewhat 
free. Wequote: Live Turkeys— Gobblers, 10® 11c; 
Hens, 10@Uc f* ft; dressed Turkeys, 12^®14o ^ 
lb: Roosters, $4 for old, and $4 .=i0®5 50 tor young; 
Broilers, $.3®4 tor small and !|i4@5 for large; 
Fryers, $4 .Wai5; Hens, $4@5: Ducks, $.5®6; Geese, 
$1 ,50®2 v. pair; Pigeons, $1®1 50 for old and 
$1 7.5®2 25 1* dozen for young. 

WOOL— The market is very quiet and prices are 
more or less nominal. Dealers do not look for any 
vei'y marked activity until the spring season 
opens. We quote Fall ; 

Free Northern 7 @ 8(40 

Northern, defective 5 @ 7 

Southern & San Joaquin, light and tree 5 ® 6 
Do, defective 3 @ 4 

Fruit Exchange Bulletin. 

Following is Bulletin No. 35 of the 
California Fruit Exchange in its full 
oflRfial form: 

San E"'rancisoo, Jan. 30, 1895. 

Dried fruits to customers in Eastern mar- 
kets may be quoted at the following- rates, 
f. o. b. California, subject to commission : 


Pvime. Stan.rJnrd. 0/ioice. Faiuti. 
Apricots 5 6 6^ 7V4 to 8' 

Peaches . h 6 6^4 8 

Pears 2 4 5 " 6 

California Prunes— Four Sizes, 414 to 45^ ; 40-50, 9; 

.50-60.6-4; 100-120,21/2; 120 and over, 2^, 
Apples— S, F. Market 5, 5^, 6, 6H. 

Tliere seems to be rather more inquiry from 
real buyers than last weelt, while the specu- 
lative flurry among local dealers has disap- 
peared. The most inquiry seems to be for 
small prunes, which two months since were 
practically unsalable. The quotation of b% 
for ."50-60 prunes, which is all we can get from 
San Francisco handlers, would not he accepted 
in the Santa Clara valle.v, Where remaining 
stocks are held firm at 7 cents. There is no 
trade in four sizes of prunes, holders refusing 
to accept -t;^ cents ; 40-.5O prunes seem to be 
pretty much out of first hands. 

California Fruit Exchanob, . 
By Edward F. Adams, Mgr. 

List of U. S. Patents for Pacific 
Coast Inventors. 

Reported by Dewey & Co., Pioneer Patent 
.Solicitors for Pacific Coast. 


532,742.— Separator— H. Arden, Seattle, Wash. 
532,628.— Hair DippeRt-C. W. Babcock, Portland, 

5.32,,527.— Pump— J. P. Cahill, Oakland, Cal. 
532,663.— Band Saw Mill— D. B. Hanson, S. F. 
.532,461.— Surgical Splint— R. Hoppe, S. F. 
,532,703.— Lock— W. G. Rex, Shelton, Wash. 
532.595.— Current Whbbl— Seivert & Young, Medi- 
cal Lake, Wash. 

Note.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign patents fur- 
nished by Dewey & Co. In the shortest time possible 
(by mail for telegraphic order). American and 
Foreign patents obtained, and general pati»nt busi- 
ness for Pacific Coast Inventors tr.insacled with 
perfect security, at reasonable rates, and In the 
shortest possible time. 




Holds but doesn't harm your stock. 
Can be erected bO ab tu remain TIGHT the year 'round. 
O^Our prices lilie our fcnocs are practical,,-^ 
Ask your dealer for circular and estimate or wilte to 

HARTMAN MFG. CO., 227 Broadwav, NEW YORK. 
HARTMAN MFG. CO., 601-8 Manhattan Bldg, CHICAGO. 
Factories : ELLVi'OOD CITY, Lawrence Co., Penaa. 

For"nandBome»tCalen(larror '95" (Tlie Clitcaeo 
Tribune tSays), send 4ct6. in Stampi^ to tJio abovtt. 

Ill aosivcriiiff advertisements mention this paper. 


A iVIaiiuHl of I\Ieti)oils wliicli liave Vi«i<le<l 
Urcatest Success; witli Lists of VarietIeK 
ftest Adapted tu tlie Dillereut 
l^iHtrlcts of tlie .State. 

Practical, Explicit, Coniprohonsive, Embodying 
h e (ixperiiiiL'oand metliods of hundreds of success- 
ful growers, and constituting a trustworth.v guide 
by which tlie Inexperienced may successtull.v pro- 
duce the fruits tor which Ciillforiila Is famous. 
Second edition, revised and enlarged. By Kuwaud 
.1, "VViCKSO.N, A, M., Assoc. Prof. Horticulture and 
Entomolog.v, Unlverelty of California; Horticultural 
Editor I'dfiii, lluriil Pm.i, San Francisco; Sec'y Call- 
fonii.i .Stall' Horticultural Society; Pres. California 
State Floral .Society, etc. 

Lnrrjr Ochn'iK mil pages, JuUy Wusimled. iiricr. .HiM.OO. 


fniblishers Pacific Rural Press, 

220 Market Street. 

5an Franci.sco. Cal 

Position HM .Managrr on a l.artfe farm. 

Thorough aciinaiiilancH with Stock Halsing, Dairy 
Business, General Farming, Exporloncc In foreign 
countries; French. English, fierman correspond- 
ence; Bookkeeping; Oradi)ate of ApHoultural 
Academy in Germany, p. 0, box 183S. Baherfiflejd. 


Dwellers in the Foothills. 

OLIVER'S NOS. 51i 52 AND 53 

Are the Latest, Best and Most 

Popular Sidehill Plows Ever Made. 


Oliver Chilled Plow Works, 



AND- — 






With only one valve and GREATEST ECONOMY OP FUEL, 
Cheaper than Single Engine of same horse power. 

^^^^^MANUFACTURED BY ^•^'^ _ 


Write for Catalogue No. 15, 

HZ 5 Sixth Street, San FrauciBco. 

Store- Vour Grain lAY here- Your Best -^^sbbb-^ 
^-^aoBBs^ Interests VA/ill /\l\A/ays be Consulted. 


— -OF THE 

Grangers' Business Association, 

Capacity of Warehouse, 60,fXX) tons; wharf accommodations for the largest vessels aSoat. 
Grain received on storage for shipment, and for sale on consignment. 



I 1 pcrfijctly Uouljle-acliiig and has a br;)8S-lIned 
■ ,\iliidrr. Tile motion of tlie piston Is horizontal. 
Tlie liaiidle is so arranged tliat the leverage Is 
' • l y powerful, .-ind the movement is eas.v and 

I lluriil. The air chamber Is nnusiiall,v larire. 
II I Ml i 1 1 Ing of the continuous and even dUscharge 

II c in.sary for good and thorough spraying. 
Tlie valves are metal and have metal seats. 

They all He directly beneatli the air chamber 
and are readily exposed on loosening four bolts, 
and without touching the cylinder. Theee 
pumps are superior to any others made. Send 
for Ca talogue of Spray Pumps. 


31!$ »Rtl 4 ^larket St.. San fr^tucUoo, Cal, 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

Febiuary 2 1895 

Patrons of Husbandry. Breeders' Directory. 

San Joaquin Pomona Orange. 

L(ii)i, Cm... Jiiii. -'H, 189.').^ 
T" riiK Editor: — Sun .loaijuin Co. 
Pomona Griinirc. P. of H., uu't in spe- 
cial .session in I.odi, Thursday last, 
.Ian. 24th. lousiness of imi>ortance 
was l)n)U.<,'ht before the j,'range and 
worU mapped out wliieh, if carried to 
a successful issue, will redound to much 
<;o<id for San Joaciuin county and the 
State at larj^e. 

.\ Le>,'islative Committee of three 
was elected, viz., J. D. Hullman, M. T. 
Xoyes and Ezra Fiskc, whoso duty it 
will be — and also a jileasure- to assist 
in the passat^o of clean acts, beneficial 
to all. 

Our "^raii-^e is alive to the interest of 
its members, and by the f^race of God 
and Jim Budd, we will do what we can 
for their benefit. 

J. A., Sec y. 

six lilies or lens in llil.-i ilii-eetory at 50<- per line per 

Horses and Cattle. 

V. II. ItliKKK, tai; Market St.. S. F. Al Prize Hol- 
steins; Urade Milch Cows. Fine Pips. 

m i.LS- D.'ViiMs anil Slnirt Imrns. All pure brtnl 
aii.l n>^'lsleri'<l. Fine indiviiliials. At prices to 
>i\iii iMe ihnes. elllier sinirly or m carload lots, 
oakwood Park Slock F.irni. DanvilU-. Cal. 

JKKSKYS-The best A. J.C.C. registerptl prize Iwrd 
is owned l).v Henr.v Pierce, S. F. Animals for sale. 

I'. H. .>iri{IMIV. Perkins. Sac. Co.. Cal. Itreederof 
Sliorlliorn Cattle. Poland-Cliina Derksliire Hojrs. 

.M. I>. lloriilNS, P.'iainina. Kegistereil Stiortlioni 
Cattle, liolli si'Xes for sale. 

I'KTKK S.-VXK Ji SON, Lick House. S F.. Cal. Im- 
porters and Breeders, for past 21 years, of every 
variety of Cattle. Horses. Sheep and Hops. 

.IKKSKVS .\NI> IIOI.STEINS, from the \>est lint- 
ter .and Milk Slock; also Thoronnhlired Hosfs and 
Poultry. WiUiaiii Nlles * Co., Los AiiM^elea. Cal. 
lireeders and Exporters. Establislied in 187i;. 

In the Right Direction. 

The proixisit ion made to the State 
(iranire E.xecutive Committee at its 
last meetinf^, for them to select some 
ai>le jierson from the ijfranj^e to take 
charye of the f^rangc department, was 
in the ri<^ht direction. It is one that 
will irive satisfaction to alartfe majority 
of our members. It will do more to 
revive the ^'ranj^e interest than many 
lecturers could do. 1 hope that the 
conunittee will see their way clear to 
i,nve this idea a fair trial, and that 
without delay. _ Guanokr. 

From Grass Valley. 

U. S. T., the faithful correspoiideut 
of (irass \'alley Graii<,'e, writes to re- 
j)ort a highly successful gi-anjre oecU- 
.sioii when the new otticer.s were in- 
stalleil two weeks ago. Grass X'alley 
Grange is taking a lively interest in 
the various revival prf)|)ositions and 
stands ready to co-operate with any 
elTorl that m iy lie set on foot. 


Ayer's Hair Vigor 



Natural Growth 



— WIIKN - 



"I can coi'dially iiKlor.^e Ayer's Hair 
V'icor. as one of the best preparations 
for the hair. When I began tisinj; Ayer's 
Hair Vipor. all tlic front piut of iny head 
—about half of it — was liahl. The use 
of only two bottles restored a natural 
crowth. which still coniiimes as in niy 
youth. I tried several other dressings, 
nut they all failed. Ayer's Hair Vigor 
is the best." — Mrs. J. C. I'UEUSSER, 
Converse. Texas. 

AYER'S Hair Vigor 

I'liKI'AKF.I) r.V 

Dr. J. C. AYER & CO., LOWELL, MASS. %\ 
















IF — 

favorable terms, addre?s 


. California. 


And Guide to PouUr? Baisers for 1895. 

Contains over I30fin« illu?<trati(>nh show- 
iiiK H photo of the largest hennery in the 
wwflt. (jives bent pluns for j>oultry hiJtiseft, 
Bure reme*Hes_ann rfcipes for al) fiiseii»es, 
hIho valuahlr inforniHtion on the kitchen 
iitHi rtowBr Kiirden sent for only 10 cent«. 

Joha Bauscher. Jr., P.O. Boztvi.Freeport, 111. 

In These Dull Times 

Voii <'iiii l^argfly li»rre»«e 

Yuur income by biiylnir an Iiieii- 
hatur and eiig^uK^iiigr in the chiekoii 
tuiHiiH'HH. Send stamp for oxir 
(■alMlotrire of Incubators. Wire 
NftliiiK-. Hloodcd PowIh and Poul- 
try A|>i>lianceH ponerally. Itnuem- 
t» r thr Hrtft i> thf f 'fcfrtjwrf. PACIFIC 
INCUHATOK CO., liilT Castro St.. 
< ):iklani1. Cal. 


Myrtle Street, OHklitlxl, t.'»l. 
Send Stamp for iMrcular. 

ouuii^j^i.^, provemeiits on the Jubilee Hiitclier 
make it head the list. It Is a perfect self-reftulalinfr 
hot M uter machine, with copper boilers and an 
entirei.v new systetn of operation. The sizes made 
now are 100. 'M). :itiO and riOO-ege capaclt.v. For sale 
by H. P. WHITMAN. Apent. 204.i Alameda Ave., Ala- 
meda. Cal. St'iid for circular. 


.1. W. K<>IJ<i i;i >, Santa Cni/.. (\ll.. has llie boat 
stocked ami e.iidpped ponltr.v ranch on the | 
I'ai itic coaHt. and m.ikes a s)>eciall.v of Harried P. 
Rocks, lirown Lcj.'liorii». Ulaek Minori :is. I'eklii 
Ducks. Scvenl.v acres to I.A'ghoriis. si.x .icres to 
Minorcas. .and m.v honn- ranch to Harred 1". Uocks 
and Pekiu Ducks. I jrnarantee satisracilou in 
ever.v order. Kxhihlllou liirds anil hi-eedliig stock. | 
Effifs for sale. Keferenee. People's Hank. 

IH KF I.K<;H<)KNS. -Tlioronsrlihre<l yoimi.' Slock 
for sale. F.xgs. $1. fi and f:i per i:i. C. W. Hansen 
San Mateo. Cal. 

.V. ISI sell K I-:, Tracy. Cal.. breeder of I l oroui-'h- 
bivit Wlilte Lei.'lioriis B. P. Hocks. Pekiii Ducks. 
Kt't-'s. !fl .■)" P<-r l:i. 

WII.I.I.A.'M MI.KS&i'O., Los Aiisreleh.C;il. Nearly 
all varieiii-H of Poultry. Dairy Cattle and llo^s. 

C.\I.II''<M:m.\ IMU^I.TKV K.XK.M, Stockton. Cal. 
Send for niustrati.'d and clesct-iptl vec.atalotfue. free. 

!{.«;. IIK.AII, Napa. Cal.. breeds all kinds puri 
bred fowls: JtHJclioice birtis to Heleci from. 

WKI.I.INCiTON'.S I.MI'KON l':i> Ki.i: l''«MM> 

for iHHiltry. Every ^rrocei- ami nn-rchatd keeps it. 




ThoiiMiinils in Hue* 
cessful Operation. 

•'n/ri. r, vKRrKfT, and 

■•^KLf-h-fy; IL.i IISG. 
Gutirunleed tohatcha 
larger perrenlHge ol 
fertile BgRR nt lesH coat, 
than any othorliiotibator, 
8eQd6c.for llliu.Oataln(. 

, circular. Fnfi. 

GEO. II, l«TAIII.„1 1 4 (a 1 8. Alh st„qulni-T,in. 


We Warrant 

The Reliable * 

T >H»t -r. - i-T . ,N^-«L» Kl.;ri,*TlP... ♦ 
l>ura^l< , i'arr(«t in >'r)ncipU. IM-Ier ^ 
b ftt World'! Fklr. 6cl>. Id itunpi for . 
B^w lie p«R« Poattry Ouiflp mmI Cfttk- ^ 
. POI'LTRV F.'R TRDFIT mwl* plxio IV-l-Rock Inff»rni«tit.D. ♦ 

'k Reliable Incubator and Brooder CcQuincy. III. -A- 


Sheep and Uoats. 

. K. H. « K.4NK. Petalnma. Cal. Bree Icr & Importer. 
Sonthtlown Sheep, also Fo.x Hounds frotn Missouri. 




Ilatcbfs Chickens hy Slpani. 
Absolutely neir-reeiilntinc. 
'Ihe simplest, most rrllahic 
and cheapest tirst.class rintchct 
in the market Circulars frfe 
UTKLi & CO., Qutnc)', lU. 

F. H. HI KKK.H-.'i; Market St..S.F.- BErvKSHIRES 

(il.VS, A, sTOWi;, Stocktij 
P..:aod-Cliiiia II. .-s. 

lierkshire and 

|;|':<;|STKKKI> P(daii(l-Clnii.i Hoffs for s.ale. C(M-- 
wiu TeciutiHeli strain. Sul plnir .Sprint; Farm. NIK s 

M. .Mll.l.l':i{, Ellslo. Cal. Ret-'lsteriHl lierksliires 

J. 1'. ASHI.KY, Linden, San JoatiiMn Co.. Cal. 
Breeds Poland-China. Essex and Yorkshire Swine. 


Hest Stock: also Dairv Strains of Jersevs and IIol- 
stc'iiis. Will, Niles It Co., Los Angeles. Est. l.S7i;. 

rVI.KU KK.VCii, San Jose. Bn eder of Tlior- 
oifjfhbred Uerksliire :ind Essex Hotrs. 

SuccEssFui ; 

.\ ciilHlouue i;iviTiK full" 
inforiuKlioii rt'i:iLrtl i la'^ 
uititirial liatcliiiu; hihI* 
hrnotliiur, also a Ireiifi 
on poultry rnisipic seiit^ 
FREE. Writ* now 

la Moines Incutatct 

l;,,i 17 I'F- M'MVl s. I ' 


Mti^r p.Trn.-t M.-i.:liiu' ■a.Ile.-'t MattriHl 
atii \Vorkinnn>hi)<. l.anr«( in 
Trk-L'. iiur Tlicrino>l<oKiilHtor U 

accnralc as & Thcrnirtnif ler. t^oDd 
4c, r.T larifo illu-H. CatJiloB"'-. TrlN all 
alxiiir. it. Uish cta-i^ poiiltrj kth\ KgRti. 
H.':i.lnuarter- Tt P<»ul'rv- Sunplio-. 

aUOOOKIE CO.. Quln< j. 111. 



Short -Horn Bulls D 




Itadeii Station, San IMateo Co,, Cal, 

The cars of the S. F. and San Mateo Electric Koad 
pass the place. 

Jacks and Jennets, 

UAl.SKl) l''UOM IMl'OKTKI) STIX'K. lor sale bv 
\ . «i I.\M;|.I..\, llonelll. Kill I e < iMilily , Cal, 


SANTA KOSA. CAL. iCan- Santa Kusa National 
flank.) Importer. Breeder. Kxport<"r. 

S.CV/l/hlte Leg;horns, 
S. C BroiA/n Leg;|-iorns, 
Barred F»lymotJtlT Roclcs, 
Blac-lc /VMnorc-as. ^^x^^"^ 

Hggs, %A per l,'!.-%» »»-Send for Circular. 


IV E> Cb^^ Cb^% ^9 Sample copy ui 


A Hnn.i-ionielT lllusimted nrr CIIPPI ICC 
Mnen/ino. and Catalog. ofDull OUllLI kO 
FUEi;. THE A. I. ROOT CI)., .Medina.O. 

con PAN Y. 


SAN l-kANCI^Ct) 

Largest Handlers 
of Dried Fruits. 

It you have a parcel to oiler, submil samples lo us. 
.We are the principal handlers. 




General Commission Merchants, Hh 

310 C.VI,1K<)KMA ST., .S. K. 

Members of the San Francisco Produce Kxchautje. 

<^ Personal attention given to sales and liberal 
advances made on consignments at low rates of 



M »rl.« on fUht-r KlHndlnff Timber or. Htump*. Pull* 
nil ordinary 4'riih In one iiiiil ii liiilf iiiiiiiitCK* Make > h 
citMii -MCi'fi iif t un fi.'i f. lit u .--iitiiik' ,\ iiijiri, a l»'> 
liiKl a lnn -e c-aii operate it. No lit* ii\ y rtiitiiiH or l i'<)!* tn 
handle. The <'i-op<)n a lew acre?* the iw^t .vp«r will |>av 
lor the niachiiip. You chu not longer afloril to \my 
tn\ov on iMi|>r<>(lii<>rix e timber land, t'lenr it, « 
imunti fu I ei nn w it h lep> la)K>r anil rfH-nper ate your old 
worn out land h\ iiastniinjf. It will only eo8t yon n 
po-tal card to vend for an Illustrated rat»lo(fue, (flvinK 
price, terms and te>«tirnoninls. AI>o full liifonuatioii 
foneerniriir out I. \. I,. I^rubher. Inin C'liint 4>riib 
wnd Htiimp MHehliie. Two ll»r«e Uuu ke> e and other 
HppliaM<*es for eleiirinif timber .ai.'L Address 
jllLNK nAMKi(Tll(l.\0 f'O., ft^l h\h M., Jlonmoulh, III 

Niinnv-Me ShetlHiid Pony KHrtii. Koreataloiftie ftd 
ilrc^v Milne Itro-. a* ;il»ive idllce and uutubcr. lirvcd- 
i'rM of I'lire Nhelluntl I'oiiicA. 

SAMPLE Amerieaii Brc Jtiiirnul. 

_ _ ^ (Established lr>ijl). 

r ^1 CC Weekly, aa paves. ?l a year, 
■i K ■■ p IbO-pagc 
r n k k Bee Book 
Free ! 

All about Ikes and Honey 


o(i Fifth Ave. 

Little's Cliemical Fluid Non-Poisonous 

lte» iire of <'heMp I iiiltiit ions. One u-:illoii. jiii.xi il Willi laP t'.illons ..f 
colli water, will illp Iboroutrlily IS(| sheep, al a cost of one cent eaeb 
Kasll.v aiiplleil; a noirrisher of wool; a ci riaiii cure forscHlt. L,iitle s Dip 
Is put np ill reil. Iron drums, cout.-iinlne ii Kiis-UhIi or i!!^ Aiiierieaii kulloiih 
and Is wold to the trade by the Ens-'llsli tralloii. For llie eoiiveiiieiice of our 
iiKiiiy ciiMtoiners it is also put np in oiii'-callon paekii(fen. for which w e 
make no e.\tra cliartre. Each ilriim and pa<-kai.'e bears the or.iiiu'e label of 
• Liltle s Dip.' 


I to K.llkll.T, Hell .V ( 

■KMi <:Mliriii'iii:i 

iaii l-'r:iii i-i>e< 

l yoot65 a I BEAR_6i .^ON. WEiTRivEBAipe. Cai^ifoonia 


.*ll kinds .if t.H.U. Kurluiic fur I lu- dri Her by using ..ur 
.\(lHiiinntinf proci ssL i-mi tnki- acor,-. I'l-rfeclfd Ki.-onni!i, 
ir«l ArteMan l'iini|.iin; ItiL's to W'.rk \<\ sicam. Air, elv 
Aurora, III.; l'hlfa(o. 111.; Uullun, Tex, 

nAi KKii.KSof the Pacific Kukai. I'ukss (un- 
bound) can be had for $2.5(1 per volume of .six 
months. Per year (two ^ olumesl, Inserted in 
Dewey's patent binder, SO cents addilional per 


We received many compliments for our herd fioin vis 
ilors at the State Kair. Wo competed for l,S ribbons 
and won II, as follows: 2 special ; a sweepstakes; 3 
Urats : 4 seconds. 

We have a few Choice PigK sale, 


P. O Hox 686. Lo8 .\nKele«. Cal 


In larj-'c or small loiv, IJ;irred l'l.\ iiioul li KocU, 
S, C Hrow II l.,eo|ii,|.n ami JIbu'k Minorcas. at H)q 
per dox. MItS. J.tJ. FREUKKICKS, Madison, Cal. 

Genuine only with RED 
HAI.L brand. 
Recommended b y Gold 
smith, Marvin, Gamble 
Wells, Farijo & Co., etc., 
etc. It keeps Horses and 
Cattk healthy. Formilch 
cows: it increases and 
enriches their milk, 
.^lanlint I Food Co., 
8»n Mntro, Cal, 

Feed' our Poultry Food and you will have healthy chickens and lots of eggs. Ask your dealer for it. 


Northern California in Midwinter. 

Oi'oville Hf'tiintei'. 
Midwinter is not the best time in the 
yeur to see our par t of the State, for 
th(^ roads are usually muddy, consider- 
able land is eovei-ed with water, and 
nothintr shows u]) as well as it does 
later in the season. If an Eastern 
man, however, could view this section 
to-day, he mio-ht fi id some advanla<^e 
over his Eastern home. The lield and 
hills ai-e covered with a rank <frowth of 
o-rass. In front of every house, alonu- 
the st'-eets, about each farm house 
thi-ou<^h the country, are orange trees 
(illed with irolden fruit, if the orano-es 
have not already beiMi picked and mar- 
keted. Th(U-e are lemon ti'ees yet tilled 
witli lovely yellow fruit, some with buds 
and blossoms and some with sniall 
<^reen lemons; olive trees yet bendin<r 
with luscious berries, lime bushes in 
beai'inf^, now and then a loquat in blos- 
som, and .Tapanese persimmons as scar- 
let as thou<^h dyed in blood. There are 
tiowers, not many, of course, but in 
every yard some roses, violets, yei-ani- 
ums and othci- varieties. The man- 
zanita has already bef^un to bud and 
bloom. The buds of the almond and 
other fruits are bef,nnnino' to swell, 
ready to burst forth when the weather 
is warmci-. Twice ice has formed and 
sev(>ral limes there has been a white 
frost. When it is not rainini^'. how- 
e\'cr, many let Uieir lii-cs die out or 
throw open the doors and windows for 
a time. Children play without, wraps, 
and not one man in twenty thinks of 
])uttin<>- on an overcoat in the moi-nin<i- 
unless he is t{oin<4' to drive. This land 
lacks a good deal of being Paradise, 
but it is p)-eferable to a region where 
ice forms and snow falls during four 
months of the year. A thousand pretty 
views could be taken here in midwin- 
ter, showing i)alms and oranges, lemons 
and l(H|uats, grass and Howers — all in- 
dicating a mild climate. 

To Build a Tunnel for Moving a 

/\ lunncl is to be const rui'ted fi'om 
the cryi>t of the Capitol under the east, 
])ark to the vaults of the great building 
I'oi- the Congi'essional l/ibrary, now in 
course of consti'uction. The plans for 
tlie tunnel have been completed, and 
work upon it will sof)n be begun, that 
it may be tinished in season to l)e used 
for the transportation of the neai'ly 
1 ,000, (100 books and ])amphlets which 
make u\^ the vast bulk of the library 
from the old rooms to the new. It is 
pi-obal)le that- a 1,em])orar-y railway will 
l)e laid in the tunnel that cars may be 
employed to carry a largi' quantity of 
books at once. 

( )ne of the most remarkable transfers 
of the k'ind in the history of libraries 
was that in 15erlin some years ago. 
when a regiment of soldiers was put 
to the work, received theii- burde;is. 
and marched and coimt ei-marched 
under ])crfect discii)line, accomplishing 
in a short, time the vast labor of i-e- 

It- is i)ossible that when the new 
building is occujjied, a pneumatic tub(> 
may be laid through the tunnel tliat 
Congressmen may immediately receive 
book's wliich they desii-e to consult 
without the trouble and loss of time 
which would be entailed in going to the 
library in person or awaiting a trip Ijy 
a messenger. It is not (expected that 
the work of renmval will b(>gin before 
t he si)ring of 18!t(;. 

The effective life and the recejitive 
life are one. No swee]) of arms that 
does some work foi' (iod. but, harxcsts 
also some '^more of the truth of (Jod, 
and sweeps into the treasury ofJif(\ — 
Phillips Brooks. 


lire iiMiiiettialely relieved by '• Hiaifii's Hiaii- 
I liiid Tnii hi's." Have tliem always ready. 

(iold and Silver of the World. 

The Right Way to Do Business. 

That liaiidsoiiK^ calendar which t,li(> Hart- 
man Mfg. Co., UhicaK", have been .selling- for 
eight <'ents has created .such a demand for 
itself as to warrant a second edition, which 
consideral)ly chcapen.s the 

With characteri.stic fairness that company 
has reduced the price to -I cents, and all orig- 
inal cent) purchasers will receive an addi- 
tional calendar. We have seen the calendar 
and it is only fair to say that it is very 

Acc<)rding to the last report of the 
Directoi- of the Mint the estimated 
amount of gold money in th(^ world is 
*:^,9(;r),!)00,000, and' the estimated 
amount of silver money $4,or)5,700,000. 
This gold and silver money is chietly 
distributed as follows: 



UuUeil Slau-s 

. . . .p>-M.m*\.m\ 


United Kingdom 



Krauce . 



1 iennany.. 






.\uslria Hungary 

















China . 



General Nursery Stock. 



Tills is a new plinii iH-i^'iijalc-cl ill Sn Mi'i cMuiiil.v. u licri- it liiis frii i I cmI lor I lie p.-ist si.\ .vc;i rs. .iiid ripens 
the last of .June. I am t lie (ii]l.\' pre)i;i^;iter et tliis new fruit ;inil li;i \ <* no iK'Silanc-.v in recumineiuliii^r 111 is 
new plinn lor general planting, haviiif; over lliMd irees phoned, lie.iil the fiillowing leltiM' from the largest 
pliini grower and shipper in the State: 

WlXTEliS. Cai... Oct. IS. ISii4. 
Mh. .1. T. nooi li. Tuilor. Cal. - -I eiiiisiilerllii- r:iliforni,L Hell PlMiii llie le;i(linsr phllii in the Slate. II 
cerlainlv is iiiie ef tlie hesi slii|ipers I li,'i ve. ll is very |irolitie. .i line irrcnver. anil lias I lie iiiialllies tlial go 
111 imike ii|i a line I'm it fur Kaslern sliipuieni . It is extra lai-_'e. has a beanii fill i-iilei- when nearly haril. 
anil v\ ill la-'t Irimi ten In twenty days afti-r i)iekiii!f. It is earlier than the Peach Piiiiii and fully as lar^'e. 
II hangs wit on the tree tifter they will do to pick, and still remain firm and in good eiMidllion to ship 1 
consider it oiii- of the best iiliinis on the Coast. When it first liegins to ripen It has a red rheek. hut as it 
ripens i I beeimies .i dark purple. I e.iiiiioi s|ieak in loo high terms of i he California Red Plum us u .s/ii/i/w r. 

(i. W. THISSELL, Sit.'To. Sept. .'i. I8'.I4. 

Ml). .1. T. lioo c Tudor. ( 'at. In tniswer to voiir liiipliry regarding the California Red Plum, we wish 
to state that from e.\|ierienee we have had with this Plnin in the Kasiern markeis. the net results show 
thai it is a verv valnalde Plum and w e lake pleasure in reeoiniiiendiiig same. Iielieving that it is one of 
the best shiiiplng and selling iMiims thai has ever lieen diseovered for C.ilifoiaiia shippers." Yours truly. 

PiiHTKU liRilTUKKS COMP.VNY. per X M i; R. Sa i.snirKV. Viee-Pres. 


formerly at Marysville. ri'DOli. SIITTIOK <'0|iNTY, CAL. 

Seeds, Plants, Etc. 



- AND- 



The New $5000 Crossbred 

iJrafting Wood now for Sale. 
Send hir circular. 

FINE SMALL FRUITS a specialty. 


Best .M.arket H.-iry known: large, tinn toid lus- 
cious, sl.inils travel tiiiel.\'. bears Iniiuensel.v. and 
has I wo 1-1 ii|is a year: M rents per <lozen : fii per UK). 
Also St i ;i\\ lierries. Bliickberries. (toosc berries. (Cur- 
rants, etc . of tlie finest imiiorted varie